dict.org

The DICT Development Group


Search for:
Search type:
Database:

Database copyright information
Server information
Wiki: Resources, links, and other information


2 definitions found
 for Bulgaria
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Bulgaria
      n 1: a republic in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula in
           southeastern Europe [syn: Bulgaria, Republic of
           Bulgaria]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Bulgaria
  
     Introduction Bulgaria
     ---------------------
                              Background: The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic
                                          tribe, merged with the local Slavic
                                          inhabitants in the late 7th century
                                          to form the first Bulgarian state.
                                          In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria
                                          struggled with the Byzantine Empire
                                          to assert its place in the Balkans,
                                          but by the end of the 14th century
                                          the country was overrun by the
                                          Ottoman Turks. Bulgaria regained its
                                          independence in 1878, but having
                                          fought on the losing side in both
                                          World Wars, it fell within the
                                          Soviet sphere of influence and
                                          became a People's Republic in 1946.
                                          Communist domination ended in 1990,
                                          when Bulgaria held its first
                                          multiparty election since World War
                                          II and began the contentious process
                                          of moving toward political democracy
                                          and a market economy while combating
                                          inflation, unemployment, corruption,
                                          and crime. Today, reforms and
                                          democratization keep Bulgaria on a
                                          path toward eventual integration
                                          into NATO and the EU - with which it
                                          began accession negotiations in
                                          2000.
    
     Geography Bulgaria
     ------------------
                                Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the
                                          Black Sea, between Romania and
                                          Turkey
                  Geographic coordinates: 43 00 N, 25 00 E
                          Map references: Europe
                                    Area: total: 110,910 sq km
                                          water: 360 sq km
                                          land: 110,550 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee
                         Land boundaries: total: 1,808 km
                                          border countries: Greece 494 km, The
                                          Former Yugoslav Republic of
                                          Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km,
                                          Yugoslavia 318 km, Turkey 240 km
                               Coastline: 354 km
                         Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM
                                          exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot,
                                          dry summers
                                 Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in
                                          north and southeast
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
                                          highest point: Musala 2,925 m
                       Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal,
                                          timber, arable land
                                Land use: arable land: 39%
                                          permanent crops: 1.8%
                                          other: 59.19% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 8,000 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides
            Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial
                                          emissions; rivers polluted from raw
                                          sewage, heavy metals, detergents;
                                          deforestation; forest damage from
                                          air pollution and resulting acid
                                          rain; soil contamination from heavy
                                          metals from metallurgical plants and
                                          industrial wastes
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Air
                              agreements: Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
                                          Pollution-Persistent Organic
                                          Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur
                                          85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic
                                          Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
                                          Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
                                          Resources, Antarctic Treaty,
                                          Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                          Desertification, Endangered Species,
                                          Environmental Modification,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
                                          Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
                                          Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    
                                          signed, but not ratified: Air
                                          Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate
                                          Change-Kyoto Protocol
                        Geography - note: strategic location near Turkish
                                          Straits; controls key land routes
                                          from Europe to Middle East and Asia
    
     People Bulgaria
     ---------------
                              Population: 7,621,337 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.6% (male 572,961;
                                          female 543,004)
                                          15-64 years: 68.5% (male 2,569,199;
                                          female 2,648,461)
                                          65 years and over: 16.9% (male
                                          540,109; female 747,603) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: -1.11% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 8.05 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 14.42 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: -4.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 0.94 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 14.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.5 years
                                          female: 75.22 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 67.98 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.13 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.01% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 346 (2000)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Bulgarian(s)
                                          adjective: Bulgarian
                           Ethnic groups: Bulgarian 83.6%, Turk 9.5%, Roma
                                          4.6%, other 2.3% (including
                                          Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar,
                                          Circassian) (1998)
                               Religions: Bulgarian Orthodox 83.8%, Muslim
                                          12.1%, Roman Catholic 1.7%, Jewish
                                          0.8%, Protestant, Gregorian-
                                          Armenian, and other 1.6% (1998)
                               Languages: Bulgarian, secondary languages
                                          closely correspond to ethnic
                                          breakdown
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 98%
                                          male: 99%
                                          female: 98% (1999)
    
