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3 definitions found
 for Bhutan
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Bhutan \Bhutan\ n.
     a principality in the Himalayas northeast of India.
     [WordNet 1.5]

From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Bhutan
      n 1: a landlocked principality in the Himalayas to the northeast
           of India [syn: Bhutan, Kingdom of Bhutan]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Bhutan
  
     Introduction Bhutan
     -------------------
                              Background: In 1865, Britain and Bhutan signed
                                          the Treaty of Sinchulu, under which
                                          Bhutan would receive an annual
                                          subsidy in exchange for ceding some
                                          border land. Under British
                                          influence, a monarchy was set up in
                                          1907; three years later, a treaty
                                          was signed whereby the British
                                          agreed not to interfere in Bhutanese
                                          internal affairs and Bhutan allowed
                                          Britain to direct its foreign
                                          affairs. This role was assumed by
                                          independent India after 1947. Two
                                          years later, a formal Indo-Bhutanese
                                          accord returned the areas of Bhutan
                                          annexed by the British, formalized
                                          the annual subsidies the country
                                          received, and defined India's
                                          responsibilities in defense and
                                          foreign relations. A refugee issue
                                          of some 100,000 Bhutanese in Nepal
                                          remains unresolved; 90% of the
                                          refugees are housed in seven United
                                          Nations Office of the High
                                          Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
                                          camps. Maoist Assamese separatists
                                          from India, who have established
                                          themselves in the southeast portion
                                          of Bhutan, have drawn Indian cross-
                                          border incursions.
    
     Geography Bhutan
     ----------------
                                Location: Southern Asia, between China and
                                          India
                  Geographic coordinates: 27 30 N, 90 30 E
                          Map references: Asia
                                    Area: total: 47,000 sq km
                                          water: 0 sq km
                                          land: 47,000 sq km
                      Area - comparative: about half the size of Indiana
                         Land boundaries: total: 1,075 km
                                          border countries: China 470 km,
                                          India 605 km
                               Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
                         Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
                                 Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains;
                                          cool winters and hot summers in
                                          central valleys; severe winters and
                                          cool summers in Himalayas
                                 Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile
                                          valleys and savanna
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Drangme Chhu 97 m
                                          highest point: Kula Kangri 7,553 m
                       Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium
                                          carbide
                                Land use: arable land: 2.98%
                                          permanent crops: 0.43%
                                          other: 96.6% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 400 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: violent storms from the Himalayas
                                          are the source of the country's name
                                          which translates as Land of the
                                          Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides
                                          during the rainy season
            Environment - current issues: soil erosion; limited access to
                                          potable water
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Nuclear Test Ban
                                          signed, but not ratified: Law of the
                                          Sea
                        Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location
                                          between China and India; controls
                                          several key Himalayan mountain
                                          passes
    
     People Bhutan
     -------------
                              Population: 2,094,176
                                          note: other estimates range as low
                                          as 810,000 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 39.8% (male 431,883;
                                          female 401,386)
                                          15-64 years: 56.2% (male 606,184;
                                          female 571,310)
                                          65 years and over: 4% (male 42,193;
                                          female 41,220) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 2.15% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 35.26 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 13.74 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 1.07 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 106.79 deaths/1,000 live births
                                          (2002 est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 53.19 years
                                          female: 52.83 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 53.53 years
                    Total fertility rate: 5 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ less than 100 (1999 est.)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
                             Nationality: noun: Bhutanese (singular and
                                          plural)
                                          adjective: Bhutanese
                           Ethnic groups: Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%
                                          (includes Lhotsampas--one of several
                                          Nepalese ethnic groups), indigenous
                                          or migrant tribes 15%
                               Religions: Lamaistic Buddhist 75%, Indian- and
                                          Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%
                               Languages: Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak
                                          various Tibetan dialects, Nepalese
                                          speak various Nepalese dialects
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 42.2%
                                          male: 56.2%
                                          female: 28.1% (1995 est.)
    
