dict.org

The DICT Development Group


Search for:
Search type:
Database:

Database copyright information
Server information
Wiki: Resources, links, and other information


2 definitions found
 for Abbreviations
From Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  ABBREVIATIONS and abbreviated references.  The following list, though
  necessarily incomplete, may be useful to some readers.
  ---------------------------------------
  A, a, the first letter of the alphabet, is sometimes used in the ancient law
    books to denote that the paging is the first of that number in the book.
    As an abbreviation, A is used for anonymous.
  A. & A. on Corp. Angell & Ames on Corporations. Sometimes cited Ang. on
    Corp.
  A. B. Anonymous Reports, printed at the end of Bendloe's Reports.
  A. D. Anno Domini, in the year of our Lord
  A. & E. Adolphus and Ellis' Reports.
  A. & E. N. S. Adolphus & Ellis' Queen's Bench Reports, New Series, commonly
    cited Q. B.
  A. & F. on Fixt. Amos & Ferard on Fixtures.
  A. K. Marsh. A. K. Marshall's (Kty.) Reports.
  Ab. or Abr. Abridgement.
  Abr. Ca. Eq. Abridgement of cases in Equity.
  Abs. Absolute.
  Ab. Sh. Abbott on Shipping.
  Acc. Accord or Agrees.
  Act. Acton's Reports.
  Act. Reg. Acta Regia.
  Ad. Eject. Adams on Ejectment.
  Ad. & Ell. Adolphus & Ellis' Reports.
  Ad. finn. Ad finem. At or near the ond.
  Ads. Ad sectum, vide Ats.
  Addam's R. Addam's Ecclesiastical Reports. In E. Eccl. Rep.
  Addis on Contr. Addison on the Law of Contracts and on Parties to actions ex
    contractu.
  Addis. R. Addison's Reports.
  Admr. Administrator.
  Ady. C. M. Adye on Courts Martial.
  Aik. R. Aiken's Reports.
  Al. Aleyn's Cases.
  Al. Alinea. Al et. Et alii, and others.
  Al.& N. R. Alcock & Napier's Reports.
  Ala. R. Alabama Reports.
  Alc. Reg. G. Alcock's Registration Cases
  Ald. & Van Hoes. Dig. A Digest of the Laws of Mississippi, by T. J. Fox
    Alden and J. A. Yan Hoesen.
  Aldr. Hilt. Aldridge's History of the Courts of Law.
  Alis. Prin. Alison's Principles of the Criminal Law of Scotland.
  All. & Mor. Tr. Allen and Morris' Trial.
  Alley. L. D. of Mar. Alleyne's Legal Degrees of Marriage considered.
  Alln. Part. Allnat on Partition.
  Am. America, American, or Americana.
  Amb. Ambler's Reports.
  Am. & Fer. on. Fixt. Amos & Ferard on Fixture's.
  Amer. America, American, or Americana.
  Amer. Dig. American Digest.
  Amer. Jur. American Jurist.
  Anon. Anonymous.
  And. Anderson's Reports.
  Ander. Ch. War. Anderson on Church Wardens.
  Andr. Andrew's Reports.
  Ang. on Adv. Enj. Angell's Inquiry into the rule of law which creates a
    right to an incorporeal hereditament, by an adverse enjoyment of twenty
    years.
  Ang. on Ass. Angell's Practical Summary of the Law of Assignment in trust
    for creditors.
  Ang. on B. T. Angell on Bank Tax.
  Ang. on Corp. Angell on the Law of Private Corporations.
  Ang. on Limit. Angell's Treatise on the Limitation of Actions at Law, and
    Suits in Equity.
  Ang. on Tide Wat. Angell on the right of property in Tide Waters.
  Ang. on Water Courses. Angell on the Common Law in relation to Water
    Courses.
  Ann. Anne; as 1 Ann. c. 7.
  Anna. Annaly's Reports. This book is usually cited Cas. Temp. Hardw.
  Annesl. on Ins. Annesley on Insurance.
  Anstr. Anstruther's Reports.
  Anth. Shep. Anthon's editon's of Sheppard's Touchstone.
  Ap. Justin. Apud Justinianum, or Justinian's Institutes.
  App. Apposition.
  Appx. Appendix.
  Arch. Archbold. Arch. Civ. Pl. Archbold's Civil Pleadings. Arch. Cr. Pl.
    Archbold's Criminal Pleadings. Arch. Pr. Archbold's Practice.
  Arch. B. L.  Archbold's Bankrupt law. Arch. L. & T. Archbold on the Law of
    Landlord and Tenant. Arch. N. P. Archbold's Law of nisi Prius.
  Arg. Argumento, by an argument drawn from such a law.  It also signifies
    arguendo.
  Arg. Inst. Institution au Droit Francais, par M. Argou.
  Ark. Rep. Arkansas Reports. See Pike's Rep.
  Ark. Rev. Stat. Arkansas Revised Statutes.
  Art. Article
  Ashm. R. Ashmead's Reports
  Aso & Man. Inst. Aso and Manuel's institutes of the Laws of Spain.
  Ass. or Lib. Ass. Liber Assissarium, or Pleas of the Crown.
  Ast. Ent. Aston's Entries.
  Atherl. on Mar. Atherley on the Law of Marriage and other Family
    Settlements.
  Atk. Atkyn's Reports.
  Atk. P. T. Atkyn's Parliamentary Tracts.
  Atk. on Con. Atkinson on Conveyancing.
  Atk. on Tit. Atkinson on Marketable Titles.
  Ats. in practice, is an abbreviation for the words "at suit of," and  is
    used when the defendant files any pleadings; for example: when the
    defendant enters a plea he puts his name before that of the plaintiff,
    reversing the order in which they are on the   record.  C.D.(the
    defendant,) ats A.B. (the plaintiff.)
  Aust. on Jur. The Province of Jurisprudence Determined, by John Austin
  Auth. Authentica, in the Authentic; that is, the Summary of some of the
    Novels of the Civil Law inserted in the code under such a title.
  Ay. Ayliff'es Pandect.
  Ayl. Parerg. Ayliffe's Parergon juris canonici Anglicani.
  Azun. Mar. Law. Azuni's Maritime Law of Europe.
  ---------------------------------------
  B, b, is used to point out that a number, used at the head of a page to
    denote the folio, is the second number of the same volume.
  B. B. Bail Bond.
  B. or Bk. Book.
  B. & A. Barnewall & Alderson's Reports.
  B. & B. Ball & Beatty's Reports.
  B. C. R. Brown's Chancery Reports.
  B. Eccl. L. Burn's Ecclesiastical Law.
  B. Just. Burn's Justice.
  B. N. C. Brooke's New Cases.
  B. P. C. or Bro. Parl. Cas. Brown's Parliamentry Cases.
  B. & P. or Bos. & Pull. Bosanquet & Puller's Reports.
  B. R. or K. B. King's Bench.
  B. Tr. Bishop's Trial.
  Bab. on Auct. Babington on the Law of Auctions.
  Bab. Set off. Babington on Set off and mutual credit.
  Bac. Abr. Bacon's Abridgement.
  Bac. Comp. Arb. Bacon's (M.) Complete Arbitrator.
  Bac. El. Bacon's Elements of the Common Law.
  Bac. Gov. Bacon on Government.
  Bac. Law Tr. Bacon's Law Tracts
  Bac. Leas. Bacon (M.) on Leases and Terms of Years.
  Bac. Lib Reg. Bacon's (John) Liber Regis, vel Thesaurus Rerum
    Eccleslasticarum.
  Bac. Uses Bacon's Reading on the Statute of Uses.  This is printed in his
    Law Tracts.
  Bach. Man. Bache's Manual of a Pennsylvania Justice of the Peace
  Bail. R.  Bailey's Reports.
  Bain. on M. & M. Bainbridge on Mines and Minerals.
  Baldwin. R. Baldwin's Circuit Court Reports.
  Ball & Beat. Ball and Beatty's Reports.
  Ballan. Lim. Ballantine on Limitations.
  Banc. Sup. Upper Bench.
  Barb. Eq. Dig. Barbour's Equity Digest.
  Barb. Cr. Pl. Barbour's Criminal Pleadings.
  Barb. Pract. in Ch. Barbour's Treatise on the Practice of the Court of
    Chancery.
  Barb. R. Barbour's Chancery Reports.
  Barb. Grot. Grotius on War and Peace, with notes by Barbeyrac.
  Barb. Puff. Puffendorf's Law of Nature and Nations, with notes by M.
    Barbeyrac.
  Barb. on Set off. Barbour on the Law of Set off, with an appendix of
    Precedents.
  Barn. C. Barnardiston's Chancery Reports.
  Barn. Barnardiston's K. B. Reports.
  Barn. & Ald. Barnewall & Alderson's Reports.
  Barn. & Adolph. Barnewall & Adolphu's Reports.
  Barn. & Cress. Barnewull & Cresswell's Reports.
  Barn. Sher. Barnes' Sheriff.
  Barne. Barne's Notes of Practice.
  Barr. Obs. Stat. Barrington's Observations on the more ancient statutes.
  Barr. Ten. Barry's Tenure.
  Bart. El. Conv. Barton's Elements of Conveyancing.
  Bart. Prec. Conv. Barton's Precedents of Conveyancing.
  Bart. S. Eq. Barton's Suit in Equity.
  Batty's R. Batty's Reports of Cases determined in the K. B. Ireland.
  Bay's R. Bay's Reports.
  Bayl. Bills. Bayley on Bills.
  Bayl. Ch. Pr. Bayley's Chamber Practice.
  Beam. Ne Exeat. Brief view of the writ of Ne Exeat Regno, as a equitable
    process, by J. Beam's.
  Beam. Eq. Beames on Equity Pleading.
  Beam. Ord. Chan. Beames' General Orders of the High Court of Chancery,
    from 1600 to 1815.
  Beat. R. Beatty's Reports determined in the High Court of Chancery In
    Ireland.
  Beav. R. Beavan's Chancery Reports.
  Beawes. Beawe's Lex Mercatoria.
  Beck's Med. Jur. Beck's Medical Jurisprudence.
  Bee's R. Bee's Reports.
  Bell's Com. Bell's Commentaries on the Laws of Scotland, and on the
       Principles of Mercantile Jurisprudence.
  Bell. Del. U. L. Beller's Delineation of Universal Law.
  Bell's Dict. Dictionary of the Law of Scotland By Robert Bell
  Bell's Med. Jur. Bell's Medical Jurisprudence.
  Bell. Bellewe's Cases in the time of K. Richard II.  Bellewe's Cases in the
    time of Henry VIII, Edw VI., and Q. Mary, collected out of Brooke's
    Abridgment, and arranged under years, with a table, are cited as Brooke's
    New Cases.
  Bellingh. Tr. Bellingham's Trial.
  Belt's Sup. Belt's Supplement.  Supplement to the Reports in Chancery of
    Francis Vesey, Senior, Esq, during the time of Lord Ch J. Hardwicke.
  Belt's Ves. sen. Belt's editon of Vesey senior's Reports.
  Benl. Benloe & Dalison's Reports. See New Benl.
  Ben. on Av. Benecke on Average.
  Benn. Diss. Bennet's Short Dissertation on the nature and various
    proceedings in the Master's Office, in the Court of Chancery. Sometimes
    this book is called Benn. Pract.
  Benn. Pract. See Benn. Diss.
  Benth. Ev. Bentham's Treatise on Judicial Evidence.
  Best on Prc. Best's Treatise on Presumption of Law and Fact.
  Bett's Adm. Pr. Bett's Admiralty Practice.
  Bev. on Hom. Bevil on Homicide.
  Bill. on Aw. Billing on the Law of Awards.
  Bing. Bingham Bin. Inf; Bingham on Infancy.
  Bing on Judg. Bingham on Judgments and Executions.
  Bing L. & T. Bingham on the Law of Landlord and Tenant
  Bing. R. Bing Bingham's Reports.
  Bing. N. C. Bingham's New Cases.
  Binn. Reports Of Cases adjudged in the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania By
    Horace Binney
  Bird on Conv. Bird on Conveyancing
  Bird L.& T. Bird on the Laws Respecting Landlords, Tenants and Lodgers.
  Bird's Sol. Pr Bird's Solution of Precedents of Settlements.
  Biret, De l'Abs. Traite de l'Absence et de ses effects, par M. Biret
  Biss. on Est. or Biss. on Life Est. Bissett on the Law of Estates for Life.
  Biss. on Partn. Bissett on Partnership.
  Bl. Blounts Law Dictionary and Glossary
  Bl. Comm. or Comm. Commentaries on the Laws of England by Sir Wllliam
    Blackstone.
  Bl. Rep. Sir William Blackstone's Reports.
  Bl. H. Henry Blackstone's Reports, sometime cited H. Bl.
  Black. L. T. Blackstone's Law Tracts
  Blackb on Sales. Blackburn on the Effect of the Contract of Sales.
  Blackb. on Sales. Blackburn on the Law of Sales.
  Blackf. R. Blackford's Reports.
  Blak. Ch. Pr. Blake's Practice of the Court of Chancery of the State of New
    York.
  Blan. on Ann. Blaney on Life Annuities
  Bland's Ch. R. Bland's Chancery Reports.
  Blansh. Lim. Blanshard on Limitations.
  Bligh. R. Bligh's Reports of Cases decided in the House of Lords.
  Blount. Blount's Law Dictionary and Glossary.
  Bo. R. Act. Booth on Real Actions.
  Boh. Dec. Bohun's Declarations.
  Boh. Eng. L. Bohun's English Lawyer.
  Boh. Priv. Lon. Bohun's Privilegia Londini.
  Boote. Boote's Ch. Pr. Boote's Chancery Practice.
  Boote's S. L. Boote's Suit at Law.
  Booth's R. A. Booth on Real Action.
  Borth. L. L. Borthwick on the Law of Libel.
  Bos. & Pull. Bosanquet and Puller's Reports. Vide B. & P.
  Bosc. on Con. Boscowen on Convictions.
  Bott. Bott's Poor Laws.
  Bouch Inst. Dr. Mar. Boucher, Institution au Droit Maritime.
  Boulay Paty Dr. Com. Cours de Droit Commercial Maritime, par P. S Boulay
    Paty.
  Bousq. Dict. de Dr. Bousquet, Dictionnaire de Droit.
  Bouv. L. D. Bouvier's Law Dictionary.
  Bouv. Inst. Institutiones Theologicae Auctore J. Bouvier.
  Bouv. Inst. Am. Law. Bouvier's Institutes of American Law.
  Bowl. on Lib. Bowles on Libels.
  Br. or Brownl. Brownlow's Reports.
  Br. or Br. Ab. Brooke's Abridgment.
  Bra. Brady's History of the Succession of the Crown of England, &c.
  Brac. Bracton's Treatise on the Laws and Customs of England.
  Bra. Princ. Branche's Principia Legis et Aequitatis.
  Brack. L. Misc. Brackenridge's Law Miscellany.
  Bradb. Bradby on Distresses.
  Bradl. P. B. Bradley's Point Book.
  Bran. Prin. or Bran. Max. Branch's Principia Legis Aequitatis, being  an
    alphabetical collection of maxims, &c.
  Brayt. R. Brayton's Reports.
  Breese's R. Breese's Reports.
  Brev. Sel. Brevia Selecta, or Choice Writs.
  Brid. Bridgman's Reports Reports from 12 to 19 K James.  By Sir John
    Bridgman.
  Brid. Dig. Ind. Bridgman's Digested Index.
  Brid. Leg. Bib. Bridgman's Legal Bibliography.
  Brid. Conv. Bridgman's Precedents of Conveyancing.
  Brid. Refl. Bridgman's Reflections on the Study of the Law.
  Brid. Synth. Bridgeman's Synthesis.
  Brid. Thes. Jur. Bridgman's Thesaurus Juridic.
  Bridg. O. Orlando Bridgmen's Reports.
  Bridg. The. Jru. Bridgman's Thesaurus Juridicus.
  Britton. Treatise on the Ancient Pleas of the Crown
  Bro. or Brownl. Brownlow's Reports. Also, Reports by Richard Brownlow and
    John Goldeshorough. Cited 1 Bro. 2 Bro.
  Bro. Ab. Brooke's Abridgement.
  Bro. A. & C. L. Brown's Admiralty and Civil Law.
  Bro. C. C. Brown's Chancery Cases.
  Bro. Off. Not. A Treatise on the Office and Practice of a Notary in England,
    as connected with Mercantile Instruments, &c.  By Richard Brooke.
  Bro. P. C. Brown's Parliamentary Cases.
  Bro. Read. Brooke's Reading on the Statute of Limitations.
  Bro. on Sales. Brown on Sales
  Bro. V.M. Brown's Vade Mecum.
  Brock. R. Brockenbrough's Reports of Chief Justice Marshall's Decisions.
  Brod. & Bing. Broderip & Bingham's Reports.
  Broom on Part. Broom on Parties to Actions.
  Brownl. Rediv. or Brownl. Ent. Brownlow Redivivus.
  Bruce M. L. Bruce's Military Law.
  Buck's Ca. Buck's Cases. Cases in Bankruptcy in 1817, 1818, by J.W. Buck.
  Bull. Bull. N.P. Buller's Nisi Prius.
  Bulst. Bulstrode's Reports.
  Bunb. Bunbury's Reports.
  Burge Col. Law. Burge's Colonial Law.
  Burge Confl. of Law. Burge on the Conflict of Laws.
  Burge on Sur. Burge's Commentaries on the Law of Suretyship. &c.
  Burge For. Law. Burge on Foreign Law.
  Burlam. Burlamaqui's Natural and Political Law.
  Burn's L.D. Burn's Law Dictionary.
  Burn's Just. Burn's Justice of the Peace.
