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4 definitions found
 for Armenia
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Armenia \Armenia\ n.
     1. a country in the Caucasus, formerly a part of the Soviet
        Union.
        [WordNet 1.5 +PJC]

From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Armenia
      n 1: a landlocked republic in southwestern Asia; formerly an
           Asian soviet; modern Armenia is but a fragment of ancient
           Armenia which was one of the world's oldest civilizations;
           throughout 2500 years the Armenian people have been invaded
           and oppressed by their neighbors [syn: Armenia, Republic
           of Armenia, Hayastan]

From Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary :

  Armenia
     high land, occurs only in Authorized Version, 2 Kings 19:37; in
     Revised Version, "Ararat," which is the Hebrew word. A country
     in western Asia lying between the Caspian and the Black Sea.
     Here the ark of Noah rested after the Deluge (Gen. 8:4). It is
     for the most part high table-land, and is watered by the Aras,
     the Kur, the Euphrates, and the Tigris. Ararat was properly the
     name of a part of ancient Armenia. Three provinces of Armenia
     are mentioned in Jer. 51:27, Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz. Some,
     however, think Minni a contraction for Armenia. (See ARARAT.)
     

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Armenia
  
     Introduction Armenia
     --------------------
                              Background: An Armenian Apostolic Christian
                                          country, Armenia was incorporated
                                          into Russia in 1828 and the USSR in
                                          1920. Armenian leaders remain
                                          preoccupied by the long conflict
                                          with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-
                                          Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-
                                          populated region, assigned to Soviet
                                          Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow.
                                          Armenia and Azerbaijan began
                                          fighting over the area in 1988; the
                                          struggle escalated after both
                                          countries attained independence from
                                          the Soviet Union in 1991. By May
                                          1994, when a cease-fire took hold,
                                          Armenian forces held not only
                                          Nagorno-Karabakh but also a
                                          significant portion of Azerbaijan
                                          proper. The economies of both sides
                                          have been hurt by their inability to
                                          make substantial progress toward a
                                          peaceful resolution.
    
     Geography Armenia
     -----------------
                                Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey
                  Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 45 00 E
                          Map references: Asia
                                    Area: total: 29,800 sq km
                                          water: 1,400 sq km
                                          land: 28,400 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland
                         Land boundaries: total: 1,254 km
                                          border countries: Azerbaijan-proper
                                          566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave
                                          221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km,
                                          Turkey 268 km
                               Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
                         Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
                                 Climate: highland continental, hot summers,
                                          cold winters
                                 Terrain: Armenian Highland with mountains;
                                          little forest land; fast flowing
                                          rivers; good soil in Aras River
                                          valley
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Debed River 400 m
                                          highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat'
                                          4,090 m
                       Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper,
                                          molybdenum, zinc, alumina
                                Land use: arable land: 17.52%
                                          permanent crops: 2.3%
                                          other: 80.18% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 2,870 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: occasionally severe earthquakes;
                                          droughts
            Environment - current issues: soil pollution from toxic chemicals
                                          such as DDT; energy blockade, the
                                          result of conflict with Azerbaijan
                                          and disagreements with Turkey, has
                                          led to deforestation when citizens
                                          scavenged for firewood; pollution of
                                          Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers;
                                          the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake
                                          Sevan), a result of its use as a
                                          source for hydropower, threatens
                                          drinking water supplies; restart of
                                          Metsamor nuclear power plant in
                                          spite of its location in a
                                          seismically-active zone
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution,
                              agreements: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                          Desertification, Hazardous Wastes,
                                          Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
                                          Protection, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: Air
                                          Pollution-Persistent Organic
                                          Pollutants
                        Geography - note: landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus
                                          Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan)
                                          is the largest lake in this mountain
                                          range
    
