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4 definitions found
 for Ethiopia
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Ethiopia
      n 1: Ethiopia is a republic in northeastern Africa on the Red
           Sea; formerly called Abyssinia [syn: Ethiopia, Federal
           Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Yaltopya, Abyssinia]

From Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary :

  Ethiopia
     country of burnt faces; the Greek word by which the Hebrew Cush
     is rendered (Gen. 2:13; 2 Kings 19:9; Esther 1:1; Job 28:19; Ps.
     68:31; 87:4), a country which lay to the south of Egypt,
     beginning at Syene on the First Cataract (Ezek. 29:10; 30:6),
     and extending to beyond the confluence of the White and Blue
     Nile. It corresponds generally with what is now known as the
     Soudan (i.e., the land of the blacks). This country was known to
     the Hebrews, and is described in Isa. 18:1; Zeph. 3:10. They
     carried on some commercial intercourse with it (Isa. 45:14).
     
       Its inhabitants were descendants of Ham (Gen. 10:6; Jer.
     13:23; Isa. 18:2, "scattered and peeled," A.V.; but in R.V.,
     "tall and smooth"). Herodotus, the Greek historian, describes
     them as "the tallest and handsomest of men." They are frequently
     represented on Egyptian monuments, and they are all of the type
     of the true negro. As might be expected, the history of this
     country is interwoven with that of Egypt.
     
       Ethiopia is spoken of in prophecy (Ps. 68:31; 87:4; Isa.
     45:14; Ezek. 30:4-9; Dan. 11:43; Nah. 3:8-10; Hab. 3:7; Zeph.
     2:12).
     

From Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary (late 1800's) :

  Ethiopia, blackness; heat
  

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Ethiopia
  
     Introduction Ethiopia
     ---------------------
                              Background: Unique among African countries, the
                                          ancient Ethiopian monarchy
                                          maintained its freedom from colonial
                                          rule, one exception being the
                                          Italian occupation of 1936-41. In
                                          1974 a military junta, the Derg,
                                          deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who
                                          had ruled since 1930) and
                                          established a socialist state. Torn
                                          by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-
                                          scale drought, and massive refugee
                                          problems, the regime was finally
                                          toppled by a coalition of rebel
                                          forces, the Ethiopian People's
                                          Revolutionary Democratic Front
                                          (EPRDF), in 1991. A constitution was
                                          adopted in 1994 and Ethiopia's first
                                          multiparty elections were held in
                                          1995. A two and a half year border
                                          war with Eritrea ended with a peace
                                          treaty on 12 December 2000.
    
     Geography Ethiopia
     ------------------
                                Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia
                  Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 38 00 E
                          Map references: Africa
                                    Area: total: 1,127,127 sq km
                                          water: 7,444 sq km
                                          land: 1,119,683 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of
                                          Texas
                         Land boundaries: total: 5,328 km
                                          border countries: Djibouti 349 km,
                                          Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 861 km,
                                          Somalia 1,600 km, Sudan 1,606 km
                               Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
                         Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
                                 Climate: tropical monsoon with wide
                                          topographic-induced variation
                                 Terrain: high plateau with central mountain
                                          range divided by Great Rift Valley
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Denakil Depression -
                                          125 m
                                          highest point: Ras Dejen 4,620 m
                       Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum,
                                          copper, potash, natural gas,
                                          hydropower
                                Land use: arable land: 9.9%
                                          permanent crops: 0.65%
                                          other: 89.45% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 1,900 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: geologically active Great Rift
                                          Valley susceptible to earthquakes,
                                          volcanic eruptions; frequent
                                          droughts
            Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil
                                          erosion; desertification; water
                                          shortages in some areas from water-
                                          intensive farming and poor
                                          management
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone
                                          Layer Protection
                                          signed, but not ratified:
                                          Environmental Modification, Law of
                                          the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
                        Geography - note: landlocked - entire coastline along
                                          the Red Sea was lost with the de
                                          jure independence of Eritrea on 24
                                          May 1993; the Blue Nile, the chief
                                          headstream of the Nile, rises in
                                          T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest
                                          Ethiopia
    