  Burn's Eccl. Law or Burn's E.L. Burn's Ecclesiastical Law.
  Burn. C.L. Burnett's Treatise on the Criminal Law of Scotland.
  Burn. Com. Burnett's Commentaries on the Criminal Law of Scotland.
  Burr. Burrow's Reports.
  Burr. Sett. Cas. Burrow's Settlement Cases.
  Burr's Tr. Burr's Trial.
  Burt. Man. Burton's Manual of the Law of Scotland.  The work is in two
    parts, one relating to "public law," and the other to the law of "private
    rights and obligations."  The former is cited Burt. Man. P.L.; the latter,
    Burt. Man. Pr.
  Burt. on Real Prop. Burton on Real Property.
  Butl. Hor. Jur. Butler's Horae Juridicae Subsecivae.
  ---------------------------------------
  C. Codes, the Code of Justinian.
  C. Code.
  C. Chancellor.
  C.& A. Cooke and Alcock's Reports.
  C.B. Communi Banco, or Common Bench.
  C.C. Circuit Court.
  C.C. Cepi Corpus.
  C.C.& B.B. Cepi Corpus and Bail Bond.
  C.C. or Ch. Cas. Cases in Chancery in three parts.
  C.C.C. or Cr. Cir. Com. Crown Circuit Companion.
  C.C.& C. Cepi corpus et committitur. See Capias ad satisfaciendum, in the
    body of the work.
  C.C.E. or Cain. Cas. Caines' Cases in Error.
  C.D. or Com. Dig. Comyn's Digest.
  C.& D. C. C. Crawford and Dix's Criminal Cases.
  C.& D. Ab. C. Crawford and Dix's Abridged Cases.
  C.& F. Clark & Findley's Reports.
  C.& F. Clarke & Finelly's Reports.
  C. J. Chief Justice.
  C.& J. Crompton & Jervis' Exchequer Reports.
  C.J.C.P. Chief Justice of the Common Pleas.
  C.J.K.B. Chief Justice of the King's Bench.
  C.J.Q.B. Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench.
  C.J.U.B. Chief Justice of the Upper Bench. During the  time of the
    commonwealth, the English Court of the King's Bench was called the Upper
    Bench.
  C.& K. Carrington & Kirwan's Reports.
  C.& M. Crompton & Meeson's Reports.
  C.& M. Carrington & Marshman's Reports.
  C.M.& R. Crompton, Meeson & Roscoe's Exchequer Reports.
  C.N.P.C. Campbell's Nisi Prius Cases.
  C. P. Common Pleas.
  C.P. Coop. C.P. Cooper's Reports.
  C.& P. or Car.& Payn. Carrington & Payne's Reports.
  C.& P. Craig & Phillips' Reports.
  C.R. or Ch. Rep. Chancery Reports.
  C.& R. Cockburn & Rowe's Reports.
  C.W. Dudl. Eq. C.W. Dudley's Equity Reports.
  C. Theod. Codice Theodosiano, in the Theodosian code.
  Ca. Case or placitum.
  Ca. T.K. Select Cases tempore King.
  Ca. T. Talb. Cases tempore Talbot.
  Ca. res. Capias ad respondendum.
  Ca. sa., in practice, is the abbreviation of capias ad satisfaciendum.
  Caines' R. Caines' Term Reports.
  Caines' Cas. Caines' Cases, in error.
  Caines' Pr. Caines' Practice.
  Cald. R. Caldecott's Reports.
  Cald. S.C. Caldecott's Settlement Cases; sometimes cited Cald. R.
  Caldw. Arbit. Caldwell on Arbitration.
  Call. on Sew. Callis on the Law relating to Sewers.
  Call's R. Call's REports.
  Calth. R. Calthorp's Reports of Special Cases touching several customs and
    liberties of the City of London.
  Calv. on Part. Calvert on Parties to Suits in Equity.
  Cam.& Norw. Cameron & Norwood's Reports.
  Campb. Campbell's Reports.
  Can. Canon.
  Cap. Capitulo, chapter.
  Car. Carolus: as 13 Car. 2, st. 2, c.1.
  Carr. Cr. L. Carrington's Criminal Law.
  Carr.& Kirw. Carrington & Kriwan's Reports. See C.& K.
  Carr.& Marsh. Carrington & Marshman's Reports.
  Carr.& Oliv. R. and C.C. Carrow & Oliver's Railway and Canal Cases.
  Cart. Carter's Reports. Reports in C.P. in 16, 17, 18, and 19, Charles II.
  Cara de For. Carta de Foresta.
  Carth. Carthew's Reports.
  Cary. Cary's Reports.
  Cary on Partn. Cary on the Law of Partnership.
  Cas. of App. Cases of Appeals to the House of Lords.
  Cas. L. Eq. Cases and Opinions in Law, Equity, and Conveyancing.
  Cas. of Pr. Cases of Practice in the Court of the King's Bench, from the
    reign of Eliz. to the 14 Geo. 3.
  Cas. of Sett. Cases of Settlement.
  Cas. Temp. Hardw. Cases during the time of Lord Hardwicke.
  Cas. Temp. Talb. Cases during the time of Lord Talbot.
  Ch. Chancellor.
  Ch. CAs. Cases in Chancery.
  Ch. Pr. Precedents in Chancery.
  Ch. R. REports in Chancery.
  Ch. Rep. Vide Ch. Cases.
  Chamb. on Jur. of Chan. Chambers on the Jurisdiction of the High Court of
    Chancery, over the Persons and Property of Infants.
  Chamb. L.& T. Chambers on the Law of Landlord and Tenant.
  Char. Merc. Charta mercatoria. See Bac. Ab. Smuggling, C.
  Charlt. Charlton. T.U.P. Charl. T.U.P. Charlton's Reports. R.M. Charlton's
    Reports.
  Chase's Tr. Chase's Trial.
  Cher. Cas. Cherokee Case.
  Chev. C.C. Cheves' Chancery Cases.
  Chipm. R. Chipman's Reports. D. Chipm. D. Chipman's Reports.
  Chipm. Contr. Essay on the Law of Contracts for the payment of Specific
    Articles. By Daniel Chipman.
  Ch. Contr. A Practical Treatise on the Law of Contracts. By Joseph Chitty,
    Jr.
  Chitty. on App. Chitty's Practical Treatise on the Law relating to
    Apprentices and Journeymen.
  Chit. on Bills. Chitty on Bills.
  Chit. Jr. on Bills. Chitty, junior, on Bills.
  Chit. Com. L. Chitty's Treatise on Commerical Law.
  Chit. Cr. L. Chitty's Criminal Law.
  Chit. on Des. Chitty on the Law of Descents.
  Chit. F. Chitt's Forms and Practical Proceedings.
  Chit. Med. Jur. Chitty on Medical Jurisprudence.
  Chit. Chitty's Reports.
  Chit. Pl. A Practical Treatise on Pleading, by Joseph Chitty.
  Chit. Pr. Chitty's General Practice.
  Chit. Prerog. Chitty on the Law of the Prerogatives of the Crown.
  Chris. B.L. Christian's Bankrupt Laws.
  Christ. Med. Jur. Christison's Treatise on Poisons, relating to Medical
    Jurisprudence, Physiology, and the Practice of Physic.
  Civ. Civil.
  Civ. Code Lo. Civil Code of Louisiana.
  Cl. The Clementines.
  Cl. Ass. Clerk's Assistant.
  Clan. H.& W. Clancy on the Rights, Duties, and Liabilities of Hushand and
    Wife.
  Clark on Leas. Clark's Enquiry into the Nature of Leases.
  Clarke, R. Clarke's Reports.
  Clark & Fin. Clark & Finelly's Reports.
  Clark. Adm. Pr. Clarke's Practice in the Admiralty.
  Clark. Prax. Clarke's Praxis, being the manner of proceeding in the
    Ecclesiastical Courts.
  Clay. Clayton's Reports.
  Cleir. Us et Const. Cleirac, Us et Coustumes ae la Mer.
  Clerke's Rud. Clerke's Rudiments of American Law and Practice.
  Clift. Clift's Entries.
  Co. A particle used before other words to imply that the person spoken of
    possesses the same character as other persons whose character is
    mentioned, as co-executor, and executor with other; co-heir, an heir with
    others; co-partner, a partner with others, etc.  Co. is also an
    abbreviation for "company" as John Smith & Co.  When so abbreviated, it
    also represents "county."
  Co. Coke's Reports.
  Co. or Co. Rep. Coke's Reports.
  Co. Ent. Coke's Entries.
  Co. B. L. Cooke's Bankrupt Law.
  Co. on Courts. Coke on Courts; 4th Institute. See Inst.
  Co. Litt. Coke on Littleton. See Inst.
  Co. M. C. Coke's Magna Charta; 2d Institute. See. Inst.
  Co. P. C. Coke's Pleas of the Crown. See Inst.
  Cock & Rowe. Cockburn & Rowe's Reports.
  Code Civ. Code Civil, or Civil Code of France. This work is usually cited by
    the article.
  Code Nap. Code Napoleon. The same as Code Civil.
  Code Com. Code de Commerce.
  Code Pen. Code Penal.
  Code Pro. Code de Procedure.
  Col. Column, in the first or second column of the book quoted.
  Col.& Cai. CAs. Coleman & Caines' Cases.
  Cole on Inf. Cole on Criminal Informations, and Informations in the Nature
    of Quo Warranto.
  Coll. on Pat. Collier on the Law of Patents.
  Coll. on Idiots. Collinson on the Law concerning Idiots, &c.
  Coll. Rep. Colle's Reports.
  Coll. Collation.
  Colly. Rep. Collyer's Reports.
  Com. Communes, or Extravagantes Communes.
  Com. or Com. Rep. Comyn's Reports.
  Com. Contr. Comyn on Contract.
  Com. on Us. Comyn on Usury.
  Com. Dig. Comyn's Digest.
  Com. L.& T. Comyn on the Law of Landlord and Tenant.
  Com. Law. Commercial Law.
  Com. Law. Rep. Common Law Reports, edited by Sergeant and Lowher.
  Comb. Comberbach's Reports.
  Comm. Blackstone's Commentaries.
  Con. & Law. Connor & Lawson's Reports.
  Cond. Condensed.
  Cond. Ch. R. Condensed Chancery Reports.
  Cond. Ex. R. Condensed Exchequer Reports.
  Conf. Chart. Confirmatio Chartorum.
  Cong. Congress.
  Conkl. Pr. Conkling's Practice of the Courts of the United States.
  Conn. R. Connecticut Reports.
  Conr. Cust. R. Contoy's Custodian Reports.
  Cons. del Mar. Consolato del Mare.
  Cons. Ct. R. Constitutional Court REports.
  Cont. Contra.
  Cooke on Defam. Cooke on Defamation.
  Coop. Eq. R. Cooper's Equity Reports.
  Coop. Cas. Cases in the High Court of Chancery. By George Cooper.
  Coop. on Lib. Cooper on the Law of Libels.
  Coop. Eq. Pl. Cooper's Equity Pleading.
  Coop. Just. Cooper's Justinian's Institutes.
  Coop. Med. Jur. Cooper's Medical Jurisprudence.
  Coop. t. Brough. Cooper's Cases in the time of Brougham.
  Coop. P.P. Cooper's Points of Practice.
  Cote. Mrtg. Coote on Mortgages.
  Corb. & Dan. Corbet & Daniel's Election Cases.
  Corn. on Uses. Cornish on Uses.
  Corn. on REm. Cornish on REmainders.
  Corp. Jur. Civ. Corpus Juris Civilus.
  Corp. Jur. Can. Corpus Juris Canonicus.
  Corvin. Corvinus. See Bac. Ab. Mortgage A, where this author is cited.
  Cot. Abr. Cotton's Abridgement of Records.
  Cov. on Conv. Evi. Coventry on Conveyancers' Evidence.
  Cow. Int. Cowel's Law Dictionary, or the Interpreter of words and terms,
    used either in the common or statute laws of Great Britain.
  Cowp. Cowper's Reports.
  Cow. R. Cowen's Reports, N.Y.
  Cox's Cas. Cox's Cases.
  Coxe's R. Coxe's Reports.
  Crabb's C.L. Crabb's Common Law. A History of English Law. By George Crabb.
  Crabb, R. P. Crabb on the Law of Real Property.
  Craig & Phil. Craig & Phillip's Reports.
  Cranch, R. Cranch's Reports.
  Cressw. R. Cresswell's Reports of Cases decided in the Court for the Relief
    of Insolvent Debtors.
  Crim. Con. Criminal Conversation: adultery.
  Cro. Croke's Reports.
  Cro. Eliz. Croke's Reports, during the time of Queen Elizabeth, also cited
    as 1 Cro.
  Cro. Jac. Croke's Reports during the time of King James I., also cited as 2
    Cro.
  Cro. Car. Croke's Reports, during the time of Charles I., also cited as 3
    Cro.
  Crompt. Ex. Rep. Crompton's Exchequer Reports.
  Crompt. J.C. Crompton's Jurisdiction of Courts.
  Crompt. & Mees. Crompton & Meeson's Exchequer Reports.
  Crompt. Mees. & Rosc. Crompton, Meeson, and Roscoe's Exchequer Reports.
  Cross on Liens. Cross' Treatise on the Law of Liens and Stoppage in
    Transitu.
  Cru. Dig. or Cruise's Dig. Cruise's Digest of the Law of Real Property.
  Cul. Culpablilis, guilty; non cul. not guilty; a plea entered in actions of
    trespass.
  Cul. prit., commonly written culprit; cul., as above mentioned, means
    culpabilis, or culpable; and prit, which is a corruption of pret,
    signifies ready. 1 Chitty Cr. Law. 416.
  Cull. Bankr. L. Cullen's Principles of the Bankrupt Law.
  Cun. Cunningham's Reports.
  Cunn. Dict. Cunningham's Dictionary.
  Cur. adv. vult. Curia advisare vult. Vide Ampliation.
  Cur. Scacc. Cursus Scaccarii, the Court of the Star Chamber.
  Cur. Phil. Curia Philipica.
  Curs. Can. Cursus Cancellariae.
  Curt. R. Curteis' Ecclesiastical Reports.
  Curt. Am. Sea. Curtis on American Seamen.
  Curt. on Copyr. Curtis on Copyrights.
  Cush. Trust. Pr. Cushing on Trustee Process, or Foreign Attachment, of the
    Laws of Massachusetts and Maine.
  Cust. de Norm. Custome de Normandie.
  ---------------------------------------
  D. dialogue; as, Dr. and Stud. D. 2, c. 24, or Doctor and Student, dialogue
    2, chapter 24.
  D. dictum; D. Digest of Justinian.
  D. The Digest or Pandects of the Civil Law, is sometimes cited thus,
    D.6.1.5.
  D. C. District Court; District of Columbia.
  D. C. L. Doctor of the Civil Law.
  D. Chipm. R. D. Chipman's Reports.
  D. S. B. Debit sans breve.
  D. S. Deputy Sheriff.
  D.& C. Dow and Clark's Reports.
  D.& C. Deacon & Chitty's Reports.
  D.& E. Durnford & East's Reports. This book is also cited as Term Reports,
    abbreviated as T.R.
  D.& L. Danson & Lloyd's Mercantile Cases.
  D.& M. Davidson's & Merivale's Reports.
  D.& R. Dowling and Ryland's Reports.
  D.& R. N. P. C. Dowling and Ryland's Reports of Cases decided at Nisis
    Prius.
  D.& S. Doctor and Student.
  D.& W. Drury & Walsh's Reports.
  D;Aguesseau, Oeuvres. Oeuvres completes du Chancellier D'Aguesseau.
  Dat. Cr. L. Dagge's Criminal Law.
  Dal. Dalison's Reports. See Benl.
  Dall. Dallas' Reports.
  Dall. Dallas' Laws of Pennsylvania.
  Dalloz, Dict. Dictionaire General et raisonne de legilation, de Doctrine, et
    de Jurisprudence, en matiere civile, commerciale, criminelle,
    administrative, et de Droit Public. Par Armand Dalloz, jeune.
  Dalr. Feud. Pr. Dalrymple's Essay, or History of Feudal Property in Great
    Britain. Sometimes cited Dalr. F.L.
  Dalr. on Ent. Dalrymple on the Polity of Entails.
  Dalr. F. L. Dalrymple's Feudal law.
  Dalt. Just. Dalton's Justice.
  Dalt. Sh. Dalton's Sheriff.
  D'Anv. D'Anvers' Abridgement.
  Dan. Ch. Pr. Caniell's Chancery Practice.
  Dan. Ord. Danish Ordinances.
  Dan. Rep. Daniell's Reports.
  Dan.& Ll. Danson & Lloyd's Reports.
  Dana's R. Dana's Reports.
  Dane's Ab. Dane's Abridgment of American Law.
  Dav. Davies' Reports.
  Dav. on Pat. Davies' Collection of Cases respecting patents.
  Daw. Land. Pr. Dawe's Epitome of the Law of Landed Property.
  Daw. Real Pr. Dawe's Introduction to the Knowledge of the Law on Real
    Estates.
  Daw. on Arr. Dawe's Commentaries on the Law of Arrest in Civil Cases.
  Daws. Or. Leg. Dawson's Origo Legum.
  Deac. R. Deacon's Reports. Deac.& Chit. Deacon & Chitty's Reports.
  Deb. on Jud. Debates on the Judiciary.
  Dec. temp. H.& M. Decisions in Admiralty during the time of Hay & Marriott.
  Deft. Defendant.
  De Gex & SM. R. De Gex & Smale's Reports.
  Den. Cr. Cas. Denison's Crown Cases.
  Den. Rep. Denio's New York Reports.
  Desaus. R. Desaussure's Chancery Reports.
