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2 definitions found
 for Germany
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Germany
      n 1: a republic in central Europe; split into East Germany and
           West Germany after World War II and reunited in 1990 [syn:
           Germany, Federal Republic of Germany, Deutschland,
           FRG]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Germany
  
     Introduction Germany
     --------------------
                              Background: As Europe's largest economy and most
                                          populous nation, Germany remains a
                                          key member of the continent's
                                          economic, political, and defense
                                          organizations. European power
                                          struggles immersed the country in
                                          two devastating World Wars in the
                                          first half of the 20th century and
                                          left the country occupied by the
                                          victorious Allied powers of the US,
                                          UK, France, and the Soviet Union in
                                          1945. With the advent of the Cold
                                          War, two German states were formed
                                          in 1949: the western Federal
                                          Republic of Germany (FRG) and the
                                          eastern German Democratic Republic
                                          (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded
                                          itself in key Western economic and
                                          security organizations, the EC,
                                          which became the EU, and NATO, while
                                          the communist GDR was on the front
                                          line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact.
                                          The decline of the USSR and the end
                                          of the Cold War allowed for German
                                          unification in 1990. Since then
                                          Germany has expended considerable
                                          funds to bring eastern productivity
                                          and wages up to western standards.
                                          In January 2002, Germany and 11
                                          other EU countries introduced a
                                          common European currency, the euro.
    
     Geography Germany
     -----------------
                                Location: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic
                                          Sea and the North Sea, between the
                                          Netherlands and Poland, south of
                                          Denmark
                  Geographic coordinates: 51 00 N, 9 00 E
                          Map references: Europe
                                    Area: total: 357,021 sq km
                                          water: 7,798 sq km
                                          land: 349,223 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Montana
                         Land boundaries: total: 3,621 km
                                          border countries: Austria 784 km,
                                          Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646
                                          km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km,
                                          Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577
                                          km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334
                                          km
                               Coastline: 2,389 km
                         Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to
                                          the depth of exploitation
                                          exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy,
                                          wet winters and summers; occasional
                                          warm foehn wind
                                 Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in
                                          center, Bavarian Alps in south
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Freepsum Lake -2 m
                                          highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m
                       Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber,
                                          lignite, uranium, copper, natural
                                          gas, salt, nickel, arable land
                                Land use: arable land: 33.88%
                                          permanent crops: 0.65%
                                          other: 65.47% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 4,850 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: flooding
            Environment - current issues: emissions from coal-burning
                                          utilities and industries contribute
                                          to air pollution; acid rain,
                                          resulting from sulfur dioxide
                                          emissions, is damaging forests;
                                          pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw
                                          sewage and industrial effluents from
                                          rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous
                                          waste disposal; government
                                          established a mechanism for ending
                                          the use of nuclear power over the
                                          next 15 years; government working to
                                          meet EU commitment to identify
                                          nature preservation areas in line
                                          with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and
                                          Habitat directive
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Air
                              agreements: Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
                                          Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-
                                          Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
                                          Organic Compounds, Antarctic-
                                          Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-
                                          Marine Living Resources, Antarctic
                                          Seals, Antarctic Treaty,
                                          Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                          Desertification, Endangered Species,
                                          Environmental Modification,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
                                          Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
                                          Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                          Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
                                          Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands,
                                          Whaling
                                          signed, but not ratified: Air
                                          Pollution-Persistent Organic
                                          Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto
                                          Protocol
                        Geography - note: strategic location on North European
                                          Plain and along the entrance to the
                                          Baltic Sea
    
     People Germany
     --------------
                              Population: 83,251,851 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.4% (male 6,568,699;
                                          female 6,227,148)
                                          15-64 years: 67.6% (male 28,606,964;
                                          female 27,695,539)
                                          65 years and over: 17% (male
                                          5,546,140; female 8,607,361) (2002
                                          est.)
                  Population growth rate: 0.26% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 8.99 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 10.36 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: 3.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 0.96 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 4.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.78 years
                                          female: 81.09 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 74.64 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.39 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 37,000 (1999 est.)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 600 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: German(s)
                                          adjective: German
                           Ethnic groups: German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other
                                          6.1% (made up largely of Serbo-
                                          Croatian, Italian, Russian, Greek,
                                          Polish, Spanish)
                               Religions: Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%,
                                          Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other
                                          28.3%
                               Languages: German
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 99% (1977 est.)
                                          male: NA%
                                          female: NA%
    