     People Ethiopia
     ---------------
                              Population: 67,673,031
                                          note: estimates for this country
                                          explicitly take into account the
                                          effects of excess mortality due to
                                          AIDS; this can result in lower life
                                          expectancy, higher infant mortality
                                          and death rates, lower population
                                          and growth rates, and changes in the
                                          distribution of population by age
                                          and sex than would otherwise be
                                          expected (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 47.2% (male 16,098,191;
                                          female 15,879,065)
                                          15-64 years: 50% (male 17,005,387;
                                          female 16,801,536)
                                          65 years and over: 2.8% (male
                                          854,023; female 1,034,829) (2002
                                          est.)
                  Population growth rate: 2.64% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 44.31 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 18.04 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: 0.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          note: repatriation of Ethiopians who
                                          fled to Sudan for refuge from war
                                          and famine in earlier years is
                                          expected to continue for several
                                          years; some Sudanese and Somali
                                          refugees, who fled to Ethiopia from
                                          the fighting or famine in their own
                                          countries, continue to return to
                                          their homes (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 1.01 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 98.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 44.21 years
                                          female: 45.09 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 43.36 years
                    Total fertility rate: 6.94 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 10.63% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 3 million (1999 est.)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 280,000 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Ethiopian(s)
                                          adjective: Ethiopian
                           Ethnic groups: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigre 32%,
                                          Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%,
                                          Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%
                               Religions: Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox
                                          35%-40%, animist 12%, other 3%-8%
                               Languages: Amharic, Tigrinya, Oromigna,
                                          Guaragigna, Somali, Arabic, other
                                          local languages, English (major
                                          foreign language taught in schools)
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 35.5%
                                          male: 45.5%
                                          female: 25.3% (1995 est.)
    
     Government Ethiopia
     -------------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: Federal
                                          Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
                                          conventional short form: Ethiopia
                                          local short form: Ityop'iya
                                          former: Abyssinia, Italian East
                                          Africa
                                          local long form: Ityop'iya
                                          Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
                                          abbreviation: FDRE
                         Government type: federal republic
                                 Capital: Addis Ababa
                Administrative divisions: 9 ethnically-based states (kililoch,
                                          singular - kilil) and 2 self-
                                          governing administrations*
                                          (astedaderoch, singular -
                                          astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis
                                          Ababa), Afar, Amara, Binshangul
                                          Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch,
                                          Hareri Hizb, Oromiya, Sumale
                                          (Somali), Tigray, YeDebub Biheroch
                                          Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern
                                          Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples
                                          Region)
                            Independence: oldest independent country in Africa
                                          and one of the oldest in the world -
                                          at least 2,000 years
                        National holiday: National Day (defeat of MENGISTU
                                          regime), 28 May (1991)
                            Constitution: ratified December 1994; effective 22
                                          August 1995
                            Legal system: currently transitional mix of
                                          national and regional courts
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President GIRMA
                                          Woldegiorgis (since 8 October 2001)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          MELES Zenawi (since NA August 1995)
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers as
                                          provided for in the December 1994
                                          constitution; ministers are selected
                                          by the prime minister and approved
                                          by the House of People's
                                          Representatives
                                          elections: president elected by the
                                          House of People's Representatives
                                          for a six-year term; election last
                                          held 8 October 2001 (next to be held
                                          NA October 2007); prime minister
                                          designated by the party in power
                                          following legislative elections
                                          election results: GIRMA Woldegiorgis
                                          elected president; percent of vote
                                          by the House of People's
                                          Representatives - 100%
                      Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the
                                          House of Federation or upper chamber
                                          (108 seats; members are chosen by
                                          state assemblies to serve five-year
                                          terms) and the House of People's
                                          Representatives or lower chamber
                                          (548 seats; members are directly
                                          elected by popular vote from single-
                                          member districts to serve five-year
                                          terms)
                                          elections: last held 14 May 2000
                                          (next to be held NA May 2005)
                                          note: irregularities and violence at
                                          a number of polling stations
                                          necessitated the rescheduling of
                                          voting in certain constituencies;
                                          voting postponed in Somali regional
                                          state because of severe drought
                                          election results: percent of vote -
                                          NA%; seats - OPDO 177, ANDM 134,
                                          TPLF 38, WGGPDO 27, EPRDF 19, SPDO
                                          18, GNDM 15, KSPDO 10, ANDP 8, GPRDF
                                          7, SOPDM 7, BGPDUF 6, BMPDO 5, KAT
                                          4, other regional political
                                          groupings 22, independents 8; note -
                                          43 seats unconfirmed
                         Judicial branch: Federal Supreme Court (the president
                                          and vice president of the Federal
                                          Supreme Court are recommended by the
                                          prime minister and appointed by the
                                          House of People's Representatives;
                                          for other federal judges, the prime
                                          minister submits to the House of
                                          People's Representatives for
                                          appointment candidates selected by
                                          the Federal Judicial Administrative
                                          Council)
           Political parties and leaders: Afar National Democratic Party or
                                          ANDP [leader NA]; All-Amhara
                                          People's Organization or AAPO [HAILU
                                          Shawel]; Amhara National Democratic
                                          Movement or ANDM [ADDISU Legesse];
                                          Bench Madji People's Democratic
                                          Organization or BMPDO [leader NA];
                                          Benishangul Gumuz People's
                                          Democratic Unity Front or BGPDUF
                                          [leader NA]; Ethiopian Democratic
                                          Party or EDP [ADMASSU Gebeyehu];
                                          Ethiopian People's Revolutionary
                                          Democratic Front or EPRDF [MELES
                                          Zenawi] (an alliance of ANDM, OPDO,
                                          SEPDF, and TPLF); Gedeyo People's
                                          Revolutionary Democratic Fund or
                                          GPRDF [leader NA]; Gurage
                                          Nationalities' Democratic Movement
                                          orGNDM [leader NA]; Kafa Shaka
                                          People's Democratic Organization or
                                          KSPDO [leader NA]; Kembata, Alabaa
                                          and Tembaro or KAT [leader NA];
                                          Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD
                                          Ibsa Gudina]; Oromo National
                                          Congress or ONC [MERERA Gudina];
                                          Oromo People's Democratic
                                          Organization or OPDO [JUNEDI Sado];
                                          Sidamo People's Democratic
                                          Organization or SPDO [leader NA];
                                          South Ethiopia People's Democratic
                                          Front or SEPDF [KASSU Yilala]; South
                                          Omo People's Democratic Movement or
                                          SOPDM [leader NA]; Tigrayan People's
                                          Liberation Front or TPLF [MELES
                                          Zenawi]; Walayta, Gamo, Gofa, Dawro,
                                          and Konta People's Democratic
                                          Organization or WGGPDO [leader NA];
                                          dozens of small parties
            Political pressure groups and Council of Alternative Forces for
                                 leaders: Peace and Democracy in Ethiopia or
                                          CAFPDE [BEYANE Petros]; Southern
                                          Ethiopia People's Democratic
                                          Coalition or SEPDC [BEYANE Petros]
               International organization ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-24, G-
                           participation: 77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA,
                                          IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF,
                                          IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer),
                                          ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN,
                                          UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU,
                                          UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
                                          WTrO (observer)
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador
                                          KASSAHUN Ayele
                                          chancery: 3506 International Drive
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20008
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 686-9551
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 364-1200
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Tibor
                                      US: P. NAGY, Jr.
                                          embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
                                          mailing address: P. O. Box 1014,
                                          Addis Ababa
                                          telephone: [251] (1) 550666
                                          FAX: [251] (1) 551328
                        Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of
                                          green (top), yellow, and red with a
                                          yellow pentagram and single yellow
                                          rays emanating from the angles
                                          between the points on a light blue
                                          disk centered on the three bands;
                                          Ethiopia is the oldest independent
                                          country in Africa, and the three
                                          main colors of her flag were so
                                          often adopted by other African
                                          countries upon independence that
                                          they became known as the pan-African
                                          colors
    