  Dev. R. Devereux's Reports.
  Dev. Ch. R. Devereux's Chancery Reports.
  Dev.& Bat. Devereux & Battle's Reports.
  Di. or Dy. Dyer's Reports.
  Dial. de Scac. Dialogus de Scaccario.
  Dick. Just. Dickinson's Justice.
  Dick. Pr. Dickinson's Practice of the Quarter of and other Sessions.
  Dick. Dicken's Reports.
  Dict. Dictionary.
  Dict. Dr. Can. Dictionnaire de Droit Canonique.
  Dict. de' Jur. Dictionnaire de Jurisprudence.
  Dig. Digest of writs. Dig. The Pandects or Digest of the Civil Law, cited as
    Dig. 1,2,5,6, for Digest, book 1, 2, law 5, sections 6.
  Disn. on Gam. Disney's Law of Gaming.
  Doct. & Stud. Doctor and Student.
  Doct. Pl. Doctrina Placitandi.
  Doder. Eng. Law. Doderidge's English Lawyer.
  Dods. R. Dodson's Reports.
  Dom. Domat, Lois Civilles.
  Dom. Proc. Domo Procerum. In the House of Lords.
  Domat. Lois Civilles dans leur ordre naturel. Par M. Domat.
  Dougl. Douglas' Reports.
  Doug. El. Cas. Dougls' Election Cases.
  Dougl. (Mich.) R. Dougls' Michigan Reports.
  Dow. or Dow. P.C. Dow's Parliamentary Cases.
  Dow & Clarke, Dow and Clarke's Reports of Cases in the House of Lords.
  Dowl. P. C. Dowling's Practical Cases.
  Dow.& R. N. P. Dowling and Ryan's Nisi Prius Cases.
  Dow.& Ry. M.C. Dowling & Ryan's Cases for Magistrates.
  Dow.& Ry. Dowling and Ryland's Reports.
  Dr.& St. Doctor and Student.
  Drew. on Inj. Drewry on Injunctions.
  Dru.& Wal. Drury and Walsh's Reports.
  Dru.& War. Drury & Warren's Reports.
  Dub. Dubitatur.
  Dudl. R. Dudley's Law and Equity Reports.
  Dug. S. or Dugd. Sum. Dugdale's Summons.
  Dugd. Orig. Dugdale's Origines.
  Dug. Sum.  Dugdale's Summonses
  Duke. or Duke's Ch. Uses. Duke's Law of Charitable Uses.
  Dunl. Pr. Dunlap's Practice.
  Dunl. Admr. Pr. Dunlap's Admiralty Practice.
  Duponc. on Jur. Duponceau on Jurisdictions.
  Duponc. Const. Duponceau on the Constitution.
  Dur. Dr. FR. Duranton, Droit Francais.
  Durnf.& East. Durnford & East's Reports, also cited D.& E. or T.R.
  Duv. Dr. Civ. Fr. Duvergier, Droit Civil Francais. This is a continuation of
    Touiller's Droit Civil Francais. The first volume of Duvergier is the
    sixteenth volume of the continuation. The work is sometimes cited 16
    Toull. or 16 Toullier, instead of being cited 1 Duv. or 1 Duvergier, etc.
  Dwar. on Stat. Dwarris on Statutes.
  Dy. Dyer's Reports.
  ---------------------------------------
  E. Easter Term.
  E. Edward; as 9 E. 3, c. 9.
  E. of Cov. Earl of Coventry's Case.
  E.C.L.R. English Common Law Reports, sometimes cited Eng. Com. Law Rep.
    (q.v.)
  E.g., usually written e.g., exempli gratia; for the sake of an instance or
    example.
  E.P.C. or East, P.C. East's Pleas of the Crown.
  East, P.C. East's Pleas of the Crown.
  Eccl. Ecclesiastical.
  Eccl. Law. Ecclesiastical Law.
  Eccl. Rep. Ecclesiastical Reports. Vide Eng. Eccl. Rep.
  Ed. or Edit. Edition.
  Ed. Edward; as, 3 Ed. 1, c. 9.
  Ed. Inj. Eden on Injunction.
  Ed. Eq. Reps. Eden's Equity Reports.
  Ed. Prin. Pen. Law. Eden's Principles of Penal Law.
  Edm. Exch. Pr. Edmund's Exchequer Practice.
  Edw. Ad. Rep. Edward's Admiralty Reports.
  Edw. Lead. Dec. Edward's Leading Decisions.
  Edw. on Part. Edward's on Parties to Bills in Chancery.
  Edw. on Rec. Edwards on Receivers in Chancery.
  Eliz. Elizabeth; as, 13 Eliz. c. 15.
  Ellis on D. and Cr. Ellis on the Law relating to Debtor and Creditor.
  Elm on Dil. Elmes on Ecclesiastical and Civil Dilapidations.
  Elsyn on Parl. Elsynge on Parliaments.
  Encycl. Encyclopedia, or Encyclopedie.
  Eng. English.
  Eng. Ch. R. English Chancery Reports. Vide Cond. Ch. R. (See App. A.)
  Eng. Com. Law Rep. English Common Law Reports.
  Eng. Ecc. R. English Ecclesiastical Reports.
  Eng. Plead. English Pleader.
  Engl. Rep. English's Arkansas Reports.
  Eod. Eodem, under the same title.
  Eod. tit. In the same title.
  Eq. Ca. Ab. Equity Cases Abridged.
  Eq. Draft. Equity Draftsman.
  Ersk. Inst. Erskin's Institute of the Law of Scotland.
  Ersk. Prin. of Laws of Scotl. Erskine's Principles of the Laws of Scotland.
  Esp. N.P. Espinasse's Nisi Prius.
  Esp. N. P. R. Espinasse's Nisi Prius Reports.
  Esp. on Ev. Espinasse on Evidence.
  Esp. on Pen. Ev. Espinasse on Penal Evidence.
  Esq. Esquire.
  Et. al. Et alii, and others.
  Eunom. Eunomus.
  Ev. Col. Stat. Evan's Collection of Statutes.
  Ev. on Pl. Evans on Pleading.
  Ev. Tr. Evans' Trial.
  Ex. or Exor. Executor.
  Execx. Executrix.
  Exch. Rep. Exchequer Reports. Vide Cond. Exch. Rep.
  Exec. Execution. Exp. Expired.
  Exton's Mar. Dicaeo. Exton's Maritime Dicaeologie.
  Extrav. Extravagants.
  ---------------------------------------
  F. Finalis, the last or latter part.
  F. Fitzherbert's Abridgment.
  F. & F. Falconer & Fitzherbert's Reports.
  F. R. Forum Romanum.
  F. & S. Fox & Smith's Reports.
  F. N. B. Fitzherbert's Natura Brevium.
  Fairf. R. Fairfield's Reports.
  Fac. Coll. Faculty Collection; the name of a set of Scotch Reports.
  Falc. & Fitzh. Falconer & Fitzherbert's Election Cases.
  Far. Farresly, (7 Mod. REp.) is sometimes so cited.
  Farr's Med. Jur. Farr's Elements of Medical Jurisprudence.
  Fearn. on Rem. Fearne on Remainders.
  Fell. on Mer. Guar. Fell on Mercantile Guaranties.
  Ferg. on M. & D. Fergusson on Marriage and Divorce.
  Ferg. R. Fergusson's Reports of the Consistorial Court of Scotland.
  Ff. or ff. Pandects of Justinian: a careless way of writing the Greek „.
  Ferr. Hist. Civ. L. Ferriere's History of the Civil Law.
  Ferr. Mod. Ferriere Moderne, on Nouveau Dictionnaire des Termes de Droit et
    de Pratique.
  Fess. on Pat. Fessenden on Patents.
  Fi. fa. Fieri Facias.
  Field's Com. Law. Field on the Common Law of England.
  Field. on Penal Laws. Fielding on Penal Laws.
  Finch. Finch's Law; or a Discourse thereof, in five books.
  Finch's Pr. Finch's Precedents in Chancery.
  Finl. L. C. Finlayson's Leading Cases on Pleading.
  Fish. Copyh. Fisher on Copyholds.
  Fitz. C. Fitzgibbon's Cases.
  Fitzh. Fitzherbert's Abridgment
  Fitzh. Nat. Bre. Fitzherbert's Natura Brevium.
  Fl. or Fleta. A Commentary on the English Law, written by an anonymous
    author, in the time of Edward I., while a prisoner in the Fleet.
  Fletch. on Trusts. Fletcher on the Estates of Trustees.
  Floy. Proct. Pr. Floyer's Proctor's Practice.
  Fol. Foley's Poor Laws.
  Fol. Folio.
  Fonb. Fonblanque on Equity.
  Fonb. Med. Jur. Fonblanque on Medical Jurisprudence.
  Forr. Forrester's Cases during the time of Lord Talbot, commonly cited Cas.
    Temp. Talb.
  For. Pla. Brown's Formulae Placitandi.
  Forb. on Bills. Forbes on Bills of Exchange.
  Forb. Inst. Forbes' Institutes of the Law of Scotland.
  Forr. Exch. Rep. Forrest's Exchequer Reports.
  Fors. on Comp. Forsyth on the Law relating to Composition with Creditors.
  Fortesc. Fortescue, De Laudibus Legum Angliae.
  Fortesc. R. Fortescue's Reports, temp. Wm. and Anne.
  Fost. or Fost. C.L. Foster's Crown Law.
  Fox. & Sm. Fox & Smith's Reports.
  Fr. Fragmentum.
  Fra. or Fra. Max. Francis' Maxims.
  Fr. Ord. French Ordinance. Sometimes cited Ord. de la Mar.
  Fras. Elect. Cas. Fraser's Election Cases.
  Fred. Co. Frederician Code.
  Freem. Freeman's Reports.
  Freem. C. C. Freeman's Cases in Chancery.
  Freem. (Mis.) R. Freeman's Reports of Cases decided by the Superior Court of
    Chancery of Mississippi.
  ---------------------------------------
  G. George; as, 13 G. 1, c. 29.
  G. & J. Glyn & Jameson's Reports.
  G. & J. Gill & Johnson's Reports.
  G. M. Dudl. Repo. G. M. Dudley's Reports.
  Gale & Dav. Gale & Davidson's Reports.
  Gale's Stat. Gale's Statutes of Illinois.
  Gall. or Gall. Rep. Gallison's Reports.
  Garde on Ev. Garde's Practical Treatise on the General Principles and
    Elementary Rules of the Law of Evidence.
  Geo. George; as, 13 Geo. 1, c. 29.
  Geo. Dec. Georgia Decisions.
  Geo. Lib. George on the Offence of Libel.
  Gib. on D. & N. Gibbons on the Law of Dilapidations and Nuisances.
  Gibs. Codex. Gibson's Codex Juris Civilis.
  Gilb. R. Gilbert's Reports.
  Gilb. Ev. Gilbert's Evidence.
  Gilb. U. & T. Gilbert on Uses and Trusts.
  Gilb. Ten. Gilbert on Tenures.
  Gilb. on Rents. Gilbert on Rents.
  Gilb. on Rep. Gilbert on Replevin.
  Gilb. Ex. Gilbert on Executions.
  Gilb. Exch. Gilbert's Exchequer.
  Gilb. For. Rom. Gilbert's Forum Romanum.
  Gilb. K. B. Gilbert's King's Bench.
  Gilb. Rem. Gilbert on REmainders.
  Gilb. on Dev. Gilbert on Devises.
  Gilb. Lex. praet. Gilbert's Lex Praetoria.
  Gill & John. Gill & Johnson's Reports.
  Gill's R. Gill's Reports.
  Gilm. R. Gilmer's Reports.
  Gilp. R. Gilpin's Circuit Court Reports.
  Gl. Glossa, the Gloss.
  Glanv. Glanville's Treatise of the Laws and Customs of England.
  Glassf. Ev. Glassford on Evidence.
  Glov. Mun. Corp. Glover on Municipal Corporations, or Glov. on Corp. Glover
    on the Law of Municipal Corporations.
  Glyn. & Jam. Glyn & Jameson's Reports of Cases in Bankruptcy.
  Godb. Godbolt's Reports.
  Godolph. Ad. Jr. Godolphin's View of the Admiralty Jurisdiction.
  Godolph. Rep. Can. Godolphin's Repertorium Canonicum.
  Godolph. Godolphin's Orphan's Legacy.
  Gods. on Pat. Godson's Treatise on the Law of Patents.
  Goldesh. Goldeshorought's Reports.
  Golds. Goldsborough's Reports.
  Gord. on Dec. Gordon on the Law of Decedents in Pennsylvania.
  Gould on Pl. Gould on the Principles of Pleading in Civil Actions.
  Gow on Part. Gow on Partnership.
  Grah. Pr. Graham's Practice.
  Grah. N.T. Graham on New Trials.
  Grand. Cout. Grand Coutumier de Normandie, (q.v.)
  Grady on Fixt. Grady on the law of Fixtures.
  Grant on New. Tr. Grant on New Trials.
  Grant's Ch. Pr. Grant's Chancery Practice.
  Gratt. R. Grattan's Virginia Reports.
  Green's B.L. Green's Bankrupt Laws.
  Green's R. Green's Reports.
  Greenl. on Ev. Greenleaf's Treatise on the Law of Evidence.
  Greenl. Ov. Cas. Greenleaf's Overruled Cases.
  Greenl. R. Greenleaf's Reports.
  Greenw on Courts. Greenwood on Courts.
  Gres. Eq. Ev. Gresley's Equity Evidence.
  Grif. Reg. Griffith's Law Register.
  Grimk. on Ex. Grimke on the Duty of Executors and Administrators.
  Grisw. Rep. Griswold's Reports.
  Grot. Grotius de Jure Belli.
  Gude's Pr. Gude's Practice on the Crown side of King's Bench, &c.
  Gwill. Gwillim's Tithe Cases.
  ---------------------------------------
  H. Henry; as, 18 H. 7, c. 15.
  H. Hilary Term.
  H.A. Hoc Anno
  H.V. commonly written in small letters h.v. hoc verbo.
  H. of L. House of Lords.
  H. of R. House of Representatives.
  H. & B. Hudson & Brooke's Reports.
  H. & G. Harris & Gill's Reports.
  H. & J. Harris & Johnson's Reports.
  H. Bl. Henry Blackstone's Reports.
  H. H. C. L. Hale's History of the Common Law.
  H. & M. Henning and Munford's Reports.
  H. & McH. or Harr. & McHen. Harris & McHenry's Reports.
  Hab. fa. seis. Habere facias seisinam.
  H. P. C. Hales' Pleas of the Crown.
  H.t. usually put in small letters, h.t. hoc titulo.
  Hab. Corp. Habeas Corpus.
  Hab. fa. pos. Habere facias possessionem.
  Hagg. Ad. R. Haggard's Admiralty Reports.
  Hagg. Ecc. R. Haggard's Ecclesiastical Reports.
  Hagg. C. R. Haggard's REports in the Consistory Court of London.
  Hale, P.C. Hale's Pleas of the Crown.
  Hale's Sum. Hale's Summary of Pleas.
  Hale's Jur. J. L. Hale's Jurisdiction of the House of Lords.
  Hale's Hist. C.L. Hale's History of the Common Law.
  Halif. Civ. Law. Halifax's Analysis of the Civil Law.
  Hall's R. Hall's Reports of Cases decided in the Superior Court of the city
    of New York.
  Halk. dig. Halkerton's digest of the Law of Scotland relating to Marriage.
  Hall's Adm. Pr. Hall's Admiralty Practice.
  Halst. R. Halstead's Reports.
  Hamm. N. P. Hammond's Nisi Prius.
  Hamm. R. Hammond's (Ohio) Reports.
  Hamm. on Part. Hammond on Parties to Actions.
  Hamm. Pl. Hammond's Analysis of the Principles of Pleading.
  Hamm. on F.I. Hammond on Fire Insurance.
  Han. Hansard's Entries.
  Hand's ch. Pr. Hand's Chancery Practice.
  Hand on Fines. Hand on Fines and Recoveries.
  Hand's Cr. Pr. hand's Crown Practice.
  Hand on Pat. Hand on Patents.
  Hans. Parl. Deb. Hansard's Parliamentary Debates.
  Hard. Hardress' Reports.
  Hardin's R. Hardin's Reports.
  Hare R. Hare's Reports.
  Hare & Wall. Sel. Dec. Hare & Wallace's Select Decisions of American Cases,
    with Notes.
  Hare on Disc. Hare on the Discovery of Evidence by Bill and Answer in
    Equity.
  Harg. Coll. Hargrave's Juridical Arguments and collection.
  Harg. St. Tr. Hargrave's State Trials.
  Harg. Exer. Hargrave's Exercitations.
  Harg. Law Tr. Hargrave's Law Tracts.
  Harp. L. R. Harper's Law Reports.
  Harp. Eq. R. Harper's Equity Reports.
  Harr. Ch. Harrison's Chancery Practice.
  Harr. Cond. Lo. R. Harrison's condensed Report of Cases in Superior Court of
    the Territory of Orleans, and in the Supreme Court of Louisiana.
  Harr. Dig. Harrison's Digest.
  Harr. Ent. Harris' Entries.
  Harr. (Mich.) R. Harrington's Reports of Cases in the Supreme Court of
    Michigan.
  Harr. & Gill. Harris & Gill's Reports.
  Harr. & John. Harris & Johnson's Reports.
  Harr. & M'H. Harris & M'Henry's Reports.
  Harringt. R. Harrington's Reports.
  Hasl. Med. Jur. Haslam's Medical Jurisprudence.
  Hawk. P.C. Hawkins' Pleas of the Crown.
  Hawk's R. Hawk's Reports.