     Government Bhutan
     -----------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of
                                          Bhutan
                                          conventional short form: Bhutan
                         Government type: monarchy; special treaty
                                          relationship with India
                                 Capital: Thimphu
                Administrative divisions: 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular
                                          and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha,
                                          Chirang, Dagana, Geylegphug, Ha,
                                          Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel,
                                          Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar,
                                          Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu,
                                          Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang
                                          note: there may be two new districts
                                          named Gasa and Yangtse
                            Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)
                        National holiday: National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became
                                          first hereditary king), 17 December
                                          (1907)
                            Constitution: no written constitution or bill of
                                          rights; note - Bhutan uses 1953
                                          Royal decree for the Constitution of
                                          the National Assembly; on 7 July
                                          1998, a Royal edict was ratified
                                          giving the National Assembly
                                          additional powers
                            Legal system: based on Indian law and English
                                          common law; has not accepted
                                          compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
                                Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-
                                          level elections
                        Executive branch: chief of state: King Jigme Singye
                                          WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972)
                                          elections: none; the monarch is
                                          hereditary, but democratic reforms
                                          in July 1998 grant the National
                                          Assembly authority to remove the
                                          monarch with two-thirds vote
                                          head of government: Chairman of the
                                          Council of Ministers Lyonpo Khandu
                                          WANGCHUK (since 8 August 2001)
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the
                                          monarch, approved by the National
                                          Assembly; members serve fixed, five-
                                          year terms; note - there is also a
                                          Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi
                                          Tsokde), members nominated by the
                                          monarch
                      Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or
                                          Tshogdu (150 seats; 105 elected from
                                          village constituencies, 10 represent
                                          religious bodies, and 35 are
                                          designated by the monarch to
                                          represent government and other
                                          secular interests; members serve
                                          three-year terms)
                                          elections: last held NA (next to be
                                          held NA)
                                          election results: NA
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Appeal (the
                                          monarch); High Court (judges
                                          appointed by the monarch)
           Political parties and leaders: no legal parties
            Political pressure groups and Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese
                                 leaders: organizations leading militant
                                          antigovernment campaign; Indian
                                          merchant community; United Front for
                                          Democracy (exiled)
               International organization AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD,
                           participation: ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, IOC, IOM
                                          (observer), ITU, NAM, OPCW
                                          (signatory), SAARC, UN, UNCTAD,
                                          UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTrO
                                          (observer)
     Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Bhutan has a Permanent
                                          Mission to the UN; address: 2 United
                                          Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York,
                                          NY 10017; telephone [1] (212) 826-
                                          1919; the Bhutanese mission to the
                                          UN has consular jurisdiction in the
                                          US
                                          consulate(s) general: New York
       Diplomatic representation from the the US and Bhutan have no formal
                                      US: diplomatic relations, although
                                          informal contact is maintained
                                          between the Bhutanese and US Embassy
                                          in New Delhi (India)
                        Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower
                                          hoist side corner; the upper
                                          triangle is yellow and the lower
                                          triangle is orange; centered along
                                          the dividing line is a large black
                                          and white dragon facing away from
                                          the hoist side
    
