dict.org

The DICT Development Group


Search for:
Search type:
Database:

Database copyright information
Server information
Wiki: Resources, links, and other information


2 definitions found
 for Georgia
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Georgia
      n 1: a state in southeastern United States; one of the
           Confederate states during the American Civil War [syn:
           Georgia, Empire State of the South, Peach State,
           GA]
      2: one of the British colonies that formed the United States
      3: a republic in Asia Minor on the Black Sea separated from
         Russia by the Caucasus mountains; formerly an Asian soviet
         but became independent in 1991 [syn: Georgia, Sakartvelo]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Georgia
  
     Introduction Georgia
     --------------------
                              Background: Georgia was absorbed into the
                                          Russian Empire in the 19th century.
                                          Independent for three years (1918-
                                          1921) following the Russian
                                          revolution, it was forcibly
                                          incorporated into the USSR until the
                                          Soviet Union dissolved in 1991.
                                          Ethnic separation in Abkhazia and
                                          South Ossetia, poor governance, and
                                          Russian military bases deny the
                                          government effective control over
                                          the entirety of the state's
                                          internationally recognized
                                          territory. Despite myriad problems,
                                          progress on market reforms and
                                          democratization support the
                                          country's goal of greater
                                          integration with Western political,
                                          economic and security institutions.
    
     Geography Georgia
     -----------------
                                Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the
                                          Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia
                  Geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 43 30 E
                          Map references: Asia
                                    Area: total: 69,700 sq km
                                          water: 0 sq km
                                          land: 69,700 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina
                         Land boundaries: total: 1,461 km
                                          border countries: Armenia 164 km,
                                          Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km,
                                          Turkey 252 km
                               Coastline: 310 km
                         Maritime claims: NA
                                 Climate: warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-
                                          like on Black Sea coast
                                 Terrain: largely mountainous with Great
                                          Caucasus Mountains in the north and
                                          Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the
                                          south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida
                                          Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in
                                          the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the
                                          east; good soils in river valley
                                          flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida
                                          Lowland
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
                                          highest point: Mt'a Mqinvartsveri
                                          5,047 m
                       Natural resources: forests, hydropower, manganese
                                          deposits, iron ore, copper, minor
                                          coal and oil deposits; coastal
                                          climate and soils allow for
                                          important tea and citrus growth
                                Land use: arable land: 11.21%
                                          permanent crops: 4.09%
                                          other: 84.71% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 4,700 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: earthquakes
            Environment - current issues: air pollution, particularly in
                                          Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari
                                          River and the Black Sea; inadequate
                                          supplies of potable water; soil
                                          pollution from toxic chemicals
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution,
                              agreements: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                          Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
                                          Desertification, Endangered Species,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
                                          Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                          Pollution, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: none of
                                          the selected agreements
                        Geography - note: strategically located east of the
                                          Black Sea; Georgia controls much of
                                          the Caucasus Mountains and the
                                          routes through them
    
     People Georgia
     --------------
                              Population: 4,960,951 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 19% (male 481,669;
                                          female 462,966)
                                          15-64 years: 68.2% (male 1,631,351;
                                          female 1,752,230)
                                          65 years and over: 12.8% (male
                                          246,663; female 386,072) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: -0.55% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 11.48 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 14.61 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: -2.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 0.91 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 51.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.67 years
                                          female: 68.32 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 61.19 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.48 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ less than 500 (1999 est.)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Georgian(s)
                                          adjective: Georgian
                           Ethnic groups: Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%,
                                          Russian 6.3%, Azeri 5.7%, Ossetian
                                          3%, Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5%
                               Religions: Georgian Orthodox 65%, Muslim 11%,
                                          Russian Orthodox 10%, Armenian
                                          Apostolic 8%, unknown 6%
                               Languages: Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%,
                                          Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, other 7%
                                          note: Abkhaz is the official
                                          language in Abkhazia
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 99%
                                          male: 100%
                                          female: 98% (1989 est.)
    