  Hay on Est. An Elementary View of the Common Law of uses, Devises, and
    Trusts, with reference to the Creation and Conveyance of Estates, by
    William Hayes.
  Hay. on Lim. Hayes on Limitations.
  Hay. Exch. R. Hayes' Exchequer Reports.
  Hays on R. P. Hays on Real Property.
  Heath's Max. Heath's Maxim's.
  Hein. Elem. Juris. civ. Heineccii, Elementa juris Civilis, secundum ordinem
    Institutionum.
  Hein. Elem. Juris. Nat. Heineccii, Elementa juris Naturae et gentium.
  Hen on For. Law. Henry on Foreign Law.
  Hen. J. P. Henning's Virginia Justice of the Peace.
  Hen. & Munf. Henning & Munford's Reports.
  Herne's Ch. Uses. Herne's law of Charitable Uses.
  Herne's Plead. Herne's Pleader.
  Het. Hetley's Reports.
  Heyw. on El. Heywood on Elections.
  Heyw. (N.C.) R. Heywood's North Carolina Reports.
  Heyw. (Tenn.) R. Heywood's Tennessee Reports.
  High. Highmore.
  High on Bail. Highmore on Bail.
  High. on Lun. Highmore on Lunacy.
  High. on Mortm. Highmore on ortmain.
  Hill. Ab. Hilliard's Abridgment of the Law of Real Property.
  Hill's R. Hill's Reports.
  Hill's Ch. R. Hill's Chancery Reports.
  Hill on Trust. A Practical Treatise on the Law relating to Trustees, &c.
  Hind's Pr. Hind's Practice.
  Hob. Hobart's Reports.
  Hodg. R. Hodge's Reports.
  Hodges on Railw. Hodges on the Law of Railways.
  Hoffm. Outl. Hoffman's Outlines of Legal Studies.
  Hoffm. Leg. St. Hoffman's Legal Studies.
  Hoffm. Ch. Pr. Hoffman's Chancery Practice.
  Hoffm. Mas. Ch. Hoffman's master in Chancery.
  Hoffm. R. Hoffman's Reports.
  Hog. R. Hogan's Reports.
  Hog. St. Tr. Hogan's State Trials.
  Holt on Lib. Holt on the Law of Libels.
  Holt on Nav. Holt on Navigation.
  Holt. R. Holt's Reports.
  Holt on Sh. Holt on the Law of Shipping.
  Hopk. R. Hopkins' Chancery Reports.
  Hopk. Adm. Dec. Hopkinson's Admiralty Decisions.
  Houard's Ang. Sax. Laws. Houard's Anglo Saxon laws and Ancient Laws of the
    French.
  Houard's dict. Houard's Dictionary of the Customs of normandy.
  Hough C. M. Hough on Courts Martial.
  Hov. Fr. Hovenden on Frauds.
  Hov. Supp. Hovenden's Supplement to Vesey Junior's Reports.
  How. St. Tr. Howell's State Trials.
  Howe's Pr. Howe's Practice in Civil Actions and Proceedings at Law in
    Massachusetts.
  How. Pr. R. Howard's Practice Reports.
  Hub. on Suc. Hubback on Successions.
  Huds. & Bro. Hudson & Brooke's Reports.
  Hugh. Ab. Hughes' Abridgment.
  Hugh. Entr. Hughes' Entries.
  Hugh. on Wills. Hughes on Wills.
  Hugh. R. Hughes' Reports.
  Hugh. Or. Writs. Hughes' Comments upon Original Writs.
  Hugh. Ins. Hughes on Insurance.
  Hugh. on Wills. Hughes' Practical Directions for Taking Instructions for
    Drawing Wills.
  Hull. on Costs. Hullock on the Law of Costs.
  Hult. on Conv. Hulton on Convictions.
  Humph. R. Humphrey's Reports.
  Hume's com. Hume's Commentaries on the Criminal Law of Scotland.
  Hut. Hutton's Reports.
  ---------------------------------------
  I. The Institutes of Justinian (q.v.) are sometimes cited, I.1, 3, 4.
  I. Infra, beneath or below.
  Ib. Ibidem.
  Ictus. Jurisconsultus. This abbreviation is usually written with an I,
    though it would be more proper to write it with a J, the first letter of
    the word Jurisconsultus; c is the initial letter of the third syllable,
    andtus is the end of the word.
  Id. Idem.
  Il Cons. del Mar. Il Consolato del Mare. See Consolato del Mare, in the body
    of the work.
  Imp. Pr. C. P. Impey's Practice in the common Pleas.
  Imp. Pr. K. B. Impey's Practice in the King's Bench.
  Imp. Pl. Impey's Modern Pleader.
  Imp. Sh. Impey's Office of Sheriff.
  In f. In fine, at the end of the title, law, or paragraph quoted.
  In pr. In principio, in the beginning and before the first paragraph of a
    law.
  In princ. In principio. In the beginning.
  In sum. Insumma, in the summary.
  Ind. Index.
  Inf. Infra, beneath or below.
  Ing. Dig. Ingersoll's Digest of the laws of the United States.
  Ing. Roc. Ingersoll's Roccus.
  Ingr. on Insolv. Ingraham on Insolvency.
  Inj. Injunction.
  Ins. Insurance.
  Inst. Coke on Littleton, is cited Co. Lit. or 1 Inst., for First Institute.
    Coke's magna Charta, is cited Co. M.C. or 2 Inst., for Second Institute.
    Co. P. C. Coke's Pleas of the Crown, is cited 3 Inst., for Third
    Institute.  Co. on Courts. Coke on Courts, is cited 4 Inst., for Fourth
    Institute.
  Inst. Institutes. When the Institutes of Justinian are cited, the citation
    is made thus; Inst. 4, 2, 1; or Inst. lib. 4, tit. 2, 1. 1; to signify
    Institutes, book 4, tit. 2, law 1. Coke's Institutes are cited, the first,
    either Col Lit. or 1 Inst., and the others 2 Inst., 3 Inst., and 4 Inst.
  Inst. Cl. or Inst. Cler. Instructor Clericalis.
  Inst. Jur. Angl. Institutiones Juris Anglicani, by Doctor Cowell.
  Introd. Introduction.
  Ir. Eq. R. Irish Equity Reports.
  Ir. T. R. Irish Term Reports. Sometimes cited Ridg. Irish. T. R. (q.v.)
  ---------------------------------------
  J. Justice.
  J. institutes of Justinian.
  J. C. Juris Consultus.
  J. C. P. Justice of the common Pleas.
  J. Glo. Juncta Glossa, the Gloss joined to the text quoted.
  J. J. Justices.
  J. J. Marsh. J.J. Marsh's (Kentucky) Reports.
  J. K. B. Justice of the King's Bench.
  J. P. Justice of the Peace.
  J. Q. B. Justice of the Queen's Bench.
  J. U. B. Justice of the Upper Bench. During the Commonwealth of the English
    Court of the King's Bench was called the Upper Bench.
  Jac. Jacobus, James; as, 4 Jac. 1, c. 1.
  Jac. Introd. Jacob's Introduction to the Comm, Civil, and Canon Law.
  Jac. L. D. Jacob's law Dictionary.
  jac. L. G. Jacob's law Grammar.
  Jac. Lex. Mer. jacob's Lex Mercatoria, or the Merchant's Companion.
  Jac. R. Jacob's Chancery Reports.
  Jac. & Walk. Jacob & Walker's Chancery Reports.
  Jack. Pl. Jackson on Pleading.
  Jarm. on Wills. Jarman on the Law of Wills.
  Jarm. Pow. Dev. Powell on Devises, with Notes by Jarman.
  Jebb's Ir. Cr. Cas. Jebb's Irish Criminal Cases.
  Jeff. Man. Jefferson's Manual.
  Jeff. R. Thomas Jefferson's Reports.
  Jenk. Jenkins' Eight Centuries of Reports; or Eight Hundred Cases solemnly
    adjudged in the Exchequer Chamber, or upon Writs of Error, from K. Henry
    III, to 21 K. James I.
  Jer. Jeremy.
  Jer. on Carr. Jeremy's Law of Carriers.
  Jer. Eq. Jur. Jeremy on the Equity Jurisdiction of the High Court of
    Chancery.
  Jer. on Cor. Jervis on Coroners.
  John. Cas. Johnson's Cases.
  John. R. Johnson's Reports.
  John. Ch. R. Johnson's Chancery Reports.
  John. Eccl. Law. Johnson's Ecclesiastical Law.
  Johns. Civ. L. of Sp. Johnson's Civil Law of Spain.
  Johns. on Bills. The Law of Bills of Exchange, Promissory Notes, Checks,
    &c., by Cuthbert W. Johnson.
  Jon. Sir Wm. Jones' Reports.
  Jon. & Car. Jones and Carey's Reports.
  Jon. on Lib. Jones, De Libellis Famosis, or the Law of Libels.
  Jon. Inst. HInd. L. Jones' Institutes of Hindoo Laws.
  Jon. (1) Sir W. Jones' Reports.
  Jon. (2) Sir T. Jones' Reports.
  Jon. T. Thomas Jones' REports.
  Jon. on Bailm Jones' Law of Bailments.
  Jones' Intr. Jones' Introduction to Legal Science.
  Joy on Ev. Acc. Joy on the Evidence of Accomplices.
  Joy on Chal. Joy on Challenge to Jurors.
  Joy Leg. Ed. Joy on Legal Education.
  Jud. Chr. Judicial Chronicle.
  Jud. Repos. Judicial Repository.
  Judg. Judgments.
  Jr. Eccl. Jura Ecclesiastica, or a Treatise of the Ecclesiastical Law and
    Courts, interspersed with various cases of Law and Equity.
  Jr. Mar. Molloy's Jure Maritimo. Sometimes cited Molloy.
  Jus. Nav. Thod. Jus Navale Thodiorum.
  Just. Inst. Justinian's Institutes.
  ---------------------------------------
  K. B. King's Bench.
  K. C. R. Reports in the time of Chancellor King.
  K.& O. Knapp & Omber's Election Cases.
  Kames on Eq. Kames' Principles of Equity.
  Kames' Ess. Kames' Essays.
  Kames' Hist. L. T. Kames' HIstorical Law Tracts.
  Keat. Fam. Settl. Keating on Family Settlements.
  Keb. Keble's Reports.
  Keb. Stat. Keble's English Statutes.
  Keen's R. Keen's Reports.
  Keil or Keilw. Keilways' Reports.
  Kel. Sir John Kelyng's Reports.
  Kel. 1,2, or W. Kel. William Kelyng's Reports, two parts.
  Kelh. Norm L. D. Kelham's Norman French Law Dictionary.
  Kell. R. Kelly's Reports.
  Ken. on Jur. Kennedy on Juries.
  Kent. Com. Kent's Commentaries on American Law.
  Keny. Kenyon's Reports of the Court of King's Bench.
  Kit. or Kitch. Kitchen on Courts.
  Kna.& Omb. Knapp & Omber's Election Cases.
  Knapp's A. C. Knapp's Appeal Cases.
  Knapp's R. Knapp's Privy Council Reports.
  Kyd on Aw. Kyd on the Law of Awards.
  Kyd on Bills. Kyd on the Law relating to Bills of Exchange.
  Kyd on Corp. Kyd on the Law of Corporations.
  ---------------------------------------
  L, in citation means law, as L. 1, 33. Furtum, ff de Furtis, i.e. law 1,
    section or paragraph beginning with the word Furtum; ff, signifies the
    Digest, and the words de Furtis denote the title.
  L. signifies also liber, book.
  L.& G. Lloyd's & Goold's Reports.
  L.& W. Lloyd & Welshy's Mercantile Cases.
  LL. Laws, as LL. Gul. 1, c. 42. Laws of William I. chapter 42; LL. of U.S.,
    Laws of the United States.
  L.S. Locus sigili.
  L.R. Louisiana Reports.
  La. Lane's REports.
  Lalaure, des Ser. Traite des Servitudes reelles, par M. laalaure.
  Lamb. Archai. Lambard's Archaionomia.
  Lamb. Eiren. Lambard's Eirenarcha.
  Lamb. on Dow. Lambert on Dower.
  Lat. Latch's Reports.
  Laus. on Eq. laussat's Essay on Equity Practice in Pennsylvania.
  Law. on Chart. part. Lawes on the Law of Charter Parties.
  Law. Lib. Law Library.
  Law Rep. Law Reporter.
  Laws Eccl. Law. Laws' Ecclesiastical Law.
  Law Intel. Law Intelligencer.
  Law Fr. & latin Dict. Law French and Latin Dictionary.
  Law. Pl. lawes' Elementary Treatise on Pleading in Civil Actions.
  Law. Pl. in Ass. Lawes' Treatise on Pleading in Assumpsit.
  Laws of Wom. Laws of Women.
  Lawy. Mag. lawyer's magazine.
  Le. Ley's Reports.
  Leach. Leach's Cases in Crown Law.
  Lec. Elm. Lecons Elementaire du Droit Civil Romain.
  Lee Abst. Tit. Lee on the Evidence of Abstracts of Title to REal Property.
  Lee on Capt. Lee's Treatise of Captures in War.
  Lee's Dict. Lee's Dictionary of Practice.
  Lee's Eccl. R. Lee's Ecclesiastical Reports.
  Leg. Bibl. Legal Bibliography, by J.G. Marvin.
  Leg. Legibus.
  Leg. Obs. Legal Observer.
  Leb. Oler. The Laws of Oleron.
  Leg. on Outl. Legge on Outlawry.
  Leg. Rhod. The Laws of Rhodes.
  Leg. ult. The Last Law.
  Leg. Wish. Lawas of Wishury.
  Leigh & Dal. on Conv. Leigh & Dalzell on Conversion of Property.
  Leigh's R. Leigh's Reports.
  Leigh's N.P. Leigh's Nisi Prius.
  Leo. or Leon. Leonard's Reports.
  Lev. Levinz' Reports.
  Lev. Ent. Levinz's Entries.
  Lew. C. C. Lewin's Crown Cases.
  Lew. Cr. Law. An Abridgment of the Criminal Law of the United States, by
    Ellis Lewis.
  Lew. on Tr. Lewin on Trusts.
  Lew. on Perp. Lewin on the Law of Perpetuities.
  Lex Man. Lex maneriorum.
  Lex Mer. Lex Mercatoria.
  Lex Mer. Am. Lex Mercatoria Americana.
  Lex Parl. Lex Parliamentaria.
  Ley. Ley's Reports.
  Lib. Liber, book.
  Libb. Ass. Liber Assisarum.
  Lib. Ent. Old Book of Entries.
  Lib. Feud. Liber Feudorum.
  Lib. Intr. Liber Intrationum; or Old Book of Entries.
  Lib. Nig. Liber Niger.
  Lib. Pl. Liber Placitandi.
  Lib. Reg. Register Books.
  Lib. Rub. LIber Ruber.
  Lib. Ten. Liberum Tenementum.
  Lid. Jud. Adv. Liddel's Detail of the Duties of a Deputy Judge Advocate.
  Lill. Entr. Lilly's Entries.
  Lill. Reg. Lilly's Register.
  Lill. Rep. Lilly's Reports.
  Lill. Conv. Lilly's conveyancer.
  Lind. Lindewooode's Provinciale; or Provincial Constitutions of England,
    with the Legantine Constitutions of Otho and Othobond.
  Litt. S. Littleton, section.
  Litt. R. Littell's Reports.
  Litt. Littleton's Reports.
  Litt. Sel. Cas. Littell's Select Cases.
  Litt. Ten. Littleton's Tenures.
  Liv. Livre, book.
  Liv. on Ag. Livermore on the Law of Principal and Agent.
  Liv. Syst. Livingston's System of Penal Law for the State of Louisiana.
    This work is sometimes cited Livingston's Report on the Plan of a Penal
    Code.
  Liverm. Diss. Livermore's dissertations on the Contrariety of Laws.
  Llo.& Go. Lloyd & Goold's Reports.
  Llo.& Go. t. Sudg. Lloyd & Goold's Reports, during the time of Sugden.
  Llo.& Go. t. Plunk. Lloyd & Goold during the time of Plunkett.
  Llo.& Welsh. Lloyd & Welshy's Reports of Cases relating to Commerce,
    Manufactures, &c., determined in the Courts of Common Law.
  Loc. cit. Loco citato, the place cited.
  Log. Comp. Compendium of the Law of England, Scotland, and Ancient Rome, by
    James Logan.
  Lofft. Lofft's Reports.
  Lois des Batim. Lois des Batimens.
  Lom. Dig. Lomax's Digest of the Law of Real Property in the United States.
  Lom. Ex. Lomax on Executors.
  Long. Quint. Year Book, part 10 Vide Year Book.
  Louis Code. Civil Code of Louisiana.
  Louis. R. Louisiana Reports.
  Lovel. on Wills. Lovelass on Wills.
  Lown. Leg. Lowndes on the Law of Legacies.
  Lube, Pl. Eq. An Analysis of the Principles of Equity Pleading, by D. G.
    Lube.
  Luder's elec. Cas. Luder's Election Cases.
  Luml. Ann. Lumley on Annuities.
  Luml Parl. Pr. Lumley's Parliamentary Practice.
  Luml on Settl. Lumley on Settlements and Removal.
  Lut. Ent. Lutwyche's entries.
  Lutw. Lutwyches' Reports.
  ---------------------------------------
  M. Michaelmas Term.
  M. Maxim, or Maxims.
  M. Mary; as 4 Mary st.3, c.1.
  M.& A. Montagu & Ayrton's Reports of Cases of Bankruptcy.
  M.& B. Montagu and Bligh's Cases in Bankruptcy.
  M.& C. Mylne & Craig's Reports.
  M.& C. Montagu & Chittys' Reports.