     Government Bulgaria
     -------------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          Bulgaria
                                          conventional short form: Bulgaria
                         Government type: parliamentary democracy
                                 Capital: Sofia
                Administrative divisions: 28 provinces (oblasti, singular -
                                          oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas,
                                          Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo,
                                          Kurdzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech,
                                          Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven,
                                          Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen,
                                          Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya,
                                          Sofiya-Grad, Stara Zagora,
                                          Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo,
                                          Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol
                            Independence: 3 March 1878 (from Ottoman Empire)
                        National holiday: Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)
                            Constitution: adopted 12 July 1991
                            Legal system: civil law and criminal law based on
                                          Roman law; accepts compulsory ICJ
                                          jurisdiction
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Georgi
                                          PARVANOV (since 22 January 2002);
                                          Vice President Angel MARIN (since 22
                                          January 2002)
                                          head of government: Chairman of the
                                          Council of Ministers (Prime
                                          Minister) Simeon SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA
                                          (since 24 July 2001); Deputy Prime
                                          Ministers Nikolay VASILEV (since 24
                                          July 2001), Kostadin PASKALEV (since
                                          24 July 2001), and Lidiya SHULEVA
                                          (since 24 July 2001)
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          elected by the National Assembly
                                          elections: president and vice
                                          president elected on the same ticket
                                          by popular vote for five-year terms;
                                          election last held 11 November and
                                          18 November 2001 (next to be held NA
                                          2006); chairman of the Council of
                                          Ministers (prime minister) nominated
                                          by the president; deputy prime
                                          ministers nominated by the prime
                                          minister
                                          election results: Georgi PARVANOV
                                          elected president; percent of vote -
                                          Georgi PARVANOV 54.13%, Petar
                                          STOYANOV 45.87%
                      Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or
                                          Narodno Sobranie (240 seats; members
                                          elected by popular vote to serve
                                          four-year terms)
                                          elections: last held 17 June 2001
                                          (next to be held NA June 2005)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - NMS2 42.74%, UHdDF 18.18%,
                                          CFB 17.15%, MRF 7.45%; seats by
                                          party - NMS2 120, UHdDF 51, CFB 48,
                                          MRF 21; note - seating as of
                                          February 2002 - NMS2 115, UHdDF 51,
                                          CFB 48, MRF 21, independents 5
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Administrative Court;
                                          Supreme Court of Cassation;
                                          Constitutional Court (12 justices
                                          appointed or elected for nine-year
                                          terms); Supreme Judicial Council
                                          (consists of the chairmen of the two
                                          Supreme Courts, the Chief
                                          Prosecutor, and 22 other members;
                                          responsible for appointing the
                                          justices, prosecutors, and
                                          investigating magistrates in the
                                          justice system; members of the
                                          Supreme Judicial Council elected for
                                          five-year terms, 11 elected by the
                                          National Assembly and 11 by bodies
                                          of the judiciary)
           Political parties and leaders: Bulgarian Radical Union [Evgeniy
                                          BAKURDZHIEV]; Bulgarian Socialist
                                          Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV];
                                          Coalition for Bulgaria or CFB (bloc
                                          led by BSP, includes Ecoglasnost
                                          Political Club and Bulgarian
                                          Agrarian National Union) [leader
                                          NA]; Internal Macedonian
                                          Revolutionary Organization or VMRO
                                          [Krasimir KARAKACHNOV]; Movement for
                                          Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Ahmed
                                          DOGAN]; National Movement for Simeon
                                          II or NMS2 [Simeon SAXE-COBURG-
                                          GOTHA]; New Civic Party for Bulgaria
                                          [Bogomil BONEV]; People's Union or
                                          PU (includes Bulgarian Agrarian
                                          National Union and Democratic Party)
                                          [Anastasiya MOZER]; St. George's Day
                                          [Lyuben DILOV, Jr.]; Union of
                                          Democratic Forces or UHdDF
                                          [Ekaterina MIKHAYLOVA]; Union of
                                          Free Democrats or UFD [Stefan
                                          SOFIYANSKI]; United Democratic
                                          Forces (consisting of UHdDF and
                                          People's Union) [Ekaterina
                                          MIKHAYLOVA]
            Political pressure groups and agrarian movement; Bulgarian
                                 leaders: Democratic Center; Confederation of
                                          Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria
                                          or CITUB; Democratic Alliance for
                                          the Republic or DAR; New Union for
                                          Democracy or NUD; Podkrepa Labor
                                          Confederation; numerous regional,
                                          ethnic, and national interest groups
                                          with various agendas
               International organization ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC,
                           participation: CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
                                          EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA,
                                          IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS,
                                          IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO,
                                          Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM
                                          (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW,
                                          OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security
                                          Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO,
                                          UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP,
                                          UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner),
                                          WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador-
                                          designate Elena POPTODOROVA
                                          consulate(s): New York
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 387-7969
                                          chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20008
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Richard
                                      US: M. MILES
                                          embassy: 1 Suborna Street, Sofia
                                          mailing address: American Embassy
                                          Sofia, Department of State,
                                          Washington, DC 20521-5740
                                          telephone: [359] (2) 937-5100
                                          FAX: [359] (2) 981-89-77
                        Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of
                                          white (top), green, and red; the
                                          national emblem formerly on the
                                          hoist side of the white stripe has
                                          been removed - it contained a
                                          rampant lion within a wreath of
                                          wheat ears below a red five-pointed
                                          star and above a ribbon bearing the
                                          dates 681 (first Bulgarian state
                                          established) and 1944 (liberation
                                          from Nazi control)
    