     Government Germany
     ------------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: Federal
                                          Republic of Germany
                                          conventional short form: Germany
                                          local short form: Deutschland
                                          former: German Empire, German
                                          Republic, German Reich
                                          local long form: Bundesrepublik
                                          Deutschland
                         Government type: federal republic
                                 Capital: Berlin
                Administrative divisions: 16 states (Laender, singular -
                                          Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern,
                                          Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen,
                                          Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-
                                          Vorpommern, Niedersachsen,
                                          Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-
                                          Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-
                                          Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein,
                                          Thueringen
                            Independence: 18 January 1871 (German Empire
                                          unification); divided into four
                                          zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR,
                                          and later, France) in 1945 following
                                          World War II; Federal Republic of
                                          Germany (FRG or West Germany)
                                          proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included
                                          the former UK, US, and French zones;
                                          German Democratic Republic (GDR or
                                          East Germany) proclaimed 7 October
                                          1949 and included the former USSR
                                          zone; unification of West Germany
                                          and East Germany took place 3
                                          October 1990; all four powers
                                          formally relinquished rights 15
                                          March 1991
                        National holiday: Unity Day, 3 October (1990)
                            Constitution: 23 May 1949, known as Basic Law;
                                          became constitution of the united
                                          German people 3 October 1990
                            Legal system: civil law system with indigenous
                                          concepts; judicial review of
                                          legislative acts in the Federal
                                          Constitutional Court; has not
                                          accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Johannes
                                          RAU (since 1 July 1999)
                                          elections: president elected for a
                                          five-year term by a Federal
                                          Convention including all members of
                                          the Federal Assembly and an equal
                                          number of delegates elected by the
                                          state parliaments; election last
                                          held 23 May 1999 (next to be held 23
                                          May 2004); chancellor elected by an
                                          absolute majority of the Federal
                                          Assembly for a four-year term;
                                          election last held 27 September 1998
                                          (next to be held 22 September 2002)
                                          head of government: Chancellor
                                          Gerhard SCHROEDER (since 27 October
                                          1998)
                                          cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister
                                          (Federal Ministers) appointed by the
                                          president on the recommendation of
                                          the chancellor
                                          election results: Johannes RAU
                                          elected president; percent of
                                          Federal Convention vote - 57.6%;
                                          Gerhard SCHROEDER elected
                                          chancellor; percent of Federal
                                          Assembly - 52.7%
                      Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament
                                          consists of the Federal Assembly or
                                          Bundestag (656 seats usually, but
                                          666 for the 1998 term; note - the
                                          number of seats will be reduced to
                                          598 for 2002 elections; elected by
                                          popular vote under a system
                                          combining direct and proportional
                                          representation; a party must win 5%
                                          of the national vote or three direct
                                          mandates to gain representation;
                                          members serve four-year terms) and
                                          the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69
                                          votes; state governments are
                                          directly represented by votes; each
                                          has 3 to 6 votes depending on
                                          population and are required to vote
                                          as a block)
                                          elections: Federal Assembly - last
                                          held 27 September 1998 (next to be
                                          held 22 September 2002); note -
                                          there are no elections for the
                                          Bundesrat; composition is determined
                                          by the composition of the state-
                                          level governments; the composition
                                          of the Bundesrat has the potential
                                          to change any time one of the 16
                                          states holds an election
                                          election results: Federal Assembly -
                                          percent of vote by party - SPD
                                          40.9%, Alliance '90/Greens 6.7%,
                                          CDU/CSU 35.1%, FDP 6.2%, PDS 5.1%;
                                          seats by party - SPD 294, Alliance
                                          '90/Greens 47, CDU/CSU 245, FDP 43,
                                          PDS 37; Federal Council - current
                                          composition - NA
                         Judicial branch: Federal Constitutional Court or
                                          Bundesverfassungsgericht (half the
                                          judges are elected by the Bundestag
                                          and half by the Bundesrat)
           Political parties and leaders: Alliance '90/Greens [Claudia ROTH
                                          and Fritz KUHN]; Christian
                                          Democratic Union or CDU [Angela
                                          MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or
                                          CSU [Edmund STOIBER, chairman]; Free
                                          Democratic Party or FDP [Guido
                                          WESTERWELLE, chairman]; Party of
                                          Democratic Socialism or PDS [Gregor
                                          GYSI]; Social Democratic Party or
                                          SPD [Gerhard SCHROEDER, chairman]
            Political pressure groups and employers' organizations; expellee,
                                 leaders: refugee, trade unions, and veterans
                                          groups
               International organization AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC,
                           participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC,
                                          EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO,
                                          G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA,
                                          IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
                                          IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
                                          IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
                                          ITU, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA,
                                          NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW,
                                          OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
                                          UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK,
                                          UNMOVIC, UNOMIG, UPU, WADB
                                          (nonregional), WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
                                          WToO, WTrO, ZC
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador
                                          Wolfgang Friedrich ISHINGER
                                          consulate(s): Wellington (America
                                          Samoa)
                                          consulate(s) general: Atlanta,
                                          Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston,
                                          Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San
                                          Francisco
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 298-8140
                                          chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20007
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel
                                      US: R. COATS
                                          embassy: Neustaedtische Kirchstrasse
                                          4-5, 10117 Berlin; note - a new
                                          embassy will be built near the
                                          Brandenburg Gate in Berlin
                                          mailing address: PSC 120, Box 1000,
                                          APO AE 09265
                                          telephone: [49] (030) 8305-0
                                          FAX: [49] (030) 238-6290
                                          consulate(s) general: Duesseldorf,
                                          Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig,
                                          Munich
                        Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of
                                          black (top), red, and gold
    