  M.& G. Manning & Granger's Reports.
  M.& G. Maddock & Geldart's Reports.
  M.G.& S. Manning, Granger & Scott's Reports.
  M.& K. Mylne & Keen's chancery Reports.
  M.& M. or Mo.& Malk. Rep. Moody & Malkin's Nisi Prius Reports.
  M. P. Exch. Modern Practice Exchequer.
  M.& P. Moore & Payne's Reports.
  M.R. Master of the Rolls.
  M. R. Martin's Reports of the Supreme Court of the State of Louisiana.
  M.& R. Manning & Ryland's Reports.
  M.& S. Moore & Scott's Reports.
  M.& S. Maule & Selwyn's Reports.
  M.& Y. or Mart. & Yerg. Martin & Yerger's Reports.
  M.& W. Meeson & Welshy's Reports.
  M. D.& G. Montagu, Daecon & Gex's Reports of Cases in Bankruptcy.
  M'Arth. C. M. M'Arthur on Courts Martial.
  M'Cl & Yo. M'Clelland & Younge's Exchequer Reports.
  M'Clel. E. R. M'Clelland's Exchequer Reports.
  M'Cord's Ch. R.  M'Cord's Chancery Reports.
  M'Cord's R. M'Cord's Reports
  M'Kin. Phil. Ev. M'Kinnon's Philosophy of Evidence.
  M'Naght. C. M. M'Naghton on Courts Martial.
  McLean & Rob. McLean & Robinson's Reports.
  M'Lean R. M'Lean's Reports.
  Macn. on Null. MacNamara on Nullities and Irregularities in the Practice of
    the Law.
  Macnal. Ev. Macnally's Rules of Evidence on Pleas oft he Crown.
  Macph. on Inf. Macpherson on Infants.
  Macq. on H.& W. Macqueen on Husband and Wife.
  Mad. Exch. Madox's History of the Exchequer.
  Mad. Form. Madox's Formulare Anglicanum.
  Madd.& Geld. Maddock's & Geldart's Reports.
  Madd., Madd. R. Maddock's chancery REports.
  Madd. Pr. or Madd. Ch. Maddock's Chancery Practice.
  Mag. Ins. Magens on Insurance.
  Mal. Malyne's Lex Mercatoria.
  Man. Manuscript.
  Man.& Gra. Manning & Granger's Reports.
  Man. Gr.& Sc. Manning, Granger & Scott's Reports.
  Man.& Ry. Manning & Ryland's Reports.
  Manb. on Fines. Manby on Fines.
  Man. Comm. Manning's Commentaries of the Law of Nations.
  Mann. Exch. Pr. Manning's Exchequer Practice.
  Mans. on Dem. Mansel on Demurrers.
  Mans. on Lim. Mansel of the Law of Limitations.
  Manw. Manwood's Forest Laws.
  Mar. Maritime.
  mar. N.C. March's New Cases.
  Mar. R. march's Reports.
  Marg. margin.
  Marr. Adm. Dec. Marriott's Admiralty Decisions.
  Marr. Form. Inst. Marriott's Formulare Instrumentorum; or a Formulary of
    Authentic Instruments, Writs, and Standing orders used in the Court of
    Admiralty of Great Britain, of Prize and Instance.
  Marsh. Marshall's Reports in the Court of Common Pleas.  A. Marsh.
    Marshall's (Kty.) Reports.  J. J. Marsh. J. J. Marshall's Reports.
  Marsh. Ins. Marshall on the Law of Insurance.
  Marsh. Decis. Brockenbrought's Reports of Chief Justice Marshall's
    Decisions.
  Mart. law Nat. Martin's Law of Nations.
  Mart. (N.C.) R. Martin's North Carolina Reports.
  Mart. (Lo.) R. Martin's Louisiana Reports.
  Marv. Leg. Bibl. Marvin's Legal Bibliography.
  Mart.& Yerg. Martin & Yerger's Reports.
  Mart. N. S. Martin's Louisiana Reports, new series.
  Mason R. Mason's Circuit Court Reports.
  Mass. R. Massachusetts Reports.
  Math. on Pres. Mathew on the Doctrine of Presumption and Presumptive
    Evidence.
  Matth. on Prt. Matthews on Portion.
  Matth. on Ex. Matthews on Executors.
  Maugh. Lit. Pr. Maughan on Literary Property.
  Maule & Selw. Maule & Selwyn's Reports.
  Max. Maxims.
  Maxw. L. D. Maxwell's Dictionary of the Law of Bills of Exchange, &c.
  Maxw. on Mar. L. Laxwell's Spirit of the Marine Laws.
  @Mayn. Maynard's Reports. See Year Books in the body of the work. The first
    part of the Y. B. is sometimes so cited.
  Med. Jr. Medical Jurisprudence.
  Mees. & Wels. Meeson & Welshy's Reports.
  Meigs, R. Meigs' Tennessee Reports.
  Mer. R. Merivale's Reports.
  Merch. Dict. Merchant's Dictionary.
  Merl. Quest. Merlin, Questions de Droit.
  Merl. Repert. Merlin, Repertoire.
  Merrif. Law of Att. Merrifield's Law of Attorneys.
  Merrif. on Costs. Merrifield's Law of costs.
  Metc. R. Metcalf's Reports.
  Metc. & Perk. Dig. Digest of the Decisions of the Courts of Common Law and
    Admiralty in the United States. By Theron Metcalf and Jonathan C. Perkins.
  Mich. Michaelmas.
  Mich. Rev. St. Michigan Revised Statutes.
  Miles' R. Miles' Reports.
  Mill. Civ. Law. Miller's civil Law.
  Mill. Ins. Millar's Elements of the Law relating to Insurances. Sometimes
    this work is cited Mill. El.
  Mill. on Eq. Mort. Miller on Equitable Mortgages.
  Minor's Rep. Minor's Alabama Reports, sometimes cited Ala. Rep.
  Mirch. on Adv. Mirehead on Advowsons.
  Mirr. Mirroir des Justices.
  Misso. R. Missouri Reports.
  Mitf. Pl. Mitford's Pleadings in Equity. Also cited Redesd. Pl. Redesdale's
    Pleadings.
  Mo. Sir Francis Moore's Reports in the reign of K. Henry VIII., Q.
    Elizabeth, and K. James.
  Mo. & Malk. Moody & Malkin's Reports.
  Mo. C. C. Moody's Crown Cases.
  Mo. Cas. Moody's Nisi Prius and Crown Cases.
  Mod. or Mod. R. Modern Reports.
  Mod. Cas. Modern Cases.
  Mod. C. L.& E. Modern Cases in Law and Equity. The 8 & 9 Modern Reports are
    sometimes so cited; the 8th cited as the 1st, and the 9th as the 2d.
  Mod. Entr. Modern entries.
  Mod. Int. Modus Intrandi.
  Mol. Molloy, De jure Maritimo.
  Moll. R. Molloy's chancery Reports.
  Monr. R. Monroe's Reports.
  Mont. & Ayrt. Montagu & Ayrton's Reports.
  Mont. B. C. Montagu's Bankrupt Cases.
  Mont. & Bligh. Montagu & Bligh's Cases in Bankruptcy.
  Mont. & Chit. Montagu & Chitty's Reports.
  Mont. on Comp. Montagu on the Law of Composition.
  Mont. B. L. Montagu on the Bankrupt Laws.
  Mont. on Set-off. Montagu on Set-off.
  Mont. Deac. & Gex. Montagu, Deacon & Gex's Reports of Cases in Bankruptcy,
    argued and determined in the Court of Review, and on Appeals to the Lord
    Chancellor.
  Mont. Dig. Montagu's digest of Pleadings in EQuity.
  Mont. Eq. Pl. Montagu's Equity Pleading.
  Mont. & Mac. Montagu & MacArthur's Reports.
  Mont. Sp. of Laws. Montesquieu's Spirit of Laws.
  Montesq. Montesquieu, Esprit des Lois.
  Moo. & Malk. Moody & Malkin's Reports.
  Moo. & Rob. Moody & Robinson's Reports.
  Moore, R. J. B. Moore's Reports of Cases decided in the Court of Common
    Pleas.
  Moore's A. C. Moore's Appeal Cases.
  Moore & Payne. Moore & Payne's Reports of Cases in C. P.
  Moore & Scott. Moore & Scott's Reports of Cases in C. P.
  Mort. on Vend. Morton's law of Vendors and Purchasers of Chattels Personal.
  Mos. Mosely's Reports.
  Mss. Manuscripts; as, Lord Colchester's Mss.
  Much. D.& S. Muchall's Doctor and Student.
  Mun. Municipal.
  Munf. R. Munford's Reports.
  Murph. R. Murphy's Reports.
  My. & Keen. Mylne & Keen's Chancery Reports.
  Myl.& Cr. Mylne & Craig's Reports.
  ---------------------------------------
  N. Number.
  N. or Nov. Novellae: the Novels.
  N. A. Non allocatur.
  N. B. Nulla bona.
  N. Benl. New Benloe.
  N. C. Cas. North Carolina Cases.
  N. C. Law Rep. North Carolina Law Repository.
  N. C. Term R. North Carolina Term Reports. This volume is sometimes cited 2
    Tayl.
  N. Chipm. R. N. Chipman's Reports.
  N. E. I. Non est Inventus.
  N. H. Rep. New Hampshire Reports.
  N. H. & G. Nicholl, Hare & Garrow's Reports.
  N. L. Nelson's edition of Lutwyche's Reports.
  N. L. Non liquet. Vide Ampliation.
  N.& M. Neville & Manning's Reports.
  N.& P. Neville & Perry's Reports.
  N. P. Nisi Prius.
  N.& M'C. Nott & M'Cord's Reports.
  N. R. or New R. New Reports; the new series, or 4 & 5 Bos. & Pull. Reports,
    are usually cited N. R.
  N. S. New Series of the Reports of the Supreme Court of Louisiana.
  N. Y. R. S. New York Revised Statutes.
  Nar. Conv. Nares on Convictions.
  Neal's F.& F. Neal's Feasts and Fasts; an Essay on the Rise, Progress and
    Present State of the Laws relating to Sundays and other Holidays, and
    other days of fasting.
  Nels. Ab. Nelson's Abridgment.
  Nels. Lex Maner. Nelson's Lex Maneriorum.
  Nels. R. Nelson's Reports.
  Nem. con. Nemine contradicente, (q.v.)
  Nem. Dis. nemine dissentiente.
  Nev. & Mann. Neville & Manning's Reports.
  Nev. & Per. Neville & Perry's Reports.
  New Benl. Benloe's Reports. Reports in the Reign of Henry VIII., Edw. VI.,
    Phil. and Mary, and Elizabeth, and other Cases in the times of Charles.
    By William Benloe. See Benl.
  New Rep. New Reports. A continuation of Bosanquet & Puller's Reports. See
    B.& P.
  Newf. Rep. Newfoundland Reports.
  Newl. Contr. Newland's Treatise on Contracts.
  Newl. Ch. Pr. Newland's Chancery Practice.
  Newn. Conv. Newnam on Conveyancing.
  Ni. Pri. Nisi Prius.
  Nich. Adult. Bast. Nicholas on Adulterine Bastardy.
  Nich. Har. & Gar. Nicholl, Hare & Garrow's Reports.
  Nient Cul. Nient Culpable, old French, not guilty.
  Nol. P. L. Nolan's Poor Laws.
  Nol. R. Nolan's Reports of Cases relative to the Duty and Office of Justice
    of the Peace.
  Non Cul. Non culpabilis, not guilty.
  North. Northington's Reports.
  Nott.& M'cord. Nott & M'Cord's reports.
  Nov. Novellae, the Novels.
  Nov. REc. Novisimi Recopilacion de las Leyes de Espana.
  Noy's Max. Nou's Maxims.
  Noy's R. Noy's Reports.
  ---------------------------------------
  O. Benl. Old Benloe.
  O. Bridg. Orlando Bridgman's Reports.
  O. C. Old Code: so is denominated the Civil Code of Louisiana, 1808.
  O. N. B. Old Natura Brevium. Vide Vet. N. B., in the abbreviations, and "Old
    Natura Brevium," in the body of the work.
  O. Ni. These letters, which are an abbreviation for overatur nisis habent
    sufficientem exonerationem, are, according to the practice of the English
    Exchequer, marked upon each head of a Sheriff's account for issues,
    amerciaments and mean profits. 4 Inst. 116.
  Oblig.  Obligations.
  Observ.  Observations.
  Off.  Office.
  Off. Br.  Officina Brevium.
  Off. Ex.  Wentworth's Office of Executors.
  Ohio R.  Ohio Reports.
  Oldn.  Oldnall's Welsh Practice.
  Onsl. N. P.  Onslow's Nisi Prius.
  Ord. Anst.  Ordinance of Amsterdam.
  Ord. Antw.  Ordinance of Antwerp.
  Ord. Bilb.  Ordinance of Bilboa.
  Ord. Ch.  Orders in Chancery.
  Ord. Cla. Lord Clarendon's Orders.
  Ord. Copenh. Ordinance of Copenhagen.
  Ord. Cor. Orders of Court.
  Ord. Flor. Ordinances of Florence.
  Ord. Gen. Ordinance of Genoa.
  Ord. Hamb. Ordinance of Hamburgh.
  Ord. Konigs. Ordinance of Konigsberg.
  Ord. Leg. Ordinances of Leghorn.
  Ord. de la Mar. Ordonnance de la marine, de Louis XIV.
  Ord. Prot. Ordinances of Portugal.
  Ord. Prus. Ordinances of Prussia.
  Ord. Rott. Ordinances of Rotterdam.
  Ord. Swed. Ordinances of Sweden.
  Ord. on Us. Ordinances on the Law of Usury.
  Orfil. Med. Jur. Orfila's Medical Jurisprudence.
  Orig. Original.
  Ought. Oughton's Ordo Judiciorum.
  Overt. R. Overton's Reports.
  Ow. Owen's Reports.
  Owen, Bankr. Owen on Bankruptcy.
  ---------------------------------------
  P. Page or part. Pp. Pages.
  P. Pachalis, Easter term.
  P.C. Pleas of the Crown.
  P.& D. Perry & Davison's Reports.
  P.& K. Perry & Knapp's Election Cases.
  P.& M. PHilip and mary; as, 1 & 2 P.& M. c. 4.
  P.N.P. Peake's Nisi Prius.
  P. P. Propria persona; in his own person.
  Pa. R. Pennsylvania Reports.
  P. R. or P. R. C. P. Practical REgister in the Common Pleas.
  P. Wms. Peere Williams' Reports.
  Paige's R. Paige's Chancery Reports.
  Paine's R. Paine's Reports.
  Pal. Palmer's Reports.
  Pal. AG. Paley on the Law of Principal and Agent.
  Pal. Conv. Paley on Convictions.
  Palm. Pr. Lords. Palmer's Practice in the House of Lords.
  Pand. Pandects. Vide Dig.
  Par. Paragraph; as, 29 Eliz. cap. 5, par. 21.
  Par.& Fonb. M. J. Paris & Fonblanque on Medical Jurisprudence.
  Pardess. Pardessus, Cours de Droit Commercial. In this work
  Pardessus is cited in several ways, namely: Pardes. Dr. Com Part 3, tit. 1,
    c. 2, s. 4, n. 286; or 2 Pardes. n. 286, which is the same reference.
  Park on Dow. Park on Dower.
  Park, Ins. Park on Insurance.
  Park. R. Sir Thomas Parker's Reports of Cases concerning the Revenue, in the
    Exchequer.
  Park. on Ship. Parker on Shipping and Insurance.
  Parl. Hist. Parliamentary History.
  Patch. on Mortg. Patch's Treatise on the Law of Mortgages.
  Paul's Par. Off. Paul's Parish Officer.
  Pay. Mun. Rights. Payne's Municipal Rights.
  Peak. Add. Cas. Peake's Additional Cases.
  Peak. C. N. P. Peake's Cases determined at Nisi Prius, and in the K. B.
  Peake, Ev. Peake on the Law of Evidence.
  Peck. R. Peck's Reports.
  Peck's Tr. Peck's Trial.
  Peckw. E. C. Peckwell's Election Cases.
  Penn. Bl. Pennsylvania Blackstone, by John Read, Esq.
  Penn. law Jo. Pennsylvania Law JOurnal.
  Penn. R. Pennington's Reports. The Pennsylvania Reports are sometimes cited
    Penn. R., but more properly, for the sake of distinction, Penna. R.
  Penn. St. R. Pennsylvania State Reports.
  Penna. Pr. Pennsylvania Practice; also cited Tro. & Hal. Pr., Troubat &
    Haly's Practice.
  Penna. R. Pennsylvania Reports.
  Pennsylv. Pennsylvania Reports.
  Penr. Anal. Penruddocke's Analysis of the Criminal Law.
  Penult. The last but one.
  Per.& Dav. Perry & Davison's Reports.
  Per.& Knapp. Perry & Knapp's Election Cases.
  Perk. Perkins on conveyancing.
  Perk. Prof. B. Perkins' Profitable Book.
  Perpig. on Pat. Perpigna on Patents. The full title of this work is, "The
    French Law and Practice of Patents for Inventions, Improvements, and
    Importations. by A. Perpigna, A.M.L.B., Barrister in the Royal Court of
    Paris, Member of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, &c."  The work
    is well written in the English language.  The author is a French lawyer,
    and has written another work on the same subject in French.
  Pet. Ab. Petersdorff's Abridgment.
  Pet. Adm. Dec. Peters' Admiralty Decisions.
  Pet. on Bail, or Petersd. on Bail. Petersdorff on the Law of Bail.
  Pet. R. Peters' Supreme Court Reports.
  Pet. C. C. R. Peters' Circuit Court Reports.
