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1 definition found
 for Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
  
     Introduction Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
     ----------------------------------------------
                              Background: Although first sighted by an English
                                          navigator in 1592, the first landing
                                          (English) did not occur until almost
                                          a century later in 1690, and the
                                          first settlement (French) was not
                                          established until 1764. The colony
                                          was turned over to Spain two years
                                          later and the islands have since
                                          been the subject of a territorial
                                          dispute, first between Britain and
                                          Spain, then between Britain and
                                          Argentina. The UK asserted its claim
                                          to the islands by establishing a
                                          naval garrison there in 1833.
                                          Argentina invaded the islands on 2
                                          April 1982. The British responded
                                          with an expeditionary force that
                                          landed seven weeks later and after
                                          fierce fighting forced Argentine
                                          surrender on 14 June 1982.
    
     Geography Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
     -------------------------------------------
                                Location: Southern South America, islands in
                                          the South Atlantic Ocean, east of
                                          southern Argentina
                  Geographic coordinates: 51 45 S, 59 00 W
                          Map references: South America
                                    Area: total: 12,173 sq km
                                          note: includes the two main islands
                                          of East and West Falkland and about
                                          200 small islands
                                          water: 0 sq km
                                          land: 12,173 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut
                         Land boundaries: 0 km
                               Coastline: 1,288 km
                         Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 NM
                                          exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: cold marine; strong westerly winds,
                                          cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more
                                          than half of days in year;
                                          occasional snow all year, except in
                                          January and February, but does not
                                          accumulate
                                 Terrain: rocky, hilly, mountainous with some
                                          boggy, undulating plains
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
                                          highest point: Mount Usborne 705 m
                       Natural resources: fish, wildlife
                                Land use: arable land: 0%
                                          permanent crops: 0%
                                          other: 100% (99% permanent pastures,
                                          1% other) (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: NA sq km
                         Natural hazards: strong winds persist throughout the
                                          year
            Environment - current issues: overfishing by unlicensed vessels is
                                          a problem; reindeer were introduced
                                          to the islands in 2001 for
                                          commercial reasons; this is the only
                                          commercial reindeer herd in the
                                          world unaffected by the Chornobyl
                                          disaster
                        Geography - note: deeply indented coast provides good
                                          natural harbors; short growing
                                          season
    
     People Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
     ----------------------------------------
                               Population: 2,967 (July 2002 est.)
                            Age structure: 0-14 years: NA%
                                           15-64 years: NA%
                                           65 years and over: NA%
                   Population growth rate: 2.44% (2002 est.)
                               Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population
                               Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population
                       Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
                    Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births
                 Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA years
                                           male: NA years
                                           female: NA years
                     Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman
         HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
        HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
                                     AIDS:
                        HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
                              Nationality: noun: Falkland Islander(s)
                                           adjective: Falkland Island
                            Ethnic groups: British
                                Religions: primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic,
                                           United Free Church, Evangelist
                                           Church, Jehovah's Witnesses,
                                           Lutheran, Seventh-Day Adventist
                                Languages: English
    
     Government Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
     --------------------------------------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: none
                                          conventional short form: Falkland
                                          Islands (Islas Malvinas)
                       Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK; also
                                          claimed by Argentina
                         Government type: NA
                                 Capital: Stanley
                Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK;
                                          also claimed by Argentina)
                            Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK;
                                          also claimed by Argentina)
                        National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)
                            Constitution: 3 October 1985; amended 1997 and
                                          1998
                            Legal system: English common law
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II
                                          (since 6 February 1952)
                                          elections: none; the monarchy is
                                          hereditary; governor appointed by
                                          the monarch
                                          head of government: Governor Donald
                                          LAMONT (since NA May 1999); note -
                                          Howard PEARCE was elected governor
                                          on 24 January 2002, but will not
                                          take office until October 2002;
                                          Chief Executive A. M. GURR (since
                                          NA); Financial Secretary D. F.
                                          HOWATT (since NA)
                                          cabinet: Executive Council; three
                                          members elected by the Legislative
                                          Council, two ex officio members
                                          (chief executive and the financial
                                          secretary), and the governor
                      Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (10
                                          seats - 2 ex officio, 8 elected by
                                          popular vote, members serve four-
                                          year terms); presided over by the
                                          governor
                                          elections: last held 22 November
                                          2001 (next to be held NA November
                                          2005)
                                          election results: percent of vote -
                                          NA%; seats - independents 8; note -
                                          71% voter turnout
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court (chief justice is a
                                          nonresident); Magistrates Court
                                          (senior magistrate presides over
                                          civil and criminal divisions); Court
                                          of Summary Jurisdiction
           Political parties and leaders: none; all independents
            Political pressure groups and none
                                 leaders:
               International organization ICFTU
                           participation:
     Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK;
                                          also claimed by Argentina)
       Diplomatic representation from the none (overseas territory of the UK;
                                      US: also claimed by Argentina)
                        Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the
                                          upper hoist-side quadrant and the
                                          Falkland Island coat of arms in a
                                          white disk centered on the outer
                                          half of the flag; the coat of arms
                                          contains a white ram (sheep raising
                                          is the major economic activity)
                                          above the sailing ship Desire (whose
                                          crew discovered the islands) with a
                                          scroll at the bottom bearing the
                                          motto DESIRE THE RIGHT
    