     Economy Bhutan
     --------------
                      Economy - overview: The economy, one of the world's
                                          smallest and least developed, is
                                          based on agriculture and forestry,
                                          providing the main livelihood for
                                          more than 90% of the population.
                                          Agriculture consists largely of
                                          subsistence farming and animal
                                          husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate
                                          the terrain and make the building of
                                          roads and other infrastructure
                                          difficult and expensive. The economy
                                          is closely aligned with India's
                                          through strong trade and monetary
                                          links. The industrial sector is
                                          technologically backward, with most
                                          production of the cottage industry
                                          type. Most development projects,
                                          such as road construction, rely on
                                          Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's
                                          hydropower potential and its
                                          attraction for tourists are key
                                          resources. The Bhutanese Government
                                          has made some progress in expanding
                                          the nation's productive base and
                                          improving social welfare. Model
                                          education, social, and environment
                                          programs in Bhutan are underway with
                                          support from multilateral
                                          development organizations. Each
                                          economic program takes into account
                                          the government's desire to protect
                                          the country's environment and
                                          cultural traditions. Detailed
                                          controls and uncertain policies in
                                          areas like industrial licensing,
                                          trade, labor, and finance continue
                                          to hamper foreign investment. Major
                                          hydroelectric projects will lead
                                          expansion of GDP in 2002 by an
                                          estimated 6%.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.5
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 6% (2000 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,200
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 45%
                                          industry: 20%
                                          services: 35% (2001 est.)
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (2000 est.)
                             Labor force: NA
                                          note: massive lack of skilled labor
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 93%, services 5%,
                                          industry and commerce 2%
                       Unemployment rate: NA%
                                  Budget: revenues: $146 million
                                          expenditures: $152 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (FY95/96 est.)
                                          note: the government of India
                                          finances nearly three-fifths of
                                          Bhutan's budget expenditures
                              Industries: cement, wood products, processed
                                          fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium
                                          carbide
       Industrial production growth rate: 9.3% (1996 est.)
                Electricity - production: 1.876 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 0.05%
                                          hydro: 99.95%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 380.68 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 1.385 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 21 million kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: rice, corn, root crops, citrus,
                                          foodgrains; dairy products, eggs
                                 Exports: $154 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: electricity (to India), cardamom,
                                          gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement,
                                          fruit, precious stones, spices
                      Exports - partners: India 94%, Bangladesh
                                 Imports: $196 million (c.i.f., 2000 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: fuel and lubricants, grain,
                                          machinery and parts, vehicles,
                                          fabrics, rice
                      Imports - partners: India 77%, Japan, UK, Germany, US
                         Debt - external: $245 million (1998)
                Economic aid - recipient: substantial aid from India and other
                                          nations
                                Currency: ngultrum (BTN); Indian rupee (INR)
                           Currency code: BTN; INR
                          Exchange rates: ngultrum per US dollar - 48.336
                                          (January 2002), 47.186 (2001),
                                          44.942 (2000), 43.055 (1999), 41.259
                                          (1998), 36.313 (1997); note - the
                                          Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with
                                          the Indian rupee which is also legal
                                          tender
                             Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
    
     Communications Bhutan
     ---------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 6,000 (1997)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: NA
                        Telephone system: general assessment: NA
                                          domestic: domestic telephone service
                                          is very poor with few telephones in
                                          use
                                          international: international
                                          telephone and telegraph service is
                                          by landline through India; a
                                          satellite earth station was planned
                                          (1990)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)
                                  Radios: 37,000 (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)
                             Televisions: 11,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .bt
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA
                          Internet users: 500 (2000)
    
     Transportation Bhutan
     ---------------------
                                          Railways: 0 km
                                          Highways: total: 3,285 km
                                                    paved: 1,994 km
                                                    unpaved: 1,291 km (1996)
                                         Waterways: none
                                 Ports and harbors: none
                                          Airports: 2 (2001)
                     Airports - with paved runways: total: 1
                                                    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2001)
                   Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1
                                                    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001)
    
     Military Bhutan
     ---------------
                       Military branches: Royal Bhutan Army, Royal Bodyguard,
                                          National Militia, Royal Bhutan
                                          Police, Forest Guards
        Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 517,470 (2002 est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 276,303 (2002 est.)
                                 service:
             Military manpower - reaching males: 21,167 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $9.3 million (FY01)
                                  figure:
       Military expenditures - percent of 1.9% (FY01)
                                     GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Bhutan
     ---------------------------
                Disputes - international: approximately 100,000 Bhutanese
                                          refugees living in Nepal, 90% of
                                          whom reside in seven UN Office of
                                          the High Commissioner for Refugees
                                          camps, place decades-long strains on
                                          Nepal
    
                                         
  
  

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