  Petting. on Jur. Pettingal on Juries.
  Phil. Ev. Phillips' Evidence.
  Phil. Ins. PHillips on Insurance.
  Phil. St. Tr. Phillips' State Trials.
  Phill. Civ. and Can. Laws. Phillimore on the Study of the Civil and Canon
    Law, considered in relation to the state, the church, and the
    universities, and in connexion with the college of advocates.
  Phill. on Dom. Phillimore on the Law of Domicil.
  Phillim. or Phillim E. R. Phillimore' Ecclesiastical Reports.
  Pick. R. Pickering's Reports.
  Pig. Pigot on Recoveries.
  Pike's Rep. Reports of Cases argued and determined in the Supreme Court of
    Law and Equity of the State of Arkansas.  By Albert Pike. These Reports
    are cited Ark. Rep.
  Pitm. Prin. and Sur. Pitman on Principal and Surety.
  Pl. Placitum or plea.
  Pl. or Plow. or Pl. Com. Plowden's Commentaries, or Reports.
  Plff. Plaintiff.
  Platt on Cov. Platt on Law of Covenants.
  Platt on Lea. Platt on Leases.
  Pol. Pollexfen's Reports.
  Poph. Popham's Reports. The cases at the end of Pophams' Reports are cited 2
    Poph.
  Port. R. Porter's Reports.
  Poth. Pothier. The numerous works of Pothier are cited by abbreviating his
    name Poth. and then adding the name of the treatise; the figures generally
    refer to the number, as Poth. Ob. n. 100, which signifies Pothier's
    Treatise on the Law of Obligations, number 100.
  Poth. du Mar. Pothier du Mariage.
  Poth. Vente. Pothier Traite de Vente, & c. His Pandects, in 24 vols. are
    cited Poth. Pand. with the book, title, law, &c.
  Pott's L. D. Pott's Law Dictionary.
  Pow. Powell.
  Pow. Contr. Powell on Contracts.
  Pow. Dev. Powell on Devises.
  Pow. Mortg. Powell on Mortgages.
  Pow. Powers. Powell on Powers.
  Poyn. on M. and D. Poynter on the Law of Marriage and Divorce.
  Pr. Principio. In pr. In principio; in the beginning.
  Pr. Ex. Rep. or Price's E. R. Prices' Exchequer Reports.
  Pr. Reg. Cha. Practical Register in Chancery.
  Pr. St. Private Statute.
  Pr. Stat. Private Statute.
  Pract. Reg. C. P. Practical Register of the Common Pleas.
  Pract. Reg. in Ch. Practical Register in Chancery.
  Prat. on H.& W. Prater on the Law of Husband and Wife.
  Pref. Preface.
  Prel. Preliminaire.
  Prest. Preston.
  Prest. on Est. Preston on Estates.
  Prest. Abs. Tit. Preston's Essay on Abstracts of Title.
  Prest. on Conv. Preston's Treatise on Conveyancing.
  Prest. on Leg. Preston on Legacies.
  Pri. Price's Reports.
  Price's Ex. Rep. Price's Exchequer Reports.
  Price's Gen Pr. Price's General Practice.
  Prin. Principium, the beginning of a title or law.
  Prin. Dec. Printed Decisions.
  Priv. Lond. Customs or Privileges of London.
  Pro. L. Province Laws.
  Pro quer. Pro querentum, for the plaintiff.
  Proct. Pr. Proctor's Practice.
  Puff. Puffendorff's law of nature.
  ---------------------------------------
  Q. Quaestione, in such a Question.
  Q. B. Queen's Bench.
  Q. B. R. Queen's Bench Reports, by Adolphus & Ellis. New series.
  Q.t. Qui tam.
  Qu. Quere.
  Q. Van Weyt. Q. Van Weytsen on Average.
  Q. Warr. Quo Warranto; (q.v.) The letters (q.v.) quod vide, which see, refer
    to the article mentioned immediately before them.
  Qu. Quaestione, in such a Question.
  Quest. Questions.
  Quinti Quinto. Yearbook, 5 Henry V.
  Quon. Attach. Quoniam Attachiamenta. See Dalr. F.L. 47.
  ---------------------------------------
  R. Resolved, ruled, or repealed.
  R. Richard; as, 2 R. 2, c. 1.
  Rich. Rep. Richardson's (S.C.) Reports.
  RC. Rescriptum.
  R.& M. Russell and Milne's Reports.
  R.& M. C. C. Ryan and Moody's Crown Cases.
  R.& M. N. P. Ryan & Moody's Nisi Prius Cases.
  R.& R. Russell & Ryans' Crown Cases.
  R. M. Charlt. R. M. Charlton's Reports.
  RS. Responsum.
  R. S. L. Reading on Statute Law.
  Ram on Judgm. Ram on the Law relating to Legal Judgments
  Rand. Perp. Randall on the Law of Perpetuities.
  Rand. R. Randolph's Reports.
  Rast. Rastall's Entries.
  Rawle's R. Rawle's Reports.
  Rawle, Const. Rawle on the Constitution.
  Ray's Med. Jur. Ray's Medical Jurisprudence on Insanity.
  Raym. or, more usually, Ld. Raym. lrod Raymond's Reports. T. Raym. Sir
    Thomas Raymond's Reports.
  Re. Fa. lo. Recordari facias loquelam. Vide Refalo in the body of the work.
  Rec. Recopilation.
  Rec. Recorder; as, City Hall Rec.
  Redd. on Mar. Com. Reddie's Historical View of the Law of Maritime Commerce.
  Redesd. Pl. Redesdale's Equity Pleading. This work is also and must usually
    cited Mitf. Pl.
  Reeves' H. E. L. Reeves' History of the English Law.
  Reeves on Ship. Reeves on the Law of Shipping and Navigation.
  Reeves on Des. Reeves on Descents.
  Reg. Regula, rule.
  Reg. Register.
  Reg. Brev. Registrum Brevium, or Register of Writs.
  Reg. Gen. Regulae Generales.
  Reg. Jud. Registrum Judiciale.
  Reg. Mag. Regiam Magestatem.
  Reg. Pl. Regula Placitandi.
  Renouard, des Brev. d'Inv. Traite des Brevets d'Invention, de
    Perfectionement, et d'Importation, par Augustin Charles Renouard.
  Rep. The Reports of Lord Coke are frequently cited 1 Rep., 2 Rep., &c. and
    sometimes they are cited Co.
  Rep. Repertoire.
  Rep. Eq. Gilbert's Reports in Equity.
  Rep. Q. A. Reports of Cases during the time of Queen Anne.
  Rep. T. Finch. Reports tempore Finch.
  Rep. T. Hard. Reports during the time of Lord Hardwicke.
  Rep. T. Holt. Reports tempore Holt.
  Rep. T. Talb. Reports of Cases decided during the time of Lord Talbot.
  Res. Resolution. The cases reported in Coke's Reports, are divided into
    resolutions on the different points of the case, and are cited 1 Res. &c.
  Ret. Brev. Retorna Brevium.
  Rev. St. or REv. Stat. REvised Statutes.
  Rey, des Inst. de l'Anglet. Des Institutions Judiciaries de l'Angleterre
    comparees avec celles de la France. Par Joseph Rey.
  Reyn. Inst. Institutions du Droit des Gens, &c. par Gerard de Reyneval.
  Ric. Richard; as, 12 Ric. 2, c. 15.
  Rice's Rep. Reports of Cases in Chancery argued and determined in the Court
    of Appeals and Court of Error of South Carolina.  By William Rice, State
    Reporter.
  Rich. Pr. C. P. Richardson's Practice in the Common Pleas.
  Rich. Pr. K. B. Richardson's Practice in the King's Bench.
  Rich Eq. R. Richardson's Equity Reports.
  Rich. on Wills. Richardson on Wills.
  Ridg. Irish. T. R. Ridgeway, Lapp & Schoales' Term Reports in the K.B.,
    Dublin.  Sometimes this is cited Ridg. L.& S.
  Ridg. P. C. Ridgeway's Cases in Parliament.
  Ridg. Rep. Ridgeway's Reports of Cases in K. B. and Chancery.
  Ridg. St. Tr. Ridgeway's Reports of State Trials in Ireland.
  Ril. Ch. Cas. Riley's chancery Cases.
  Rob. Adm. REp. Robinson's Admiralty Reports.
  Rob. Cas. Robertson's Cases in Parliament, from Scotland.
  Rob. Dig. Robert's Digest of the English Statutes in force in Pennsylvania.
  Rob. Entr. Robinson's Entries.
  Rob. on Fr. Roberts on Frauds.
  Rob. on Fraud. Conv. Roberts on Fraudulent Conveyances.
  Rob. on Gavelk. Robinson on Gavelkind.
  Rob. Lo. Rep. Robinson's Louisiana Reports.
  Rob. Just. Robinson's Justice of the Peace.
  Rob. Pr. Robinson's Practice in Suits at Law, in Virginia.
  Rob. V. Rep. Robinson's (Virginia) Reports.
  Rob. on Wills. Robert's Treatise on the Law of Wills and Codicils.
  Roc. Ins. Roccus on Insurance. Vide Ing. Roc.
  Rog. Eccl. Law. Rogers' Ecclesiastical law.
  Rog. Rec. Roger's City Hall Recorder.
  Roll. Rolle's Abridgment.
  Roll. R. Rolle's Reports.
  Rom. Cr. Law. Romilly's Observations on the Criminal Law of England, as it
    relates to capital punishment.
  Rop. on H.& W. A Treatise on the Law of Property, arising from the relation
    between Husband and Wife. By R. S. Donnison Roper.
  Rop. Leg. Roper on Legacies.
  Rop. on Revoc. Roper on Revocations.
  Rosc. Roscoe.
  Rosc. on Act. Roscoe on Actions relating to Real Property.
  Rosc. Civ. Ev. Roscoe's Digest of the Law of Evidence on the Trial of
    Actions at Nisi Prius.
  Rosc. Cr. Ev. Roscoe on Criminal Evidence.
  Rosc. on Bills. Roscoe's Treatise on the Law relating to Bills of Exchange,
    Promissory Notes, Banker's Checks, &c.
  Rose's R. Rose's Reports of Cases in Bankruptcy.
  Ross on V.& P. Ross on the Law of Vendors and Purchasers.
  Rot. Parl. Rotulae Parliamentariae.
  Rowe's Sci. Jur. Rowe's Scintilla Juris.
  Rub. or Rubr. Rubric, (q.v.)
  Ruffh. Ruffhead's Statutes at Large.
  Runn. Ej. Runnington on Ejectments.
  Runn. Stat. Runnington's Statutes at Large.
  Rus.& Myl. Russell & Mylne's Chancery Reports.
  Rush. Rushworth's Collections.
  Russ. Cr. Russell on Crimes and Misdemeanors.
  Rus.& Myl. Russell & Mylne's Reports of Cases in Chancery.
  Russ. on Fact. Russell on the Laws relating to Factors and Brokers.
  Russ. R. Russell's Reports of Cases in Chancery.
  Russ.& Ry. Russell & Ryan's Crown Cases.
  Rutherf. Inst. Rutherford's Institutes of Natural Law.
  Ry. F. Rymer's Foedera.
  Ry.& Mo. Ryan & Moody's Nisi Prius Reports.
  Ry.& Mo. C. C. Ryan & Moody's Crown Cases.
  Ry. MEd. Jur. Ryan on Medical Jurisprudence.
  ---------------------------------------
  S. , section.
  S. B. Upper Bench.
  S.& B. Smith & Batty's Reports.
  S. C. Same Case.
  S. C. C. Select Cases in Chancery.
  S. C. Rep. South Carolina Reports.
  S.& L. Schoales & Lefroy's Reports.
  S.& M. Shaw & Maclean's Reports.
  S.& M. Ch. R. Smedes & Marshall's Reports of Cases decided by the Superior
    Court of Chancery of Mississippi.
  S.& M. Err. & App. Smedes & Marshall's Reports of Cases in the High Court of
    Errors and Appeals of Mississippi.
  S. P. Same Point.
  S.& R. Sergeant & Rawle's Reports.
  S.& S. Sausse & Scully's Reports.
  S.& S. Simon & Stuart's Chancery Reports.
  Sa.& Scul. Sausse & Scully's Reports.
  Sandl. St. Pap. Sandler's State Papers.
  Salk. Salkeld's Reports.
  Sandf. Rep. Reports of Cases argued and determined in the Court of Chancery
    of the State of New York, before the Hon. Lewis H. Sandford, Assistant
    vice Chancellor of the First Circuit.
  Sand. U.& T. Sanders on Uses and  Trusts.
  Sanf. on Ent. Sanford on Entails.
  Sant. de Assoc. Santerna, de Asecurationibus.
  Saund. Saunders' Reports.
  Saund. Pl. & ev. Saunders' Treatise on the Law of Pleading and Evidence.
  Sav. Saville's Reports.
  Sav. Dr. Rom. Savigny, Droit Romain.
  Sav. Dr. Rom. M. A. Savigny, Droit Romain au Moyen Age.
  Sav. Hist. Rom. Law. Savigny's History of the Roman Law during the Middle
    Ages.  Translated from the German of Carl Von Savigny, by E. Cathcart.
  Say. Costs. Sayer's Law of Costs.
  Say. Sayer's Reports.
  SC. Senatus consultum.
  Scad. de Cam. Scaddia de Cambiis.
  Scam. Rep. Scammon's Reports of Cases argued and determined in the Supreme
    Court of Illinois.
  Scan. Mag. Scandalum Magnatum.
  Sch.& Lef. Schoales & Lefroy's Reports.
  Scheiff. Pr. Scheiffer's Practice.
  Schul. Aq. R. Schultes on Aquatic Rights.
  Sci. Fa. Scire Facias.
  Sci. fa. ad. dis. deb. Scire facias ad disprobandum debitum, (q.v.)
  Scil. Scilicet, i.e. scire licet, that is to say.
  Sco. N.R. Scott's new Reports.
  Scott's R. Scott's Reports.
  Scriv. Copyh. Scriven's Copyholds.
  Seat. F. Ch. Seaton's Forms in Chancery.
  Sec. Section.
  Sec. Leg. Secundum legem; according to law.
  Sec. Reg. Secundum regulam; according to rule.
  Sedgw. on Dam. Sedgwick on Damages.
  Sel. Ca. Chan. Select Cases in Chancery. Vide S. C. C.
  Seld. mar. Cla. Selden's Mare Clausum.
  Self. Tr. Selfridge's Trial.
  Sell. Pr. Sellon's Practice in K. B. and C. P.
  Selw. N. P. Selwyn's Nisi Prius.
  Selw. R. Selwyn's Reports. These Reports are usually cited M.& S. Maule &
    Selwyn's Reports.
  Sem. or Semb. Semble, it seems.
  Sen. Senate.
  Seq. Sequentia.
  Serg. on Att. Sergeant on the Law of Attachment.
  Serg. Const. Law. Sergeant on constitutional Law.
  Serg. on Land L. Sergeant on the Land Laws of Pennsylvania.
  Serg.& Loub. Sergeant & Louber's edition of the English Common Law Reports;
    more usually cited Eng. Com. Law Rep.
  Serg.& Rawle. or S.R. Reports of Cases adjudged in the Supreme Court of
    Pennsylvania. By Thomas Sergeant and William Rawle, Jun.
  Sess. Ca. Sessions Cases in K. B., chiefly touching Settlements.
  Set. on Dec. Seton on Decrees.
  Shaw & Macl. Shaw & Maclean's Reports.
  Shelf. Lun. Shelford on Lunacy.
  Shelf. on Mort. Shelford on the Law of Mortmain.
  Shelf. on Railw. Shelford on Railways.
  Shelf. on R. Pr. Shelford on Real Property.
  Shep. To. Sheppard's Touchstone.
  Shepl. R. Shepley's Reports.
  Sher. Sheriff.
  Show. P. C. Shower's Parliamentary Cases.
  Show. R. Shower's Reports in the Court of King's Bench.
  Shub. Jur. Lit. Shuback de Jure Littoris.
  Sid. Siderfin's Reports.
  Sim. Simon's Chancery Reports. In Con. C.R.
  Sim.& Stu. Simon & Stuart's Chancery Reports.
  Skene, Ver. Sign. Skene de Verborum Significatione; an explanation of terms,
    difficult words, &c.
  Skin. Skinner's Reports.
  Skirr. Und. Sher. Skirrow's Complete Practical Under Sheriff.
  Slade's Rep. Slade's Reports. More usually cited Vermont Reports.
  Smed & Marsh. Ch. R. Smedes & Marshall's Reports of Cases decided by the
    High Court of Errors and Appeals of Mississippi.
  Smith & Batty. Smith & Batty's Reports.
  Smith's Ch. Pr. Smith's Chancery Practice.
  Smith's For. Med. Smith's Forensic Medicine.
  Smith's Hints. Smith's Hints for the Examination of Medical Witnesses.
  Smith on M. L. Smith on Mercantile Law.
  Sm. on Pat. Smith on the Law of Patents.
  Smith's R. Smith's Reports in K. B., together with Cases in the Court of
    Chancery.
  Sol. Solutio, the answer to an objection.
  South. Car. R. South Carolina Reports.
  South. R. Southard's Reports.
  Sp. of Laws. Spirit of Laws, by Montesquieu.
  Spelm. Feuds. Spelman on Feuds.
  Spel. Gl. Spelman's Glossary.
  Spence on Eq. Jur. of Ch. Spence on the Equitable Jurisdiction of Chancery.
  Spenc. R. Spencer's Reports.
  Speers' Eq. Cas. Equity Cases argued and determined in the Court of Appeals
    of South Carolina. By R. H. Speers.
  Speers' Rep. Speers' Reports.