     Economy Germany
     ---------------
                      Economy - overview: Germany's affluent and
                                          technologically powerful economy
                                          turned in a relatively weak
                                          performance throughout much of the
                                          1990s. The modernization and
                                          integration of the eastern German
                                          economy continues to be a costly
                                          long-term problem, with annual
                                          transfers from west to east
                                          amounting to roughly $70 billion.
                                          Germany's ageing population,
                                          combined with high unemployment, has
                                          pushed social security outlays to a
                                          level exceeding contributions from
                                          workers. Structural rigidities in
                                          the labor market - including strict
                                          regulations on laying off workers
                                          and the setting of wages on a
                                          national basis - have made
                                          unemployment a chronic problem.
                                          Business and income tax cuts
                                          introduced in 2001 did not spare
                                          Germany from the impact of the
                                          downturn in international trade, and
                                          domestic demand faltered as
                                          unemployment began to rise. The
                                          government expects growth to gain
                                          pace in the second half of 2002, but
                                          to fall short of 1% for the year
                                          again. Corporate restructuring and
                                          growing capital markets are setting
                                          the foundations that could allow
                                          Germany to meet the long-term
                                          challenges of European economic
                                          integration and globalization,
                                          particularly if labor market
                                          rigidities are addressed.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.174
                                          trillion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 0.6% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $26,200
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1%
                                          industry: 28%
                                          services: 71% (2000)
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 3.6%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 25.1% (1997)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 30 (1994)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2001)
                             Labor force: 41.9 million (2001)
             Labor force - by occupation: industry 33.4%, agriculture 2.8%,
                                          services 63.8% (1999)
                       Unemployment rate: 9.4% (2001)
                                  Budget: revenues: $802 billion
                                          expenditures: $825 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2001 est.)
                              Industries: among the world's largest and most
                                          technologically advanced producers
                                          of iron, steel, coal, cement,
                                          chemicals, machinery, vehicles,
                                          machine tools, electronics, food and
                                          beverages; shipbuilding; textiles
       Industrial production growth rate: 0.2% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 537.328 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 63.08%
                                          hydro: 3.65%
                                          other: 3.27% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 30%
               Electricity - consumption: 501.716 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 42.5 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 44.5 billion kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar
                                          beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle,
                                          pigs, poultry
                                 Exports: $560.7 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: machinery, vehicles, chemicals,
                                          metals and manufactures, foodstuffs,
                                          textiles
                      Exports - partners: EU 56% (France 11%, UK 8%, Italy 8%,
                                          Netherlands 6%, Belgium/Luxembourg
                                          5%), US 10%, Japan 2% (2000)
                                 Imports: $472.9 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery, vehicles, chemicals,
                                          foodstuffs, textiles, metals
                      Imports - partners: EU 52% (France 10%, Netherlands 9%,
                                          Italy 7%, UK 7%, Belgium/Luxembourg
                                          5%), US 9%, Japan 5% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $NA
                    Economic aid - donor: ODA, $5.6 billion (1998)
                                Currency: euro (EUR); deutsche mark (DEM)
                                          note: on 1 January 1999, the
                                          European Monetary Union introduced
                                          the euro as a common currency to be
                                          used by financial institutions of
                                          member countries; on 1 January 2002,
                                          the euro became the sole currency
                                          for everyday transactions within the
                                          member countries
                           Currency code: EUR; DEM
                          Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.1324
                                          (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001),
                                          1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999);
                                          deutsche marks per US dollar - 1.69
                                          (January 1999), 1.7597 (1998),
                                          1.7341 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
    