     Economy Ethiopia
     ----------------
                      Economy - overview: Ethiopia's poverty-stricken economy
                                          is based on agriculture, which
                                          accounts for half of GDP, 85% of
                                          exports, and 80% of total
                                          employment. The agricultural sector
                                          suffers from frequent drought and
                                          poor cultivation practices, and as
                                          many as 4.6 million people need food
                                          assistance annually. Coffee is
                                          critical to the Ethiopian economy
                                          with exports of some $260 million in
                                          2000. Other important exports
                                          include qat, live animals, hides,
                                          and gold. The war with Eritrea in
                                          1999-2000 and recurrent drought have
                                          buffeted the economy, in particular
                                          coffee production. In November 2001
                                          Ethiopia qualified for debt relief
                                          from the Highly Indebted Poor
                                          Countries (HIPC) initiative. Under
                                          Ethiopia's land tenure system, the
                                          government owns all land and
                                          provides long-term leases to the
                                          tenants; the system continues to
                                          hamper growth in the industrial
                                          sector as entrepreneurs are unable
                                          to use land as collateral for loans.
                                          Despite this limitation, strong
                                          growth is expected to continue in
                                          the near term as good rainfall, the
                                          cessation of hostilities, and
                                          renewed foreign aid and debt relief
                                          push the economy forward.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $46
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 7.3% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $700 (2001
                                          est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 52.3%
                                          industry: 11.1%
                                          services: 36.6% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 64% (1996)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 3%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 33.7% (1995)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 40 (1995)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.8% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: NA
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry
                                          80%, government and services 12%,
                                          industry and construction 8% (1985)
                       Unemployment rate: NA%
                                  Budget: revenues: $1.8 billion
                                          expenditures: $1.9 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $600 million (2002 est.)
                              Industries: food processing, beverages,
                                          textiles, chemicals, metals
                                          processing, cement
       Industrial production growth rate: 6.7% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 1.63 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 1.84%
                                          hydro: 98.16%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 1.516 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed,
                                          sugarcane, potatoes, qat; hides,
                                          cattle, sheep, goats
                                 Exports: $442 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: coffee, qat, gold, leather products,
                                          oilseeds
                      Exports - partners: Germany 18%, Japan 11%, Djibouti
                                          11%, Saudi Arabia 8% (2000 est.)
                                 Imports: $1.54 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: food and live animals, petroleum and
                                          petroleum products, chemicals,
                                          machinery, motor vehicles, cereals,
                                          textiles
                      Imports - partners: Saudi Arabia 25%, US 9%, Italy 7%,
                                          Russia 4% (2000 est.)
                         Debt - external: $5.3 billion (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $308 million (FY00/01)
                                Currency: birr (ETB)
                           Currency code: ETB
                          Exchange rates: birr per US dollar (end of period) -
                                          8.455 (December 2001), 8.3140
                                          (December 2000), 8.3140 (2000),
                                          8.1340 (1999), 7.5030 (1998), 6.8640
                                          (1997)
                                          note: since 24 October 2001 exchange
                                          rates are determined on a daily
                                          basis via interbank transactions
                                          regulated by the Central Bank
                             Fiscal year: 8 July - 7 July
    