     Government Georgia
     ------------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: none
                                          conventional short form: Georgia
                                          local short form: Sak'art'velo
                                          former: Georgian Soviet Socialist
                                          Republic
                                          local long form: none
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: T'bilisi
                Administrative divisions: 9 regions, (mkharebi, singular -
                                          mkhare), 9 cities* (k'alak'ebi,
                                          singular - k'alak'i), and 2
                                          autonomous republics** (avtomnoy
                                          respubliki, singular - avtom
                                          respublika); Abkhazia or
                                          Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri
                                          Respublika** (Sokhumi), Ajaria or
                                          Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika**
                                          (Bat'umi), Chiat'ura*, Gori*, Guria,
                                          Imereti, Kakheti, K'ut'aisi*, Kvemo
                                          Kartli, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, P'ot'i*,
                                          Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti,
                                          Rust'avi*, Samegrelo and Zemo
                                          Svaneti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Shida
                                          Kartli, T'bilisi*, Tqibuli*,
                                          Tsqaltubo*, Zugdidi*
                                          note: the administrative centers of
                                          the 2 autonomous republics are shown
                                          in parentheses
                            Independence: 9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 26 May (1918);
                                          note - 26 May 1918 is the date of
                                          independence from Soviet Russia, 9
                                          April 1991 is the date of
                                          independence from the Soviet Union
                            Constitution: adopted 17 October 1995
                            Legal system: based on civil law system
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Eduard
                                          Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE
                                          (previously elected chairman of the
                                          Government Council 10 March 1992;
                                          Council has since been disbanded;
                                          previously elected chairman of
                                          Parliament 11 October 1992;
                                          president since 26 November 1995);
                                          note - the president is both the
                                          chief of state and head of
                                          government
                                          head of government: President Eduard
                                          Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE
                                          (previously elected chairman of the
                                          Government Council 10 March 1992;
                                          Council has since been disbanded;
                                          previously elected chairman of
                                          Parliament 11 October 1992;
                                          president since 26 November 1995);
                                          note - the president is both the
                                          chief of state and head of
                                          government
                                          cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
                                          election results: Eduard
                                          SHEVARDNADZE reelected president;
                                          percent of vote - Eduard
                                          SHEVARDNADZE 80%
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a five-year term;
                                          election last held 9 April 2000
                                          (next to be held NA 2005)
                      Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Council (commonly
                                          referred to as Parliament) or
                                          Umaghiesi Sabcho (235 seats; members
                                          are elected by popular vote to serve
                                          four-year terms)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - CUG 41.85%, AGUR 25.65%,
                                          IWSG 7.8%, all other parties
                                          received less than 7% each; seats by
                                          party - CUG 130, AGUR 58, IWSG 15,
                                          Abkhaz (government-in-exile)
                                          deputies 12, independents 17, other
                                          3
                                          elections: last held 31 October and
                                          14 November 1999 (next to be held NA
                                          2003)
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges elected by the
                                          Supreme Council on the president's
                                          recommendation); Constitutional
                                          Court
           Political parties and leaders: Citizen's Union of Georgia or CUG
                                          [Zarab ZHVANIA]; Georgian People's
                                          Front [Nodar NATADZE]; Georgian
                                          United Communist Party or UCPG
                                          [Panteleimon GIORGADZE]; Greens
                                          [Giorgi GACHECHILADZE]; Industry
                                          Will Save Georgia or IWSG [Georgi
                                          TOPADZE]; Labor Party [Salva
                                          NATELASHVILI]; National Democratic
                                          Party or NDP [Irina SARISHVILI-
                                          CHANTURIA]; New National Movement
                                          [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI]; New Rightists
                                          [Levaii GACHECHILADZE]; Republican
                                          Party [David BERDZENISHVILI];
                                          "Revival" Union Party or AGUR [Alsan
                                          ABASHIDZE]; Socialist Party or SPG
                                          [Irakli MINDELI]; Traditionalists
                                          [Akaki ASATIANI]
            Political pressure groups and Georgian independent deputies from
                                 leaders: Abkhazia (Abkhaz faction in Georgian
                                          Parliament); separatist elements in
                                          the breakaway region of Abkhazia;
                                          supporters of the late ousted
                                          President Zviad GAMSAKHURDYA remain
                                          a source of opposition
               International organization BSEC, CCC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
                           participation: FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
                                          IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
                                          Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, OPCW, OSCE,
                                          PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
                                          WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Levan
                                          MIKELADZE
                                          chancery: Suite 300, 1615 New
                                          Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC
                                          20009
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 393-6060
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 387-2390
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Richard
                                      US: MILES
                                          embassy: #25 Antoneli Street,
                                          T'bilisi 380026
                                          mailing address: use embassy street
                                          address
                                          telephone: [995] (32) 989-967/68
                                          FAX: [995] (32) 933-759
                        Flag description: maroon field with small rectangle in
                                          upper hoist side corner; rectangle
                                          divided horizontally with black on
                                          top, white below
    