  Ss. usually put in small letters, ss. Scilicet, that is to say.
  St. or Stat. Statute.
  St. Armand. Hist. Ess. St. Armand's Historical Essay on the Legislative
    Power of England.
  Stant. R. Stanton's Reports.
  Stath. Ab. Statham's Abridgment.
  St. Cas. Stillingfleet's Cases.
  St. Tr. State Trials.
  Stair's Inst. Stair's Inst. Stair's Institutions of the Law of Scotland.
  Stallm. on Elec. & Sat. Stallman on Election and Satisfaction.
  Stark. Starkie's Ev. Starkie on the Law of Evidence.
  Stark. Cr. Pl. Starkie's Criminal Pleadings.
  Stark. R. Starkie's Reports.
  Stark. on Sl. Starkie on Slander and Libel.
  Stat. Statutes.
  Stat. Wes. Statute of Westminster.
  Staunf or Staunf. P. C. Staunford's Pleas of the Crown.
  Stearn. on R. A. Stearne on Real Actions.
  Steph. Comm. Stephen's New Commentaries on the Law of England.
  Steph. Cr. Law. Stephen on Criminal Law.
  Steph. Pl. Stephen on Pleading.
  Steph. Proc. Stephen on Procurations.
  Steph. on Slav. Stephens on Slavery.
  Stev. on Av. Stevens on Average.
  Stev.& B. on Av. Stevens & Beneke on Average.
  Stew. Adm. Rep. Stewart's Reports of Cases argued and determined in the
    Court of Vice Admiralty at Halifax.
  Stew. R. Stewart's Reports.
  Stew.& Port's. Stewart & Porter's Reports.
  Story on Bail. Story's Commentaries on the Law of Bailments.
  Story on Const. Story on the Constitution of the United States.
  Story on Eq. Story's Commentaries on Equity Jurisprudence.
  Story's L. U. S. Story's edition of the Laws of the United States, in 3
    vols.  The 4th and 5th volumes are a continuation of the same work by
    George Sharswood, Esq.
  Story on Partn. Story on Partnership.
  Story on Pl. Story on Pleading.
  Story, R. Story's Reports.
  Str. Strange's Reports.
  Stracc. de Mer. Straccha de Mercatura, Navibus Assecurationibus.
  Strah. Dom. Straham's Translation of Domat's Civil Law.
  Strob. R. Strobhart's Reports.
  Stroud's Dig. Stroud's Digest of the Laws of Pennsylvania.
  Stuart's (L.C.) R. Reports of Cases in the Court of King's bench in the
    Provincial Court of Appeals of Lower Canada, and Appeals before the Lords
    of the Privy Council. By George O'Kill Stuart, Esq.
  Sty. Style's Reports.
  Sugd. Lett. Sugden's Letters.
  Sugd., Sugd. Pow. Sugden on Powers.
  Sugd. Vend. Sugden on Vendors.
  Sull. Lect. Sullivan's Lectures on the Feudal Law, and the Constitution and
    Laws of England.
  Sull. on Land Tit. Sullivan's History of Land Titles in Massachusetts.
  Sum. Summa, the Summary of a law.
  Sumn. R. Sumner's Circuit Court Reports.
  Supers. Supersedeas.
  Supp. Supplement.
  Supp. to Ves. Jr. Supplement to Vesey Junior's Reports.
  Swan on Eccl. Cts. Swan on the Jurisdiction of Ecclesiastical Courts.
  Swanst. Swanston's Reports.
  Sweet on Wills. Sweet's Popular Treatise on Wills.
  Swift's Dig. Swift's Digest of the Laws of Connecticut.
  Swift's Ev. Swift's Evidence.
  Swift's Sys. Swift's System of the Laws of Connecticut.
  Swinb. Swinburn on the Law of Wills and testaments. This work is generally
    cited by reference to the part, book, chapter, &c.
  Swinb. on Desc. Swinburne on the Law of Descents.
  Swinb. on Mar. Swinburne on Marriage.
  Swinb. on Spo. Swinburne on Spousals.
  Sw. Swinburne on Wills.
  Syst. Plead. System of Pleading.
  ---------------------------------------
  T. Title.
  T.& G. Tyrwhitt & Granger's Reports.
  T.& P. Turner & PHillips' Reports.
  T. Jo. Sir Thomas Jones' Reports.
  T. L. Termes de la Ley, or Terms of the Law.
  T. R. Term Reports. Ridgeway's Reports are sometimes cited Irish Tr.
  T. R. Teste Rege.
  T.& R. Turner & Russell's Chancery Reports.
  T.& R. Turner & Russell's Reports.
  T. R. E. or T. E. R. Tempore Regis Edwardi. This abbreviation is frequently
    used in Domesday Book, and in the more ancient Law writers.  See Tyrrel's
    Hist. Eng., introd. viii. p. 49.  See also Co. Inst. 86, a,where in a
    quotation from Domesday Book, this abbreviation is interpreted Terra Regis
    Edwardi; but in Cowell's Dict. verb. Reveland, it is said to be wrong.
  T. Raym. Sir Thomas Raymond's Reports.
  T. U. P. Charlt. T. U. P. Charlton's Reports.
  Tait on Ev. Tait on Evidence.
  Taml. on Ev. Tamlyn on Evidence, principally with reference to the Practice
    of the Court of Chancery, and in the Master's office.
  Taml. R. Tamlyn's Reports of Cases decided in Chancery.
  Taml. T. Y. Tamlyn on Terms for Years.
  Tapia. Jur. Mer. Tratade de Jurisprudentia Mercantil.
  Taunt. Taunto's Reports. Tayl. on Ev. Taylor on Evidence.
  Tayl Cir. L. Taylor's Civil Law.
  Tayl. Law glo. Taylor's Law Glossary.
  Tayl. L.&T. Taylor's Treatise on the American Law of Landlord and
    Tenant.
  Tech. Dict. Crabb's Technological Dictionary.
  Thach. Crim. Cas. Thacher's Criminal Cases.
  Th. Br. Thesaurus brevium.
  Th. Dig. Theloall's Digest.
  Theo. of Pres. Pro. Theory of Presumptive Proof.
  Theo. Pres. Pro. Theory of Presumptive Proof, or an Inquiry into the Nature
    of Circumstantial Evidence.
  Tho. Co. Litt. Coke upon Littleton' newly arranged on the plan of Sir
    Matthew Hale's Analysis. By J. H. Thomas, Esq.
  Thomp. on Bills. Thompson on Bills.
  Tho. U. J. Thomas on Universal Jurisprudence.
  Tidd's Pr. Tidd's Practice.
  tit. Title.
  Toll. Ex. Toller's Executors.
  Toml. L. D. Tomlin's Law dictionary.
  Toth. Tothill's reports.
  Touchs. Sheppard's Touchstone.
  Toull. Le Droit civil Francais suivant Pordre du Code; ouvrage dans lequel
    on a tache de reunir la eorie a la practique. Par M. C. B. M. Toullier.
    This work is sometimes cited Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. liv. 3, t. 2, c. 1, n. 6;
    at other times, 3 Toull. n. 86, which latter signifies vol. 3 of
    Toullier's work, No. 86.
  Tr. Eq. Treatise of Equity; the same as Fonblanque on Equity.
  Traill, Med. Jur. Outlines of a Course of Lectures on Medical Jurisprudence.
  
    By Thomas Stewart Traill, M.D.
  Treb. Jur. de la Med. Jurisprudence de la Medecine, de la Chirurgie, et de
    la Pharmacie. Par Adolphe Trebuchet.
  Trem. Tremaine's Pleas of the Crown.
  Tri. of 7 Bish. Trial of the Seven Bishops.
  Tri. per Pais. Trials per Pais.
  Trin. Trinity Term.
  Tuck. Bl. Com. Blackstone's Commentaries, edited by Judge Tucker.
  Turn. R. Turner's Reports of Cases determined in Chancery.
  Turn.& Russ. Turner & Russell's Chancery Reports.
  Tuck. Com. Tucker's Commentaries.
  Turn.& Phil Turner & PHillips' Reports.
  Tyl. R. Tyler's Reports.
  Tyrw. Tyrwhitt's Exchequer Reports.
  Tyrw.& Gra. Tyrwhitt & Granger's Reports.
  Tyt. Mil. Law. Tytler's Essay on Military Law and the Practice of Military
    Courts Martial.
  ---------------------------------------
  U.S. United States of America.
  U.S. Dig. United States Digest. See Metc.& Perk. Dig.
  Ult. Ultimo, ultima, last, usually applied to last title, paragraph or law.
  Umfrev. Off of Cor. Umfreville's Office of Coroner.
  Under Sher. Under Sheriff, containing the office and duty of High Sheriff,
    Under Sheriffs and Bailiffs.
  Ux. et. Et uxor, et uxorem, and wife.
  ---------------------------------------
  V. Versus, against; as AB. v. CD.
  V. Versiculo, in such a verse.
  V. Vide, see.
  V. or v. Voce; as Spelm Gloss. v. Cancelarious.
  V.& B. Vesey & Beames' Reports.
  V. C. Vice Chancellor.
  Vac. Voce, or Vocem.
  V.& S. Vernon & Scriven's Reports.
  Val. Com. Valin's Commentaries.
  Van. Heyth. Mar. Ev. Van Heythuysen's Essay upon marine Evidence, in Courts
    of Law and Equity.
  Vand. Jud. Pr. Vanderlinden's Judicial Practice.
  Vat. or Vattel. Battle's Law of Nations.
  Vaug. Vaughan's Reports.
  Vend. Ex. Venditioni Exponas.
  Ventr. Ventris' Reports.
  Verm. R. Vermont Judges' Reports.
  Vern. Vernon's Reports.
  Vern.& Scriv. Vernon & Scriven's Reports of Cases in the King's Courts,
    Dublin.
  Verpl. Contr. Verplanck on Contracts.
  Verpl. Ev. Verplanck on Evidence.
  Ves. Vesey Senior's Reports.
  Ves. Jr. Vesey Junior's Reports.
  Ves.& Bea. Vesey & Beames' Reports.
  Vet. N. B. Old Natura Brevium.
  Vid. Vidian's Entries.
  Vin. Ab. Viner's Abridgment.
  Vin. Supp. Supplement to Viner's Abridgment.
  Vinn. Vinnius.
  Viz. Videlicet, that is to say.
  Vs. Versus.
  ---------------------------------------
  W. 1, W. 2. Statutes of Westminster, 1 and2.
  W. C. C. R. Washington's Circuit Court Reports.
  W.& C. Wilson & Courtenay's Reports.
  W. Jo. Sir William Jones' Reports.
  W. Kel. William Kelynge's Reports.
  W.& M. William and Mary.
  W.& M. Rep. Woodbury & Minot's Reports.
  W.& S. Wilson & Shaw's Reports of Cases decided in the House of Lords.
  Walf. on Part. Walford's Treatise on the Law respecting Parties to Actions.
  Walk. Ch. Ca. Walker's Chancery Cases.
  Walk. Am. R. or Walk. Introd. Walker's Introduction to American Law.
  Walk. R. Walker's Reports.
  Wall. R. Wallace's Circuit Court Reports.
  Ward, on Leg. Ward on Legacies.
  Ware's R. Reports of Cases argued and determined in the District Court of
    the United States, for the District of Maine.
  Warr. L. S. Warren's Law Studies.
  Wash. C. C. Washington's Circuit Court Reports.
  Washb. R. Washburn's Vermont Reports.
  Wat. Cop. Watkin's Copyhold.
  Watk. Conv. Watking's Principles of conveyancing.
  Wats. Cler. Law. Watson's Clergyman's Law.
  Wats. on Arb. Watson on the Law of Arbitrations and Awards.
  Wats. on Partn. Watson on the Law of Partnership.
  Wats. on Sher. Watson on the Law relating to the office and duty of Sheriff.
  Watt's R. Watt's Reports.
  Watts & Serg. Watts & Sergeant's Reports.
  Welf. on Eq. Plead. Welford on Equity Pleading.
  Wellw. Ab. Wellwood's Abridgment of Sea Laws.
  Wend. R. Wendell's Reports.
  Wentw. Wentworth.
  Wentw. Off. Ex. Wentworth's Office of Executor.
  Wentw. Pl. Wentworth's System of Pleading.
  Wesk. Ins. Weskett on the Law of Insurance.
  West's Parl. Rep. West's parliamentary Reports.
  West's Rep. West's Reports of Lord Chancellor Hardwicke.
  West's Symb. West's Symboliography, or a description of instruments and
    precedents, 2 parts.
  Westm. Westminister;
  Westm. I. Westminister primer.
  Weyt. on Av. Quintin Van Weytsen on Average.
  Whart. Cr. Law. Wharton on the Criminal Law of the United States.
  Whart. Dig. Wharton's Digest.
  Whart. Law Lex. Wharton's Law Lexicon, or Dictionary of Jurisprudence.
  Whart. R. Wharton's Reports.
  Wheat. Wheaton.
  Wheat. R. Wheatons' Reports.
  Wheat. on Capt. Wheaton's Digest of the Law of Maritime Captures and Prizes.
  Wheat. Hist. of L. of N. Wheaton's History of the Law of Nations in Europe
    and America.
  Wheel. Ab. Wheeler's Abridgments.
  Wheel Cr. Cas. Wheeler's Criminal Cases.
  Wheel on Slav. Wheeler on Slavery.
  Whish. L. D. Whishaw's Law Dictionary.
  Whit. on Liens. Whitaker on the Law of Liens.
  Whit. on Trans. Whitaker on Stoppage in Transitu.
  White's New Coll. A New Collections of the Laws, Charters, and Local
    Ordinances of the Governments of Great Britain, France, Spain, &c.
  Whitm. B. L. Whitmarsh's Bankrupt Law.
  Wicq. L'Ambassadeur et ses fonctions, par de Wicquefort.
  Wightw. Wightwich's Reports in the Exchequer.
  Wigr. on Disc. Wigram on Discovery.
  Wilc. on Mun. Cor. Wilcock on Municipal Corporations.
  Wilc. R. Wilcox's Reports.
  Wilk Leg. Ang. Sax. Wilkin's leges Anglo-Saxionicae.
  Wilk. on Lim. Wilkinson on Limitations.
  Wilk on Publ. Funds. Wilkinson on the Law relating to the Public Funds,
    including the Practice of Distringas, &c.
  Wilk. on Repl. Wilkinson on the Law of Replevin.
  Will. Auct. Williams on the Law of Auctions.
  Will. on Eq. Pl. Willis' Treatise on Equity Pleadings.
  Will. on Inter. Willis on Interrogatories.
  Will. L. D. Williams' Law Dictionary.
  Will. Per. Pr. Williams' Principles of the Law of Personal Property.
  Will. (P.) Rep. Peere Williams' Reports.
  Willc. Off. of Const. Willcock on the Office of Constable.
  Willes' R. Willes' Reports.
  Wills on Cir. Ev. Wills on Circumstantial Evidence.
  Wils. on uses. Wilson on Springing Uses.
  Wilm on Mortg. Wilmot on Mortgages.
  Wilm. Judg. Wilmot's NOtes of Opinions and Judgments.
  Wils. on Arb. Wilson on Arbitration.
  Wils. Ch. R. Wilson's Chancery Reports.
  Wils.& Co. Wilson & courtenay's Reports.
  Wils. Ex. R. Wilson's Exchequer Reports.
  Wils.& Sh. Wilson & Shaw's Reports decided by the House of Lords.
  Wils. R. Wilson's Reports.
  Win. Winch's Entries.
  Win. R. Winch's Reports.
  Wing. Max. Wingate's MAxims.
  Wins. Just. Williams' Justice.
  Wms. R., more usually, P. Wms. Peere Williams' Reports.
  Wolff. Inst. Wolffius Institutiones Juris Naturae.
  Wood's Inst., or Wood's Inst. Com.. L. Wood's Institutes of the Common Law
    of England.
  Wood's Inst. Civ. Law. Wood's Institutes of the Civil Law.
  Wood & Min. Rep. Woodbury and Minot's Reports.
  Woodes. Wooddesson.
  Woodes. El Jur. Woodesson's Elements of Jurisprudence.
  Woodes. Lect. Wooddesson's Vinerian Lectures.
  Woodf. L. and T. Woodfall on the Law of Landlord and Tenant.
  Woodm. R. Woodman's Reports of Criminal Cases tried in the Municipal Court
    of the City of Boston.
  Wool. Com. L. Woolrych's commercial Law.
  Wool. L. W. Woolrych's law of Waters.
  Woolr. on Com. Law. Woolrych's Treatise on the Commercial and Mercantile Law
    of England.
  Wool. on Ways. Woolrych on Ways.
  Worth. on Jur. Worthington's Inquiry into the Power of Juries to decide
    incidentally on Questions of Law.
  Worth. Pre. Wills. Worthington's General Precedents for Wills, with practical
  
    notes.
  Wright's R. Wright's Reports.
  Wright, Fr. Soc. Wright on Friendly Societies.
  Wright, Ten. Sir Martin Wright's Law of Tenures.
  Wy. Pr. Reg. Wyatt's Practical REgister.
  ---------------------------------------
  X. The decretals of Gregory the ninth are denoted by the letter X, thus, X.
  ---------------------------------------
  Y. B. Year Books, (q.v.)
  Y.& C. Younge & Collyer's Exchequer Reports.
  Y.& C. N. C. Younge & Collyer's New Cases.
  Y.& J. Younge & Jervis' Exchequer Reports.
  Yeates, R. Yeates' Reports.
  Yearb. Year Book.
  Yelv. Yelverton's Reports.
  Yerg. R. Yerger's Reports.
  Yo.& Col. Younge & Collyer's Exchequer Reports.
  Yo.& Col. N. C. Younge and Collyer's New Cases.