     People Armenia
     --------------
                              Population: 3,330,099
                                          note: Armenia's first census since
                                          independence was conducted in
                                          October 2001, but official figures
                                          have not yet been released (July
                                          2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 22.2% (male 374,597;
                                          female 363,115)
                                          15-64 years: 67.7% (male 1,104,100;
                                          female 1,150,282)
                                          65 years and over: 10.1% (male
                                          141,330; female 196,675) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: -0.15% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 9.94 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: -3.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 0.95 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 41.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 66.59 years
                                          female: 71.12 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 62.27 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.53 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.01% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ less than 500 (1999 est.)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Armenian(s)
                                          adjective: Armenian
                           Ethnic groups: Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%,
                                          other (mostly Yezidi Kurds) 2%
                                          (1989)
                                          note: as of the end of 1993,
                                          virtually all Azeris had emigrated
                                          from Armenia
                               Religions: Armenian Apostolic 94%, other
                                          Christian 4%, Yezidi (Zoroastrian/
                                          animist) 2%
                               Languages: Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 99%
                                          male: 99%
                                          female: 98% (1989 est.)
    
     Government Armenia
     ------------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          Armenia
                                          conventional short form: Armenia
                                          local short form: Hayastan
                                          former: Armenian Soviet Socialist
                                          Republic; Armenian Republic
                                          local long form: Hayastani
                                          Hanrapetut'yun
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Yerevan
                Administrative divisions: 11 provinces (marzer, singular -
                                          marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir,
                                          Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri,
                                          Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots'
                                          Dzor, Yerevan
                            Independence: 21 September 1991 (from Soviet
                                          Union)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September
                                          (1991)
                            Constitution: adopted by nationwide referendum 5
                                          July 1995
                            Legal system: based on civil law system
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Robert
                                          KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Andranik MARKARYAN (since 12 May
                                          2000)
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          appointed by the prime minister
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a five-year term;
                                          special election last held 30 March
                                          1998 (next to be held NA March
                                          2003); prime minister appointed by
                                          the president
                                          election results: Robert KOCHARIAN
                                          elected president; percent of vote -
                                          Robert KOCHARIAN 59.5%, Karen
                                          DEMIRCHYAN 40.5%
                      Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly
                                          (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131
                                          seats; members elected by popular
                                          vote to serve four-year terms)
                                          elections: last held 30 May 1999
                                          (next to be held in the spring of
                                          2003)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - NA%; seats by party - Unity
                                          Bloc 61 (Republican Party 41,
                                          People's Party of Armenia 20),
                                          Stability Group (independent
                                          Armenian deputies who have formed a
                                          bloc) 21, ACP 10, ARF (Dashnak) 8,
                                          Law and Unity Party 7, NDU 6, Law-
                                          Governed Party 6, independents 10,
                                          unfilled 2; note - seats by party
                                          change frequently
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court
           Political parties and leaders: Agro-Technical People's Group
                                          (formerly Stability Group) [Hmayk
                                          HOVHANISSIAN]; Armenian Communist
                                          Party or ACP [Vladimir DARBINYAN];
                                          Armenia Democratic Party [Armen
                                          SARGSIAN]; Armenian Revolutionary
                                          Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF
                                          [Hrant MARKARYAN]; Christian
                                          Democratic Union or CDU [Azat
                                          ARSHAKYN, chairman]; Constitutional
                                          Rights Union [Hrant KHACHATRYAN];
                                          Democratic Liberal Party/Ramkvar
                                          Azatakyan or DL/RA [Ruben
                                          MIRZAKHANIAN, chairman]; Law and
                                          Unity Party [Artashes GEGAMIAN,
                                          chairman]; Law-Governed Party [Artur
                                          BAGDASARIAN, chairman]; National
                                          Accord Front [Ashot MANUTCHARIAN];
                                          National Democratic Alliance [Arshak
                                          ZADOYAN]; National Democratic Party
                                          [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN]; National
                                          Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen
                                          MANUKIAN]; Pan-Armenian National
                                          Movement or PANM [Alex ARZOUMANYAN];
                                          People's Democratic Party [Gagik
                                          ASLANYAN]; People's Deputies Group
                                          [Hovhannes HOVHANISSIAN]; People's
                                          Party of Armenia [Stepan
                                          DEMIRCHYAN]; Republic Party [Aram
                                          SARGSIAN]; Republican Party or RPA
                                          [Andranik MARKARYAN]; Shamiram
                                          Women's Movement or SWM [Shogher
                                          MATEVOSIAN]; Social Democratic
                                          (Hunchak) Party [Yeghia SHAMSHAYN];
                                          Social Democratic Union (formerly
                                          National Self-Determination Union)
                                          [Paruyr HAYRIKIAN]; Twenty-first
                                          Century Party [David SHAKHNAZARIAN];
                                          Unity Bloc [Stepan DEMIRCHIAN and
                                          Andranik MARKARYAN] (a coalition of
                                          the Republican Party and People's
                                          Party of Armenia); Yerkrapah Union
                                          [Manval GRIGORYAN]
            Political pressure groups and NA
                                 leaders:
               International organization BSEC, CCC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
                           participation: ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM,
                                          IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
                                          Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM
                                          (observer), OAS (observer), OPCW,
                                          OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
                                          UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
                                          WToO, WTrO (observer)
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Arman
                                          KIRAKOSIAN
                                          consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
                                          chancery: 2225 R Street NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20008
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador John M.
                                      US: ORDWAY
                                          embassy: 18 Baghramyan Ave., Yerevan
                                          375019
                                          mailing address: American Embassy
                                          Yerevan, Department of State,
                                          Washington, DC 20521-7020
                                          telephone: [374](1) 521-611, 543-900
    