     Economy Bulgaria
     ----------------
                      Economy - overview: Bulgaria, a former communist country
                                          striving to enter the European
                                          Union, has experienced macroeconomic
                                          stability and positive growth rates
                                          since a major economic downturn in
                                          1996 led to the fall of the then
                                          socialist government. The current
                                          government, elected in 2001, has
                                          pledged to maintain the fundamental
                                          economic policy objectives of its
                                          predecessor, i.e., retaining the
                                          Currency Board, practicing sound
                                          financial policies, accelerating
                                          privatization, and pursuing
                                          structural reforms. A $300 million
                                          stand-by agreement negotiated with
                                          the IMF at the end of 2001 will help
                                          the government maintain economic
                                          stability as it seeks to overcome
                                          high rates of poverty and
                                          unemployment.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $48
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,200
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 14.5%
                                          industry: 27.8%
                                          services: 57.7% (2000)
           Population below poverty line: 35% (2000 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 4.5%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 22.8% (1997)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 34.1 (1997)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.5% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 3.83 million (2000 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 26%, industry 31%,
                                          services 43% (1998 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 17.5% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $5.57 billion
                                          expenditures: $5.68 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2001 est.)
                              Industries: electricity, gas and water; food,
                                          beverages and tobacco; machinery and
                                          equipment, base metals, chemical
                                          products, coke, refined petroleum,
                                          nuclear fuel
       Industrial production growth rate: 2% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 38.84 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 47.9%
                                          hydro: 7.54%
                                          other: 0.1% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 44.46%
               Electricity - consumption: 34.42 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 3.2 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 1.5 billion kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: vegetables, fruits, tobacco,
                                          livestock, wine, wheat, barley,
                                          sunflowers, sugar beets
                                 Exports: $4.6 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: clothing, footwear, iron and steel,
                                          machinery and equipment, fuels
                      Exports - partners: Italy 14%, Turkey 10%, Germany 9%,
                                          Greece 8%, Yugoslavia 8% (2000)
                                 Imports: $6.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: fuels, minerals, and raw materials;
                                          machinery and equipment; metals and
                                          ores; chemicals and plastics; food,
                                          textiles
                      Imports - partners: Russia 24%, Germany 14%, Italy 8%,
                                          Greece 5%, France 5% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $10.2 billion (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $1 billion (1999 est.)
                                Currency: lev (BGL)
                           Currency code: BGL
                          Exchange rates: leva per US dollar - 2.2147 (January
                                          2002), 2.1847 (2001), 2.1233 (2000),
                                          1.8364 (1999), 1,760.36 (1998),
                                          1,681.88 (1997)
                                          note: on 5 July 1999, the lev was
                                          redenominated; the post-5 July 1999
                                          lev is equal to 1,000 of the pre-
                                          5 July 1999 lev
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
    
