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2 definitions found
 for Austria
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Austria
      n 1: a mountainous republic in central Europe; under the
           Habsburgs (1278-1918) Austria maintained control of the
           Holy Roman Empire and was a leader in European politics
           until the 19th century [syn: Austria, Republic of
           Austria, Oesterreich]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Austria
  
     Introduction Austria
     --------------------
                              Background: Once the center of power for the
                                          large Austro-Hungarian Empire,
                                          Austria was reduced to a small
                                          republic after its defeat in World
                                          War I. Following annexation by Nazi
                                          Germany in 1938 and subsequent
                                          occupation by the victorious Allies
                                          in 1945, Austria's status remained
                                          unclear for a decade. A State Treaty
                                          signed in 1955 ended the occupation,
                                          recognized Austria's independence,
                                          and forbade unification with
                                          Germany. A constitutional law of
                                          that same year declared the
                                          country's "perpetual neutrality" as
                                          a condition for Soviet military
                                          withdrawal. This neutrality, once
                                          ingrained as part of the Austrian
                                          cultural identity, has been called
                                          into question since the Soviet
                                          collapse of 1991 and Austria's entry
                                          into the European Union in 1995. A
                                          prosperous country, Austria entered
                                          the European Monetary Union in 1999.
    
     Geography Austria
     -----------------
                                Location: Central Europe, north of Italy and
                                          Slovenia
                  Geographic coordinates: 47 20 N, 13 20 E
                          Map references: Europe
                                    Area: total: 83,858 sq km
                                          water: 1,120 sq km
                                          land: 82,738 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maine
                         Land boundaries: total: 2,562 km
                                          border countries: Czech Republic 362
                                          km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km,
                                          Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km,
                                          Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km,
                                          Switzerland 164 km
                               Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
                         Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
                                 Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold
                                          winters with frequent rain in
                                          lowlands and snow in mountains; cool
                                          summers with occasional showers
                                 Terrain: in the west and south mostly
                                          mountains (Alps); along the eastern
                                          and northern margins mostly flat or
                                          gently sloping
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
                                          highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m
                       Natural resources: iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite,
                                          lead, coal, lignite, copper,
                                          hydropower
                                Land use: arable land: 16.89%
                                          permanent crops: 0.99%
                                          other: 82.12% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 457 sq km (2000 est.)
                         Natural hazards: landslides; avalanches; earthquakes
            Environment - current issues: some forest degradation caused by
                                          air and soil pollution; soil
                                          pollution results from the use of
                                          agricultural chemicals; air
                                          pollution results from emissions by
                                          coal- and oil-fired power stations
                                          and industrial plants and from
                                          trucks transiting Austria between
                                          northern and southern Europe
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Air
                              agreements: Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
                                          Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-
                                          Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
                                          Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty,
                                          Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                          Desertification, Endangered Species,
                                          Environmental Modification,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
                                          Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
                                          Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
                                          Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
                                          Wetlands, Whaling
                                          signed, but not ratified: Air
                                          Pollution-Persistent Organic
                                          Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental
                                          Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto
                                          Protocol
                        Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location at
                                          the crossroads of central Europe
                                          with many easily traversable Alpine
                                          passes and valleys; major river is
                                          the Danube; population is
                                          concentrated on eastern lowlands
                                          because of steep slopes, poor soils,
                                          and low temperatures elsewhere
    
     People Austria
     --------------
                              Population: 8,169,929 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.4% (male 686,205;
                                          female 652,840)
                                          15-64 years: 68.2% (male 2,814,866;
                                          female 2,756,777)
                                          65 years and over: 15.4% (male
                                          484,313; female 774,928) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 0.23% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 9.58 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 9.73 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: 2.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 0.95 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 4.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78 years
                                          female: 81.31 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 74.85 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2001 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 843 (2001 est.)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 8 (2001 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Austrian(s)
                                          adjective: Austrian
                           Ethnic groups: German 88%, non-nationals 9.3%
                                          (includes Croatians, Slovenes,
                                          Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Roma),
                                          naturalized 2% (includes those who
                                          have lived in Austria at least three
                                          generations)
                               Religions: Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant 5%,
                                          Muslim and other 17%
                               Languages: German
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 98%
                                          male: NA%
                                          female: NA%
    