     Economy Georgia
     ---------------
                      Economy - overview: Georgia's main economic activities
                                          include the cultivation of
                                          agricultural products such as citrus
                                          fruits, tea, hazelnuts, and grapes;
                                          mining of manganese and copper; and
                                          output of a small industrial sector
                                          producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic
                                          beverages, metals, machinery, and
                                          chemicals. The country imports the
                                          bulk of its energy needs, including
                                          natural gas and oil products. Its
                                          only sizable internal energy
                                          resource is hydropower. Despite the
                                          severe damage the economy has
                                          suffered due to civil strife,
                                          Georgia, with the help of the IMF
                                          and World Bank, has made substantial
                                          economic gains since 1995, achieving
                                          positive GDP growth and curtailing
                                          inflation. However, the Georgian
                                          government suffers from limited
                                          resources due to a chronic failure
                                          to collect tax revenues. Georgia
                                          also suffers from energy shortages;
                                          it privatized the T'bilisi
                                          distribution network in 1998, but
                                          collection rates are low, making the
                                          venture unprofitable. The country is
                                          pinning its hopes for long-term
                                          recovery on its role as a transit
                                          state for pipelines and trade. The
                                          start of construction on the Baku-
                                          T'bilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in summer
                                          2002 will bring much-needed
                                          investment and job opportunities to
                                          the country.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $15.5
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 8.4% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,100
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 25%
                                          industry: 20%
                                          services: 55% (2001 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 54% (2001 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.3%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 27.9% (1996)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 37.1 (1996)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.6% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 2.1 million (2001 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: industry 20%, agriculture 40%,
                                          services 40% (1999 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 17% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $499 million
                                          expenditures: $554 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2001 est.)
                              Industries: steel, aircraft, machine tools,
                                          electrical appliances, mining
                                          (manganese), chemicals, wood
                                          products, wine
       Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2000)
                Electricity - production: 7.404 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 20.99%
                                          hydro: 79.01%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 7.886 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 200 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 1.2 billion kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: citrus, grapes, tea, vegetables,
                                          potatoes; livestock
                                 Exports: $450 million (2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: scrap metal, machinery, chemicals;
                                          fuel reexports; citrus fruits, tea,
                                          wine, other agricultural products
                      Exports - partners: Turkey 22.3%, Russia 20.6%, Germany
                                          10.4%, Azerbaijan 6.3%, Armenia 4%,
                                          US 2.2% (2000)
                                 Imports: $723 million (2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: fuels, machinery and parts,
                                          transport equipment, grain and other
                                          foods, pharmaceuticals
                      Imports - partners: EU 23.8%, Turkey 16%, Russia 12.8%,
                                          US 10.1%, Germany 7.9% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $1.7 billion (2001)
                Economic aid - recipient: $212.7 million (1995)
                                Currency: lari (GEL)
                           Currency code: GEL
                          Exchange rates: lari per US dollar - 2.1888 (January
                                          2002), 2.0730 (2001), 1.9762 (2000),
                                          2.0245 (1999), 1.3898 (1998), 1.2975
                                          (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
    