     Communications Ethiopia
     -----------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 231,900 (2000)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 17,800 (2000)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: open wire and
                                          microwave radio relay system;
                                          adequate for government use
                                          domestic: open wire; microwave radio
                                          relay; radio communication in the
                                          HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; two
                                          domestic satellites provide the
                                          national trunk service
                                          international: open wire to Sudan
                                          and Djibouti; microwave radio relay
                                          to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite
                                          earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1
                                          Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 0, shortwave 1 (2001)
                                  Radios: 15.2 million (2002)
           Television broadcast stations: 1 plus 24 repeaters (2002)
                             Televisions: 682,000 (2002)
                   Internet country code: .et
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2002)
                          Internet users: 20,000 (2002)
    
     Transportation Ethiopia
     -----------------------
                                Railways: total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of
                                          the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
                                          narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge
                                          note: in 1998, Djibouti and Ethiopia
                                          announced plans to revitalize the
                                          century-old railroad that links
                                          their capitals and since then
                                          Ethiopia has expended considerable
                                          effort to repair and maintain the
                                          lines; in 2001, Ethiopia and Sudan
                                          agreed to build a line from Ethiopia
                                          to Port Sudan (2000 est.)
                                Highways: total: 24,145 km
                                          paved: 3,290 km
                                          unpaved: 20,855 km (1998)
                               Waterways: none
                       Ports and harbors: none; Ethiopia is landlocked and was
                                          by agreement with Eritrea using the
                                          ports of Assab and Massawa; since
                                          the border dispute with Eritrea
                                          flared, Ethiopia has used the port
                                          of Djibouti for nearly all of its
                                          imports
                         Merchant marine: total: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 81,933 GRT/101,287 DWT
                                          ships by type: cargo 5, container 1,
                                          petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off
                                          2 (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 86 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 14
                                          over 3,047 m: 3
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 72
                                          over 3,047 m: 2
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 33
                                          under 914 m: 22 (2001)
    
     Military Ethiopia
     -----------------
                       Military branches: Ethiopian National Defense Force
                                          (Ground Forces, Air Force, militia,
                                          police)
                                          note: Ethiopia is landlocked and has
                                          no navy; following the secession of
                                          Eritrea, Ethiopian naval facilities
                                          remained in Eritrean possession
        Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 14,925,883 (2002
                                          est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 7,790,977 (2002
                                 service: est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 703,625 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $800 million (FY00)
                                  figure:
       Military expenditures - percent of 12.6% (FY00)
                                     GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Ethiopia
     -----------------------------
                Disputes - international: most of the southern half of the
                                          boundary with Somalia in the Ogaden
                                          region is a provisional
                                          administrative line; in the Ogaden,
                                          regional states have established a
                                          variety of conflicting relationships
                                          with the Somali Transitional
                                          National Government in Mogadishu,
                                          feuding factions in Puntland region,
                                          and the economically stabile break-
                                          away "Somaliland" region; Ethiopia
                                          agreeed in 2002 to demarcate its
                                          entire boundary with Sudan; Eritrea
                                          and Ethiopia have expressed general
                                          approval of the April 2002
                                          arbitration commission ruling re-
                                          delimiting the boundary, the focus
                                          of their 1998-2000 war; United
                                          Nations Mission in Ethiopia and
                                          Eritrea (UNMEE) will monitor
                                          activities within the 25-km wide
                                          temporary security zone in Eritrea
                                          until demarcation and de-mining are
                                          complete
                           Illicit drugs: transit hub for heroin originating
                                          in Southwest and Southeast Asia and
                                          destined for Europe and North
                                          America as well as cocaine destined
                                          for markets in southern Africa;
                                          cultivates qat (khat) for local use
                                          and regional export, principally to
                                          Djibouti and Somalia (legal in all
                                          three countries)
    
                                         
  
  

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