                                          FAX: [374](1) 520-800, 542-152
                        Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red
                                          (top), blue, and orange
    
     Economy Armenia
     ---------------
                      Economy - overview: Under the old Soviet central
                                          planning system, Armenia had
                                          developed a modern industrial
                                          sector, supplying machine tools,
                                          textiles, and other manufactured
                                          goods to sister republics in
                                          exchange for raw materials and
                                          energy. Since the implosion of the
                                          USSR in December 1991, Armenia has
                                          switched to small-scale agriculture
                                          away from the large agroindustrial
                                          complexes of the Soviet era. The
                                          agricultural sector has long-term
                                          needs for more investment and
                                          updated technology. The
                                          privatization of industry has been
                                          at a slower pace, but has been given
                                          renewed emphasis by the current
                                          administration. Armenia is a food
                                          importer, and its mineral deposits
                                          (gold, bauxite) are small. The
                                          ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan
                                          over the ethnic Armenian-dominated
                                          region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the
                                          breakup of the centrally directed
                                          economic system of the former Soviet
                                          Union contributed to a severe
                                          economic decline in the early 1990s.
                                          By 1994, however, the Armenian
                                          Government had launched an ambitious
                                          IMF-sponsored economic program that
                                          has resulted in positive growth
                                          rates in 1995-2001. Armenia also
                                          managed to slash inflation and to
                                          privatize most small- and medium-
                                          sized enterprises. The chronic
                                          energy shortages Armenia suffered in
                                          recent years have been largely
                                          offset by the energy supplied by one
                                          of its nuclear power plants at
                                          Metsamor. Armenia's severe trade
                                          imbalance has been offset somewhat
                                          by international aid, domestic
                                          restructuring of the economy, and
                                          foreign direct investment.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.2
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 9.6% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,350
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 29%
                                          industry: 32%
                                          services: 39% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 55% (2001 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.3%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 35.2% (1996)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 44.4 (1996)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.1% (2000 est.)
                             Labor force: 1.4 million (2001)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 44%, services 14%,
                                          industry 42% (2000 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 20%
                                          note: official rate is 10.9% for
                                          2000 (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $358 million
                                          expenditures: $458 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2001 est.)
                              Industries: metal-cutting machine tools,
                                          forging-pressing machines, electric
                                          motors, tires, knitted wear,
                                          hosiery, shoes, silk fabric,
                                          chemicals, trucks, instruments,
                                          microelectronics, gem cutting,
                                          jewelry manufacturing, software
                                          development, food processing, brandy
       Industrial production growth rate: 3.8% (2001)
                Electricity - production: 5.69 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 36.34%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 32.34%
                                          hydro: 31.32%
               Electricity - consumption: 4.89 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 704 million kWh
                                          note: exports an unknown quantity to
                                          Georgia; includes exports to
                                          Nagorno-Karabakh region in
                                          Azerbaijan (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 300 million kWh
                                          note: imports an unknown quantity
                                          from Iran (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: fruit (especially grapes),
                                          vegetables; livestock
                                 Exports: $338.5 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: diamonds, scrap metal, machinery and
                                          equipment, brandy, copper ore
                      Exports - partners: Belgium 23%, Russia 15%, US 13%,
                                          Iran 10% (2000)
                                 Imports: $868.6 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: natural gas, petroleum, tobacco
                                          products, foodstuffs, diamonds
                      Imports - partners: Russia 15%, US 12%, Belgium 10%,
                                          Iran 9% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $839 million (June 2001)
                Economic aid - recipient: $245.5 million (1995)
                                Currency: dram (AMD)
                           Currency code: AMD
                          Exchange rates: drams per US dollar - 564.08
                                          (January 2002), 555.08 (2001),
                                          539.53 (2000), 535.06 (1999), 504.92
                                          (1998), 490.85 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
    