     Economy Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
     -----------------------------------------
                      Economy - overview: The economy was formerly based on
                                          agriculture, mainly sheep farming,
                                          but today fishing contributes the
                                          bulk of economic activity. In 1987
                                          the government began selling fishing
                                          licenses to foreign trawlers
                                          operating within the Falklands
                                          exclusive fishing zone. These
                                          license fees total more than $40
                                          million per year, which goes to
                                          support the island's health,
                                          education, and welfare system. Squid
                                          accounts for 75% of the fish taken.
                                          Dairy farming supports domestic
                                          consumption; crops furnish winter
                                          fodder. Exports feature shipments of
                                          high-grade wool to the UK and the
                                          sale of postage stamps and coins.
                                          The islands are now self-financing
                                          except for defense. The British
                                          Geological Survey announced a 200-
                                          mile oil exploration zone around the
                                          islands in 1993, and early seismic
                                          surveys suggest substantial reserves
                                          capable of producing 500,000 barrels
                                          per day; to date no exploitable site
                                          has been identified. An agreement
                                          between Argentina and the UK in 1995
                                          seeks to defuse licensing and
                                          sovereignty conflicts that would
                                          dampen foreign interest in
                                          exploiting potential oil reserves.
                                          Tourism is increasing rapidly, with
                                          about 30,000 visitors in 2001. The
                                          second largest source of income is
                                          interest paid on money the
                                          government has in the bank. The
                                          British military presence also
                                          provides a sizeable economic boost.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $52
                                          million (1996 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 1% (FY95/96 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $19,000
                                          (FY95/96 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%
                                          industry: NA%
                                          services: NA%
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.6% (1998)
                             Labor force: 1,100 (est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding
                                          and fishing)
                       Unemployment rate: full employment; labor shortage
                                  Budget: revenues: $66.2 million
                                          expenditures: $67.9 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $23.2 million (FY98/99 est.)
                              Industries: wool and fish processing; sale of
                                          stamps and coins; tourism
       Industrial production growth rate: NA%
                Electricity - production: 12 million kWh (1999)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%
                                          hydro: 0%
                                          other: 0% (1999)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 11.2 million kWh (1999)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)
                  Agriculture - products: fodder and vegetable crops; sheep,
                                          dairy products
                                 Exports: $7.6 million (1995)
                   Exports - commodities: wool, hides, meat
                      Exports - partners: UK, Japan, Chile, NZ
                                 Imports: $24.7 million (1995)
                   Imports - commodities: fuel, food and drink, building
                                          materials, clothing
                      Imports - partners: UK, Japan, Chile, NZ
                         Debt - external: $NA
                Economic aid - recipient: none
                                Currency: Falkland pound (FKP)
                           Currency code: FKP
                          Exchange rates: Falkland pounds per US dollar -
                                          0.6981 (January 2002), 0.6944
                                          (2001), 0.6596 (2000), 0.6180
                                          (1999), 0.6037 (1998), 0.6106
                                          (1997); note - the Falkland pound is
                                          at par with the British pound
                             Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
    
     Communications Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
     ------------------------------------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: NA
            Telephones - mobile cellular: NA
                        Telephone system: general assessment: NA
                                          domestic: government-operated
                                          radiotelephone and private VHF/CB
                                          radiotelephone networks provide
                                          effective service to almost all
                                          points on both islands
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic
                                          Ocean) with links through London to
                                          other countries
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 7, shortwave 0 (1998)
                                  Radios: 1,000 (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 2 (operated by the British Forces
                                          Broadcasting Service)
                                          note: cable television is available
                                          in Stanley (2002)
                             Televisions: 1,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .fk
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)
                          Internet users: NA; however one-half of all
                                          households are reported to have
                                          internet access (2002)
    
     Transportation Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
     ------------------------------------------------
                                             Railways: 0 km
                                             Highways: total: 550 km
                                                       paved: at least 50 km
                                                       unpaved: NA (2002)
                                            Waterways: none
                                    Ports and harbors: Stanley
                                      Merchant marine: none (2002 est.)
                                             Airports: 5 (2001)
                        Airports - with paved runways: total: 2 2
                                                       2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
                                                       under 914 m: 1 1 (2001)
                      Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 3 3
                                                       under 914 m: 3 (2001)
    
     Military Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
     ------------------------------------------
                       Military branches: British Forces Falkland Islands no
                                          regular indigenous military forces;
                                          (includes Army, Royal Air Force, and
                                          Royal Navy), Police Force
           Military expenditures - dollar $NA
                                  figure:
       Military expenditures - percent of NA%
                                     GDP:
                         Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the
                                          UK
    
     Transnational Issues Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
     ------------------------------------------------------
                                Disputes - international: claimed by Argentina
    
                                         
  
  

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