     Communications Georgia
     ----------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 620,000 (1997)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 185,500 (2000)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: NA
                                          domestic: local - T'bilisi and
                                          K'ut'aisi have cellular telephone
                                          networks; urban telephone density is
                                          about 20 per 100 people; rural
                                          telephone density is about 4 per 100
                                          people; intercity facilities include
                                          a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi
                                          and K'ut'aisi; nationwide pager
                                          service is available
                                          international: Georgia and Russia
                                          are working on a fiber-optic line
                                          between P'ot'i and Sochi (Russia);
                                          present international service is
                                          available by microwave, landline,
                                          and satellite through the Moscow
                                          switch; international electronic
                                          mail and telex service are available
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 12, shortwave 4 (1998)
                                  Radios: 3.02 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 12 (plus repeaters) (1998)
                             Televisions: 2.57 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .ge
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (2000)
                          Internet users: 20,000 (2000)
    
     Transportation Georgia
     ----------------------
                                Railways: total: 1,583 km in common carrier
                                          service; does not include industrial
                                          lines
                                          broad gauge: 1,546 km 1.520-m gauge
                                          narrow gauge: 37 km 0.912-m gauge
                                          (2000 est.)
                                Highways: total: 33,900 km
                                          paved: 29,500 km (includes some all-
                                          weather gravel-surfaced roads)
                                          unpaved: 4,400 km (these roads are
                                          made of unstabilized earth and are
                                          difficult to negotiate in wet
                                          weather) (1990)
                               Waterways: none
                               Pipelines: crude oil 370 km; refined products
                                          300 km; natural gas 440 km (1992)
                       Ports and harbors: Bat'umi, P'ot'i, Sokhumi
                         Merchant marine: total: 64 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 210,620 GRT/288,565 DWT
                                          ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 46,
                                          container 5, petroleum tanker 7,
                                          roll on/roll off 1
                                          note: includes some foreign-owned
                                          ships registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: Belize 1, Bulgaria 1,
                                          Cyprus 1, Ecuador 1, Egypt 4,
                                          Gibraltar 1, Greece 5, Jordan 1,
                                          Latvia 1, Liberia 1, Malta 1, Panama
                                          9, Romania 8, Russia 4, Saint Kitts
                                          and Nevis 3, Saint Vincent and the
                                          Grenadines 3, Saudi Arabia 2, Syria
                                          5, Turkey 2, Ukraine 7, United Arab
                                          Emirates 11, United Kingdom 1,
                                          United States 1 (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 31 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 16
                                          over 3,047 m: 1
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 2
                                          under 914 m: 3 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 15
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
                                          under 914 m: 6 (2001)
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 4
                   Transportation - note: transportation network is in poor
                                          condition resulting from ethnic
                                          conflict, criminal activities, and
                                          fuel shortages; network lacks
                                          maintenance and repair
    
     Military Georgia
     ----------------
                       Military branches: Ground Forces (includes National
                                          Guard), combined Air and Air Defense
                                          Forces, Naval Forces, Republic
                                          Security and Police Forces (internal
                                          and border troops)
        Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,300,259 (2002
                                          est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 1,027,407 (2002
                                 service: est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 41,561 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $23 million (FY00)
                                  figure:
       Military expenditures - percent of 0.59% (FY00)
                                     GDP:
                         Military - note: a CIS peacekeeping force of Russian
                                          troops is deployed in the Abkhazia
                                          region of Georgia together with a UN
                                          military observer group; a Russian
                                          peacekeeping battalion is deployed
                                          in South Ossetia
    
     Transnational Issues Georgia
     ----------------------------
                Disputes - international: Chechen and other insurgents transit
                                          Pankisi Gorge to infiltrate Akhmeti
                                          region; boundary with Russia has
                                          been largely delimited, but not
                                          demarcated; several small, strategic
                                          segments remain in dispute
                           Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and
                                          opium poppy, mostly for domestic
                                          consumption; used as transshipment
                                          point for opiates via Central Asia
                                          to Western Europe and Russia
    
                                         
  
  

Questions or comments about this site? Contact webmaster@dict.org