     Communications Armenia
     ----------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 568,000 (1997)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 25,000 (2001)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: system
                                          inadequate; now 90% privately owned
                                          and undergoing modernization and
                                          expansion
                                          domestic: the majority of
                                          subscribers and the most modern
                                          equipment are in Yerevan (this
                                          includes paging and mobile cellular
                                          service)
                                          international: Yerevan is connected
                                          to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic
                                          cable through Iran; additional
                                          international service is available
                                          by microwave radio relay and
                                          landline connections to the other
                                          countries of the Commonwealth of
                                          Independent States and through the
                                          Moscow international switch and by
                                          satellite to the rest of the world;
                                          satellite earth stations - 1
                                          Intelsat (2000)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)
                                  Radios: 850,000 (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 3 (plus an unknown number of
                                          repeaters) (1998)
                             Televisions: 825,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .am
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 9 (2001)
                          Internet users: 30,000 (2001)
    
     Transportation Armenia
     ----------------------
                                Railways: total: 852 km in common carrier
                                          service; does not include industrial
                                          lines
                                          broad gauge: 852 km 1.520-m gauge
                                          (779 km electrified) (2001 est.)
                                Highways: total: 11,300 km
                                          paved: 10,500 km (includes some all-
                                          weather gravel-surfaced roads)
                                          unpaved: 800 km (these roads are
                                          made of unstabilized earth and are
                                          difficult to negotiate in wet
                                          weather) (1990)
                               Waterways: NA km
                               Pipelines: natural gas 900 km (1991)
                       Ports and harbors: none
                                Airports: 7 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 7
                                          over 3,047 m: 1
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 3
                                          under 914 m: 1 (2001)
    
     Military Armenia
     ----------------
                       Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces,
                                          Border Guards
        Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 912,650 (2002 est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 722,035 (2002 est.)
                                 service:
             Military manpower - reaching males: 34,998 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $135 million (FY01)
                                  figure:
       Military expenditures - percent of 6.5% (FY01)
                                     GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Armenia
     ----------------------------
                Disputes - international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenian
                                          secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh
                                          and militarily occupies almost one-
                                          fifth of Azerbaijan - Organization
                                          for Security and Cooperation in
                                          Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate
                                          dispute; border with Turkey remains
                                          closed over Nagorno-Karabakh
                                          dispute; traditional demands
                                          regarding former Armenian lands in
                                          Turkey have subsided
                           Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis
                                          mostly for domestic consumption;
                                          increasingly used as a transshipment
                                          point for illicit drugs - mostly
                                          opium and hashish - to Western
                                          Europe and the US via Iran, Central
                                          Asia, and Russia
    
                                         
  
  

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