     Communications Bulgaria
     -----------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 3,186,731 (2001)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.054 million (2001)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: extensive but
                                          antiquated
                                          domestic: more than two-thirds of
                                          the lines are residential; telephone
                                          service is available in most
                                          villages; a fairly modern digital
                                          cable trunk line now connects
                                          switching centers in most of the
                                          regions, the others are connected by
                                          digital microwave radio relay
                                          international: direct dialing to 58
                                          countries; satellite earth stations
                                          - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean
                                          region); 2 Intelsat (Atlantic and
                                          Indian Ocean regions)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 31, FM 63, shortwave 2 (2001)
                                  Radios: 4.51 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 39 (plus 1,242 repeaters) (2001)
                             Televisions: 3.31 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .bg
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 200 (2001)
                          Internet users: 585,000 (2001)
    
     Transportation Bulgaria
     -----------------------
                                Railways: total: 4,294 km
                                          standard gauge: 4,049 km 1.435-
                                          m gauge (2,710 km electrified)
                                          narrow gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge
                                          (2002)
                                Highways: total: 37,288 km
                                          paved: 33,786 km (including 324 km
                                          of expressways)
                                          unpaved: 3,502 km (2001)
                               Waterways: 470 km (1987)
                               Pipelines: petroleum products 525 km; natural
                                          gas 1,500 km (1999)
                       Ports and harbors: Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna,
                                          Vidin
                         Merchant marine: total: 77 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 881,758 GRT/1,312,833 DWT
                                          ships by type: bulk 43, cargo 15,
                                          chemical tanker 4, container 2,
                                          passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker
                                          4, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated
                                          cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3, short-
                                          sea passenger 1, specialized tanker
                                          1 (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 215 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 129
                                          over 3,047 m: 1
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 1
                                          under 914 m: 93 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 86
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 10
                                          under 914 m: 74 (2001)
                               Heliports: 1 (2001)
    
     Military Bulgaria
     -----------------
                        Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense
                                           Forces (subordinate to Ministry of
                                           Defense), Internal Forces
                                           (subordinate to Ministry of
                                           Interior), Civil Defense Forces
                                           (subordinate to the president)
         Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age (2002 est.)
         Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,873,052 (2002
                                           est.)
      Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 1,566,816 (2002
                                  service: est.)
     Military manpower - reaching military males: 56,104 (2002 est.)
                             age annually:
            Military expenditures - dollar $356 million (FY02)
                                   figure:
        Military expenditures - percent of 2.7% (FY02)
                                      GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Bulgaria
     -----------------------------
                Disputes - international: because of a shift in the Danube
                                          course since the last correction of
                                          the boundary in 1920, a joint
                                          Bulgarian-Romanian team will
                                          recommend sovereignty changes to
                                          several islands and redefine the
                                          boundary
                           Illicit drugs: major European transshipment point
                                          for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a
                                          lesser degree, South American
                                          cocaine for the European market;
                                          limited producer of precursor
                                          chemicals
    
                                         
  
  

Questions or comments about this site? Contact webmaster@dict.org