  Yo. Rep. Younge's Reports.
  Yo.& Jer. Younge & Jervis' Reports.
  ---------------------------------------
  Zouch's Adm. Zouch's Jurisdiction of the Admiralty of England, asserted.
  
  

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Abbreviations
  
   	                                                          
           ABEDA                         Arab Bank for Economic       
                                         Development in Africa        
           ACC                           Arab Cooperation Council     
           ACCT                          Agency for the French-       
                                         Speaking Community           
           ACP Group                     African, Caribbean, and      
                                         Pacific Group of States      
           AfDB                          African Development Bank     
           AFESD                         Arab Fund for Economic and   
                                         Social Development           
           Air Pollution                 Convention on Long-Range     
                                         Transboundary Air Pollution  
           Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides Protocol to the 1979         
                                         Convention on Long-Range     
                                         Transboundary Air Pollution  
                                         Concerning the Control of    
                                         Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides 
                                         or Control of Emissions of   
                                         Nitrogen Oxides or Their     
                                         Transboundary Fluxes         
           Air Pollution-Persistent      Protocol to the 1979         
           Organic Pollutants            Convention on Long-Range     
                                         Transboundary Air Pollution  
                                         on Persistent Organic        
                                         Pollutants                   
           Air Pollution-Sulphur 85      Protocol to the 1979         
                                         Convention on Long-Range     
                                         Transboundary Air Pollution  
                                         on the Reduction of Sulphur  
                                         Emissions or Their           
                                         Transboundary Fluxes by at   
                                         Least 30%                    
           Air Pollution-Sulphur 94      Protocol to the 1979         
                                         Convention on Long-Range     
                                         Transboundary Air Pollution  
                                         on Further Reduction of      
                                         Sulphur Emissions            
           Air Pollution-Volatile        Protocol to the 1979         
           Organic Compounds             Convention on Long-Range     
                                         Transboundary Air Pollution  
                                         Concerning the Control of    
                                         Emissions of Volatile Organic
                                         Compounds or Their           
                                         Transboundary Fluxes         
           AL                            Arab League                  
           AMF                           Arab Monetary Fund           
           AMU                           Arab Maghreb Union           
           Antarctic-Environmental       Protocol on Environmental    
           Protocol                      Protection to the Antarctic  
                                         Treaty                       
           ANZUS                         Australia-New Zealand-United 
                                         States Security Treaty       
           APEC                          Asia-Pacific Economic        
                                         Cooperation                  
           Arabsat                       Arab Satellite Communications
                                         Organization                 
           AsDB                          Asian Development Bank       
           ASEAN                         Association of Southeast     
                                         Asian Nations                
           Autodin                       Automatic Digital Network    
           Benelux                       Benelux Economic Union       
           Biodiversity                  Convention on Biological     
                                         Diversity                    
           BIS                           Bank for International       
                                         Settlements                  
           BSEC                          Black Sea Economic           
                                         Cooperation Zone             
           C                             Commonwealth                 
           CACM                          Central American Common      
                                         Market                       
           CAEU                          Council of Arab Economic     
                                         Unity                        
           CAN                           Andean Community of Nations  
           Caricom                       Caribbean Community and      
                                         Common Market                
           CB                            citizenís band mobile radio  
                                         communications               
           CBSS                          Council of the Baltic Sea    
                                         States                       
           CCC                           Customs Cooperation Council  
           CDB                           Caribbean Development Bank   
           CE                            Council of Europe            
           CEI                           Central European Initiative  
           CEMA                          Council for Mutual Economic  
                                         Assistance; also known as    
                                         CMEA or Comecon              
           CEPGL                         Economic Community of the    
                                         Great Lakes Countries        
           CERN                          European Organization for    
                                         Nuclear Research             
           c.i.f.                        cost, insurance, and freight 
           CIS                           Commonwealth of Independent  
                                         States                       
           CITES                         see Endangered Species       
           Climate Change                United Nations Framework     
                                         Convention on Climate Change 
           Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Kyoto Protocol to the United 
                                         Nations Framework Convention 
                                         on Climate Change            
           COCOM                         Coordinating Committee on    
                                         Export Controls              
           Comsat                        Communications Satellite     
                                         Corporation                  
           CP                            Colombo Plan                 
           CY                            calendar year                
           DC                            developed country            
           Desertification               United Nations Convention to 
                                         Combat Desertification in    
                                         Those Countries Experiencing 
                                         Serious Drought and/or       
                                         Desertification, Particularly
                                         in Africa                    
           DSN                           Defense Switched Network     
           DWT                           deadweight ton               
           EADB                          East African Development Bank
           EAPC                          Euro-Atlantic Partnership    
                                         Council                      
           EBRD                          European Bank for            
                                         Reconstruction and           
                                         Development                  
           EC                            European Community           
           ECA                           Economic Commission for      
                                         Africa                       
           ECE                           Economic Commission for      
                                         Europe                       
           ECLAC                         Economic Commission for Latin
                                         America and the Caribbean    
           ECO                           Economic Cooperation         
                                         Organization                 
           ECOSOC                        Economic and Social Council  
           ECOWAS                        Economic Community of West   
                                         African States               
           ECS                           European Coal and Steel      
                                         Community                    
           EEC                           European Economic Community  
           EFTA                          European Free Trade          
                                         Association                  
           EIB                           European Investment Bank     
           EMU                           European Monetary Union      
           Endangered Species            Convention on the            
                                         International Trade in       
                                         Endangered Species of Wild   
                                         Flora and Fauna (CITES)      
           Entente                       Council of the Entente       
           Environmental Modification    Convention on the Prohibition
                                         of Military or Any Other     
                                         Hostile Use of Environmental 
                                         Modification Techniques      
           ESA                           European Space Agency        
           ESCAP                         Economic and Social          
                                         Commission for Asia and the  
                                         Pacific                      
           ESCWA                         Economic and Social          
                                         Commission for Western Asia  
           est.                          estimate                     
           EU                            European Union               
           Euratom                       European Atomic Energy       
                                         Community                    
           Eutelsat                      European Telecommunications  
                                         Satellite Organization       
           Ex-Im                         Export-Import Bank of the    
                                         United States                
           FAO                           Food and Agriculture         
                                         Organization                 
           FAX                           facsimile                    
           f.o.b.                        free on board                
           FLS                           Front Line States            
           FRG                           Federal Republic of Germany  
                                         (West Germany); used for     
                                         information dated before 3   
                                         October 1990 or CY91         
           FSU                           former Soviet Union          
           FY                            fiscal year                  
           FYROM                         The Former Yugoslav Republic 
                                         of Macedonia                 
           FZ                            Franc Zone                   
           G-2                           Group of 2                   
           G-3                           Group of 3                   
           G-5                           Group of 5                   
           G-6                           Group of 6                   
           G-7                           Group of 7                   
           G-8                           Group of 8                   
           G-9                           Group of 9                   
           G-10                          Group of 10                  
           G-11                          Group of 11                  
           G-15                          Group of 15                  
           G-19                          Group of 19                  
           G-24                          Group of 24                  
           G-30                          Group of 30                  
           G-33                          Group of 33                  
           G-77                          Group of 77                  
           GATT                          General Agreement on Tariffs 
                                         and Trade; now WTrO          
           GCC                           Gulf Cooperation Council     
           GDP                           gross domestic product       
           GDR                           German Democratic Republic   
                                         (East Germany); used for     
                                         information dated before 3   
                                         October 1990 or CY91         
           GNP                           gross national product       
           GRT                           gross register ton           
           GWP                           gross world product          
           Hazardous Wastes              Basel Convention on the      
                                         Control of Transboundary     
                                         Movements of Hazardous Wastes
                                         and Their Disposal           
           HF                            high-frequency               
           IADB                          Inter-American Development   
                                         Bank                         
           IAEA                          International Atomic Energy  
                                         Agency                       
           IBEC                          International Bank for       
                                         Economic Cooperation         
           IBRD                          International Bank for       
                                         Reconstruction and           
                                         Development (World Bank)     
           ICAO                          International Civil Aviation 
                                         Organization                 
           ICC                           International Chamber of     
                                         Commerce                     
           ICJ                           International Court of       
                                         Justice (World Court)        
           ICRC                          International Committee of   
                                         the Red Cross                
           ICRM                          International Red Cross and  
                                         Red Crescent Movement        
           IDA                           International Development    
                                         Association                  
           IDB                           Islamic Development Bank     
           IEA                           International Energy Agency  
           IFAD                          International Fund for       
                                         Agricultural Development     
           IFC                           International Finance        
                                         Corporation                  
           IFCTU                         International Federation of  
                                         Christian Trade Unions       
           IFRCS                         International Federation of  
                                         Red Cross and Red Crescent   
                                         Societies                    
           IGAD                          Inter-Governmental Authority 
                                         on Development               
           IGADD                         Inter-Governmental Authority 
                                         on Drought and Development   
           IHO                           International Hydrographic   
                                         Organization                 
           IIB                           International Investment Bank
           ILO                           International Labor          
                                         Organization                 
           IMF                           International Monetary Fund  
           IMO                           International Maritime       
                                         Organization                 
           Inmarsat                      International Mobile         
                                         Satellite Organization       
           InOC                          Indian Ocean Commission      
           Intelsat                      International                
                                         Telecommunications Satellite 
                                         Organization                 
           Interpol                      International Criminal Police
                                         Organization                 
           Intersputnik                  International Organization of
                                         Space Communications         
           IOC                           International Olympic        
                                         Committee                    
           IOM                           International Organization   
                                         for Migration                
           ISO                           International Organization   
                                         for Standardization          
           ITU                           International                
                                         Telecommunication Union      
           kHz                           kilohertz                    
           km                            kilometer                    
           kW                            kilowatt                     
           kWh                           kilowatt hour                
           LAES                          Latin American Economic      
                                         System                       
           LAIA                          Latin American Integration   
                                         Association                  
           Law of the Sea                United Nations Convention on 
                                         the Law of the Sea (LOS)     
           LDC                           less developed country       
           LLDC                          least developed country      
           London Convention             see Marine Dumping           
           LOS                           see Law of the Sea           
           m                             meter                        
           Marecs                        Maritime European            
                                         Communications Satellite     
           Marine Dumping                Convention on the Prevention 
                                         of Marine Pollution by       
                                         Dumping Wastes and Other     
                                         Matter                       
           Marine Life Conservation      Convention on Fishing and    
                                         Conservation of Living       
                                         Resources of the High Seas   
           MARPOL                        see Ship Pollution           
           Medarabtel                    Middle East                  
                                         Telecommunications Project of
                                         the International            
                                         Telecommunications Union     
           Mercosur                      Southern Cone Common Market  
           MHz                           megahertz                    
           MINURSO                       United Nations Mission for   
                                         the Referendum in Western    
                                         Sahara                       
           MONUC                         United Nations Organization  
                                         Mission in the Democratic    
                                         Republic of the Congo        
           NA                            not available                
           NAM                           Nonaligned Movement          
           NATO                          North Atlantic Treaty        
                                         Organization                 
           NC                            Nordic Council               
           NEA                           Nuclear Energy Agency        
           NEGL                          negligible                   
           NIB                           Nordic Investment Bank       
           NIC                           newly industrializing country
           NIE                           newly industrializing economy
           NM                            nautical mile                
           NMT                           Nordic Mobile Telephone      
           NSG                           Nuclear Suppliers Group      
           Nuclear Test Ban              Treaty Banning Nuclear       
                                         Weapons Tests in the         
                                         Atmosphere, in Outer Space,  
                                         and Under Water              
           NZ                            New Zealand                  
           OAPEC                         Organization of Arab         
                                         Petroleum Exporting Countries
           OAS                           Organization of American     
                                         States                       
           OAU                           Organization of African Unity
           ODA                           official development         
                                         assistance                   
           OECD                          Organization for Economic    
                                         Cooperation and Development  
           OECS                          Organization of Eastern      
                                         Caribbean States             
           OIC                           Organization of the Islamic  
                                         Conference                   
           OOF                           other official flows         
           OPCW                          Organization for the         
                                         Prohibition of Chemical      
                                         Weapons                      
           OPEC                          Organization of Petroleum    
                                         Exporting Countries          
           OSCE                          Organization for Security and
                                         Cooperation in Europe        
           Ozone Layer Protection        Montreal Protocol on         
                                         Substances That Deplete the  
                                         Ozone Layer                  
           PCA                           Permanent Court of           
                                         Arbitration                  
           PDRY                          People's Democratic Republic 
                                         of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or    
                                         South Yemen]; used for       
                                         information dated before 22  
                                         May 1990 or CY91             
           PFP                           Partnership for Peace        
           Ramsar                        see Wetlands                 
           RG                            Rio Group                    
           SAARC                         South Asian Association for  
                                         Regional Cooperation         
           SACU                          Southern African Customs     
                                         Union                        
           SADC                          Southern African Development 
                                         Community                    
           SFRY                          Socialist Federal Republic of
                                         Yugoslavia                   
           SHF                           super-high-frequency         
           Ship Pollution                Protocol of 1978 Relating to 
                                         the International Convention 
                                         for the Prevention of        
                                         Pollution From Ships, 1973   
                                         (MARPOL)                     
           Sparteca                      South Pacific Regional Trade 
                                         and Economic Cooperation     
                                         Agreement                    
           SPC                           South Pacific Commission     
           SPF                           South Pacific Forum          
           sq km                         square kilometer             
           sq mi                         square mile                  
           TAT                           Trans-Atlantic Telephone     
           Tropical Timber 83            International Tropical Timber
                                         Agreement, 1983              
           Tropical Timber 94            International Tropical Timber
                                         Agreement, 1994              
           UAE                           United Arab Emirates         
           UDEAC                         Central African Customs and  
                                         Economic Union               
           UHF                           ultra-high-frequency         
           UK                            United Kingdom               
           UN                            United Nations               
           UNAMIR                        United Nations Assistance    
                                         Mission for Rwanda           
           UNAMSIL                       United Nations Mission in    
                                         Sierra Leone                 
           UNAVEM III                    United Nations Angola        
                                         Verification Mission III     
           UNCRO                         United Nations Confidence    
                                         Restoration Operation in     
                                         Croatia                      
           UNCTAD                        United Nations Conference on 
                                         Trade and Development        
           UNDOF                         United Nations Disengagement 
                                         Observer Force               
           UNDP                          United Nations Development   
                                         Program                      
           UNEP                          United Nations Environment   
                                         Program                      
           UNESCO                        United Nations Educational,  
                                         Scientific, and Cultural     
                                         Organization                 
           UNFICYP                       United Nations Peace-keeping 
                                         Force in Cyprus              
           UNHCR                         United Nations High          
                                         Commissioner for Refugees    
           UNICEF                        United Nations Children's    
                                         Fund                         
           UNIDO                         United Nations Industrial    
                                         Development Organization     
           UNIFIL                        United Nations Interim Force 
                                         in Lebanon                   
           UNIKOM                        United Nations Iraq-Kuwait   
                                         Observation Mission          
           UNITAR                        United Nations Institute for 
                                         Training and Research        
           UNMIBH                        United Nations Mission in    
                                         Bosnia and Herzegovina       
           UNMIK                         United Nations Interim       
                                         Administration Mission in    
                                         Kosovo                       
           UNMOGIP                       United Nations Military      
                                         Observer Group in India and  
                                         Pakistan                     
           UNMOP                         United Nations Mission of    
                                         Observers in Prevlaka        
           UNMOT                         United Nations Mission of    
                                         Observers in Tajikistan      
           UNMOVIC                       United Nations Monitoring and
                                         Verification Commission      
           UNOMIG                        United Nations Observer      
                                         Mission in Georgia           
           UNOMSIL                       United Nations Mission of    
                                         Observers in Sierra Leone    
           UNRISD                        United Nations Research      
                                         Institute for Social         
                                         Development                  
           UNRWA                         United Nations Relief and    
                                         Works Agency for Palestine   
                                         Refugees in the Near East    
           UNSMIH                        United Nations Support       
                                         Mission in Haiti             
           UNTAET                        United Nations Transitional  
                                         Administration in East Timor 
           UNTSO                         United Nations Truce         
                                         Supervision Organization     
           UNU                           United Nations University    
           UPU                           Universal Postal Union       
           US                            United States                
           USSR                          Union of Soviet Socialist    
                                         Republics (Soviet Union);    
                                         used for information dated   
                                         before 25 December 1991      
           USSR/EE                       Union of Soviet Socialist    
                                         Republics/Eastern Europe     
           VHF                           very-high-frequency          
           VSAT                          very small aperture terminal 
           WADB                          West African Development Bank
           WAEMU                         West African Economic and    
                                         Monetary Union               
           WCL                           World Confederation of Labor 
           Wetlands                      Convention on Wetlands of    
                                         International Importance     
                                         Especially As Waterfowl      
                                         Habitat                      
           WEU                           Western European Union       
           WFC                           World Food Council           
           WFP                           World Food Program           
           WFTU                          World Federation of Trade    
                                         Unions                       
           Whaling                       International Convention for 
                                         the Regulation of Whaling    
           WHO                           World Health Organization    
           WIPO                          World Intellectual Property  
                                         Organization                 
           WMO                           World Meteorological         
                                         Organization                 
           WP                            Warsaw Pact                  
           WTO                           see WToO for World Tourism   
                                         Organization or WTrO for     
                                         World Trade Organization     
           WToO                          World Tourism Organization   
           WTrO                          World Trade Organization     
           YAR                           Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen   
                                         (Sanaa) or North Yemen]; used
                                         for information dated before 
                                         22 May 1990 or CY91          
           ZC                            Zangger Committee            
  
   
   
   
  
  

Questions or comments about this site? Contact webmaster@dict.org