     Government Austria
     ------------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          Austria
                                          conventional short form: Austria
                                          local short form: Oesterreich
                                          local long form: Republik
                                          Oesterreich
                         Government type: federal republic
                                 Capital: Vienna
                Administrative divisions: 9 states (Bundeslaender, singular -
                                          Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten,
                                          Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich,
                                          Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol,
                                          Vorarlberg, Wien
                            Independence: 1156 (from Bavaria)
                        National holiday: National Day, 26 October (1955);
                                          note - commemorates the State Treaty
                                          restoring national sovereignty and
                                          the end of occupation and the
                                          passage of the law on permanent
                                          neutrality
                            Constitution: 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May
                                          1945)
                            Legal system: civil law system with Roman law
                                          origin; judicial review of
                                          legislative acts by the
                                          Constitutional Court; separate
                                          administrative and civil/penal
                                          supreme courts; accepts compulsory
                                          ICJ jurisdiction
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal;
                                          compulsory for presidential
                                          elections
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Thomas
                                          KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992)
                                          head of government: Chancellor
                                          Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4
                                          February 2000); Vice Chancellor
                                          Susanne RIESS-PASSER (FPOe) (since 4
                                          February 2000)
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen
                                          by the president on the advice of
                                          the chancellor
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          direct popular vote for a six-year
                                          term; presidential election last
                                          held 19 April 1998 (next to be held
                                          in the spring of 2004); chancellor
                                          traditionally chosen by the
                                          president from the plurality party
                                          in the National Council; in the case
                                          of the current coalition, the
                                          chancellor was chosen from another
                                          party after the plurality party
                                          failed to form a government; vice
                                          chancellor chosen by the president
                                          on the advice of the chancellor
                                          note: government coalition - OeVP
                                          and FPOe
                                          election results: Thomas KLESTIL
                                          reelected president; percent of vote
                                          - Thomas KLESTIL 63%, Gertraud KNOLL
                                          14%, Heide SCHMIDT 11%, Richard
                                          LUGNER 10%, Karl NOWAK 2%
                      Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or
                                          Bundesversammlung consists of
                                          Federal Council or Bundesrat (64
                                          members; members represent each of
                                          the states on the basis of
                                          population, but with each state
                                          having at least three
                                          representatives; members serve a
                                          four- or six-year term) and the
                                          National Council or Nationalrat (183
                                          seats; members elected by direct
                                          popular vote to serve four-year
                                          terms)
                                          election results: National Council -
                                          percent of vote by party - SPOe
                                          33.2%, OeVP 26.9%, FPOe 26.9%,
                                          Greens 7.4%; seats by party - SPOe
                                          65, OeVP 52, FPOe 52, Greens 14
                                          elections: National Council - last
                                          held 3 October 1999 (next to be held
                                          in the fall of 2003)
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster
                                          Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or
                                          Verwaltungsgerichtshof;
                                          Constitutional Court or
                                          Verfassungsgerichtshof
           Political parties and leaders: Austrian People's Party or OeVP
                                          [Wolfgang SCHUESSEL]; Freedom Party
                                          of Austria or FPOe [Susanne RIESS-
                                          PASSER]; Social Democratic Party of
                                          Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER];
                                          The Greens Alternative or GA
                                          [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN]
            Political pressure groups and Austrian Trade Union Federation
                                 leaders: (primarily Socialist) or OeGB;
                                          Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-
                                          oriented League of Austrian
                                          Industrialists or VOeI; Roman
                                          Catholic Church, including its chief
                                          lay organization, Catholic Action;
                                          three composite leagues of the
                                          Austrian People's Party or OeVP
                                          representing business, labor, and
                                          farmers
               International organization AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS,
                           participation: BSEC (observer), CCC, CE, CEI, CERN,
                                          EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU,
                                          FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
                                          ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
                                          IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
                                          IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM
                                          (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer),
                                          OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN,
                                          UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
                                          UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE,
                                          UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOT,
                                          UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU
                                          (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
                                          WToO, WTrO, ZC
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Peter
                                          MOSER
                                          chancery: 3524 International Court
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
                                          consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los
                                          Angeles, and New York
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador William
                                      US: Lee LYONS BROWN, Jr.
                                          embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091,
                                          Vienna
                                          mailing address: use embassy street
                                          address
                                          telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0
                                          FAX: [43] (1) 3100682
                        Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red
                                          (top), white, and red
    