     Communications Germany
     ----------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 50.9 million (March 2001)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 55.3 million (June 2001)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: Germany has one
                                          of the world's most technologically
                                          advanced telecommunications systems;
                                          as a result of intensive capital
                                          expenditures since reunification,
                                          the formerly backward system of the
                                          eastern part of the country, dating
                                          back to World War II, has been
                                          modernized and integrated with that
                                          of the western part
                                          domestic: Germany is served by an
                                          extensive system of automatic
                                          telephone exchanges connected by
                                          modern networks of fiber-optic
                                          cable, coaxial cable, microwave
                                          radio relay, and a domestic
                                          satellite system; cellular telephone
                                          service is widely available,
                                          expanding rapidly, and includes
                                          roaming service to many foreign
                                          countries
                                          international: Germany's
                                          international service is excellent
                                          worldwide, consisting of extensive
                                          land and undersea cable facilities
                                          as well as earth stations in the
                                          INMARSAT, INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, and
                                          INTERSPUTNIK satellite systems
                                          (2001)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 51, FM 787, shortwave 4 (1998)
                                  Radios: 77.8 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 373 (plus 8,042 repeaters) (1995)
                             Televisions: 51.4 million (1998)
                   Internet country code: .de
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 200 (2001)
                          Internet users: 28.64 million (2001)
    
     Transportation Germany
     ----------------------
                                Railways: total: 44,000 km (including at least
                                          20,300 km electrified); most routes
                                          are double- or multiple-track
                                          note: since privatization in 1994,
                                          Deutsche Bahn AG (DBAG) no longer
                                          publishes details of the track it
                                          owns; in addition to the DBAG system
                                          there are 102 privately owned
                                          railway companies which own
                                          approximately 3,000 to 4,000 km of
                                          track (2001 est.)
                                Highways: total: 656,140 km
                                          paved: 650,891 km (including 11,400
                                          km of expressways)
                                          unpaved: 5,249 km (all-weather)
                                          (1998 est.)
                               Waterways: 7,500 km
                                          note: major rivers include the Rhine
                                          and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important
                                          connection between the Baltic Sea
                                          and North Sea (1999)
                               Pipelines: crude oil 2,240 km (2001)
                       Ports and harbors: Berlin, Bonn, Brake, Bremen,
                                          Bremerhaven, Cologne, Dresden,
                                          Duisburg, Emden, Hamburg, Karlsruhe,
                                          Kiel, Luebeck, Magdeburg, Mannheim,
                                          Rostock, Stuttgart
                         Merchant marine: total: 388 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 5,758,942 GRT/7,132,525 DWT
    
                                          ships by type: cargo 132, chemical
                                          tanker 10, container 219, liquefied
                                          gas 3, passenger 3, petroleum tanker
                                          7, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated
                                          cargo 1, roll on/roll off 4, short-
                                          sea passenger 7
                                          note: includes some foreign-owned
                                          ships registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: Chile 1, Finland 5,
                                          Iceland 1, Netherlands 3,
                                          Switzerland 1 (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 625 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 325
                                          over 3,047 m: 11
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 55
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 67
                                          under 914 m: 127 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 65
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 300
                                          under 914 m: 238 (2001)
                                          over 3,047 m: 2
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 51
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
                               Heliports: 59 (2001)
    
     Military Germany
     ----------------
                        Military branches: Army, Navy (including naval air
                                           arm), Air Force, Medical Corps,
                                           Joint Support Service
         Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
         Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 20,854,329 (2002
                                           est.)
      Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 17,734,977 (2002
                                  service: est.)
              Military manpower - reaching males: 482,318 (2002 est.)
                    military age annually:
            Military expenditures - dollar $38.8 billion (2002)
                                   figure:
        Military expenditures - percent of 1.38% (2002)
                                      GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Germany
     ----------------------------
                Disputes - international: none
                           Illicit drugs: source of precursor chemicals for
                                          South American cocaine processors;
                                          transshipment point for and consumer
                                          of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin
                                          American cocaine, and European-
                                          produced synthetic drugs
    
                                         
  
  

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