     Economy Austria
     ---------------
                      Economy - overview: Austria, with its well-developed
                                          market economy and high standard of
                                          living, is closely tied to other EU
                                          economies, especially Germany's.
                                          Membership in the EU has drawn an
                                          influx of foreign investors
                                          attracted by Austria's access to the
                                          single European market and proximity
                                          to EU aspirant economies. Slowing
                                          growth in Germany and elsewhere in
                                          the world slowed the economy to only
                                          1.2% growth in 2001; the economy is
                                          expected to do little better in
                                          2002. To meet increased competition
                                          from both EU and Central European
                                          countries, Austria will need to
                                          emphasize knowledge-based sectors of
                                          the economy, continue to deregulate
                                          the service sector, and lower its
                                          tax burden.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $220
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 1.2% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $27,000
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 2%
                                          industry: 29%
                                          services: 69% (2001)
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 4.4%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 19.3% (1992)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 23.1 (1987)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (2001)
                             Labor force: 4.3 million (2001)
             Labor force - by occupation: services 67%, industry and crafts
                                          29%, agriculture and forestry 4%
                                          (2001 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 4.8% (2001)
                                  Budget: revenues: $53 billion
                                          expenditures: $54 billion, including
                                          capital expenditures of $NA (2001
                                          est.)
                              Industries: construction, machinery, vehicles
                                          and parts, food, chemicals, lumber
                                          and wood processing, paper and
                                          paperboard, communications
                                          equipment, tourism
       Industrial production growth rate: 3.8% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 60.285 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 28.46%
                                          hydro: 68.64%
                                          other: 2.9% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 54.764 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 15.11 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 13.809 billion kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine,
                                          fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs,
                                          poultry; lumber
                                 Exports: $70 billion (f.o.b., 2001) (2000
                                          est.)
                   Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, motor
                                          vehicles and parts, paper and
                                          paperboard, metal goods, chemicals,
                                          iron and steel; textiles, foodstuffs
                      Exports - partners: EU 63% (Germany 35%, Italy 9%,
                                          France 5%), Switzerland 5%, US 5%,
                                          Hungary 4% (2000)
                                 Imports: $73 billion (c.i.f., 2001)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, motor
                                          vehicles, chemicals, metal goods,
                                          oil and oil products; foodstuffs
                      Imports - partners: EU 68% (Germany 42%, Italy 7%,
                                          France 5%), US 6%, Switzerland 3%,
                                          Hungary 2% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $12.1 billion (2001 est.)
                    Economic aid - donor: ODA, $410 million (2000)
                                Currency: euro (EUR); Austrian schilling (ATS)
    
                                          note: on 1 January 1999, the
                                          European Monetary Union introduced
                                          the euro as a common currency to be
                                          used by the financial institutions
                                          of member countries; on 1 January
                                          2002, the euro became the sole
                                          currency for everyday transactions
                                          within the member countries
                           Currency code: EUR; ATS
                          Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.1324
                                          (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001),
                                          1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999);
                                          Austrian schillings per US dollar -
                                          11.86 (January 1999), 12.91 (1999),
                                          12.379 (1998), 12.204 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
    
     Communications Austria
     ----------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 4 million (consisting of 3,600,000
                                          analog main lines plus 400,000
                                          Integrated Services Digital Network
                                          connections); in addition, there are
                                          100,000 Asymmetric Digital Services
                                          lines (2001)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 6 million (2001)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: highly developed
                                          and efficient
                                          domestic: there are 48 main lines
                                          for every 100 persons; the fiber
                                          optic net is very extensive; all
                                          telephone applications and Internet
                                          services are available
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
                                          Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1
                                          Eutelsat; in addition, there are
                                          about 600 VSAT (very small aperture
                                          terminals) (2002)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 160 (plus several hundred
                                          repeaters), shortwave 1 (2001)
                                  Radios: 6.08 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 45 (plus more than 1,000 repeaters)
                                          (2001)
                             Televisions: 4.25 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .at
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 37 (2000)
                          Internet users: 3 million (2000)
    
     Transportation Austria
     ----------------------
                                Railways: total: 6,095.2 km (3,643.3 km
                                          electrified)
                                          standard gauge: 5,564.2 km 1.435-
                                          m gauge (3,521.2 km electrified)
                                          narrow gauge: 33.9 km 1.000-m gauge
                                          (28.1 km electrified); 497.1 km
                                          0.760-m gauge (94 km electrified)
                                          (2001 est.)
                                Highways: total: 133,361 km
                                          paved: 133,361 km (including 1,613
                                          km of expressways)
                                          unpaved: 0 km (1998)
                               Waterways: 358 km (1999)
                               Pipelines: crude oil 777 km; natural gas 840 km
                                          (1999)
                       Ports and harbors: Linz, Vienna, Enns, Krems
                         Merchant marine: total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 46,563 GRT/59,278 DWT
                                          ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 6,
                                          combination bulk 1, container 2
                                          (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 55 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 24
                                          over 3,047 m: 1
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 3
                                          under 914 m: 14 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 31
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 3
                                          under 914 m: 27 (2001)
                               Heliports: 1 (2001)
    
     Military Austria
     ----------------
                        Military branches: Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces
                                           (KdoLuSK)
         Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age (2002 est.)
         Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,092,623 (2002
                                           est.)
      Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 1,728,191 (2002
                                  service: est.)
     Military manpower - reaching military males: 50,580 (2002 est.)
                             age annually:
            Military expenditures - dollar $1,497.1 million (FY01/02)
                                   figure:
        Military expenditures - percent of 0.8% (FY01/02)
                                      GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Austria
     ----------------------------
                 Disputes - international: minor disputes with Czech Republic
                                           and Slovenia continue over nuclear
                                           power plants and post-World War II
                                           treatment of German-speaking
                                           minorities
                            Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest
                                           Asian heroin and South American
                                           cocaine destined for Western Europe
    
                                         
  
  

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