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2 definitions found
 for Iceland
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Iceland
      n 1: an island republic on the island of Iceland; became
           independent of Denmark in 1944 [syn: Iceland, Republic
           of Iceland]
      2: a volcanic island in the North Atlantic near the Arctic
         Circle

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Iceland
  
     Introduction Iceland
     --------------------
                              Background: Settled by Norwegian and Celtic
                                          (Scottish and Irish) immigrants
                                          during the late 9th and 10th
                                          centuries A.D., Iceland boasts the
                                          world's oldest functioning
                                          legislative assembly, the Althing,
                                          established in 930. Independent for
                                          over 300 years, Iceland was
                                          subsequently ruled by Norway and
                                          Denmark. Fallout from the Askja
                                          volcano of 1875 devastated the
                                          Icelandic economy and caused
                                          widespread famine. Over the next
                                          quarter century, 20% of the island's
                                          population emigrated, mostly to
                                          Canada and the US. Limited home rule
                                          from Denmark was granted in 1874 and
                                          complete independence attained in
                                          1944. Literacy, longevity, income,
                                          and social cohesion are first-rate
                                          by world standards.
    
     Geography Iceland
     -----------------
                                Location: Northern Europe, island between the
                                          Greenland Sea and the North Atlantic
                                          Ocean, northwest of the UK
                  Geographic coordinates: 65 00 N, 18 00 W
                          Map references: Arctic Region
                                    Area: total: 103,000 sq km
                                          water: 2,750 sq km
                                          land: 100,250 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Kentucky
                         Land boundaries: 0 km
                               Coastline: 4,988 km
                         Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 NM or to the
                                          edge of the continental margin
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                          exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                 Climate: temperate; moderated by North
                                          Atlantic Current; mild, windy
                                          winters; damp, cool summers
                                 Terrain: mostly plateau interspersed with
                                          mountain peaks, icefields; coast
                                          deeply indented by bays and fiords
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
                                          highest point: Hvannadalshnukur
                                          2,119 m
                       Natural resources: fish, hydropower, geothermal power,
                                          diatomite
                                Land use: arable land: 0.06% NEGL
                                          permanent crops: 0%
                                          other: 99.94% (23% permanent
                                          pastures) (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: NA sq km
                         Natural hazards: earthquakes and volcanic activity
            Environment - current issues: water pollution from fertilizer
                                          runoff; inadequate wastewater
                                          treatment
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution,
                              agreements: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                          Desertification, Endangered Species,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
                                          Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
                                          Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                          Pollution, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: Air
                                          Pollution-Persistent Organic
                                          Pollutants, Environmental
                                          Modification, Marine Life
                                          Conservation
                        Geography - note: strategic location between Greenland
                                          and Europe; westernmost European
                                          country; Reykjavik is the
                                          northernmost national capital in the
                                          world; more land covered by glaciers
                                          than in all of continental Europe
    
     People Iceland
     --------------
                              Population: 279,384 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 23% (male 33,189; female
                                          31,155)
                                          15-64 years: 65.1% (male 91,704;
                                          female 90,199)
                                          65 years and over: 11.9% (male
                                          14,828; female 18,309) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 0.52% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 14.37 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 6.93 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: -2.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 1 male(s)/female
                                          (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 3.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.66 years
                                          female: 82.07 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 77.42 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.99 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.14% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 200 (1999 est.)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Icelander(s)
                                          adjective: Icelandic
                           Ethnic groups: homogeneous mixture of descendants
                                          of Norse and Celts
                               Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 93%, other
                                          Protestant and Roman Catholic, none
                                          (1997)
                               Languages: Icelandic
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 99.9% (1997 est.)
                                          male: NA%
                                          female: NA%
    
     Government Iceland
     ------------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          Iceland
                                          conventional short form: Iceland
                                          local short form: Island
                                          local long form: Lydhveldidh Island
                         Government type: constitutional republic
                                 Capital: Reykjavik
                Administrative divisions: 23 counties (syslar, singular -
                                          sysla) and 14 independent towns*
                                          (kaupstadhir, singular -
                                          kaupstadhur); Akranes*, Akureyri*,
                                          Arnessysla, Austur-
                                          Bardhastrandarsysla, Austur-
                                          Hunavatnssysla, Austur-
                                          Skaftafellssysla,
                                          Borgarfjardharsysla, Dalasysla,
                                          Eyjafjardharsysla, Gullbringusysla,
                                          Hafnarfjordhur*, Husavik*,
                                          Isafjordhur*, Keflavik*,
                                          Kjosarsysla, Kopavogur*, Myrasysla,
                                          Neskaupstadhur*, Nordhur-
                                          Isafjardharsysla, Nordhur-Mulasys-
                                          la, Nordhur-Thingeyjarsysla,
                                          Olafsfjordhur*, Rangarvallasysla,
                                          Reykjavik*, Saudharkrokur*,
                                          Seydhisfjordhur*, Siglufjordhur*,
                                          Skagafjardharsysla, Snaefellsnes-og
                                          Hnappadalssysla, Strandasysla,
                                          Sudhur-Mulasysla, Sudhur-
                                          Thingeyjarsysla, Vesttmannaeyjar*,
                                          Vestur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Vestur-
                                          Hunavatnssysla, Vestur-
                                          Isafjardharsysla, Vestur-
                                          Skaftafellssysla
                                          note: there may be four other
                                          counties
                            Independence: 17 June 1944 (from Denmark)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 17 June (1944)
                            Constitution: 16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944
                            Legal system: civil law system based on Danish
                                          law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
                                          jurisdiction
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Olafur
                                          Ragnar GRIMSSON (since 1 August
                                          1996)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          David ODDSSON (since 30 April 1991)
                                          cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the
                                          prime minister and approved by
                                          Parliament
                                          election results: Olafur Ragnar
                                          GRIMSSON ran unopposed in 2000 and
                                          was reelected
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a four-year term;
                                          election last held 29 June 1996
                                          (next to be held NA June 2004);
                                          President GRIMSSON ran unopposed in
                                          June 2000 so there were no
                                          elections; prime minister appointed
                                          by the president
                      Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Althing (63
                                          seats; members are elected by
                                          popular vote to serve four-year
                                          terms)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - Independence Party 40.7%,
                                          The Alliance (PA, People's Party,
                                          Women's List) 26.8%, Progressive
                                          Party 18.4%, Left-Green Alliance
                                          9.1%, Liberal Party 4.2%; seats by
                                          party - Independence Party 26, The
                                          Alliance 17, Progressive Party 12,
                                          Left-Green Alliance 6, Liberal Party
                                          2
                                          elections: last held 8 May 1999
                                          (next to be held by April 2003)
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Haestirettur
                                          (justices are appointed for life by
                                          the president)
           Political parties and leaders: Independence Party (conservative) or
                                          IP [David ODDSSON]; Left-Green
                                          Alliance [Steingrimur SIGFUSSON];
                                          Liberal Party [Sverrir HERMANNSSON];
                                          People's Party (Social Democratic
                                          Party) or SDP [Sighvatur
                                          BJORGVINSSON]; Progressive Party
                                          (liberal) or PP [Halldor
                                          ASGRIMSSON]; The Alliance (includes
                                          People's Alliance or PA, Social
                                          Democratic Party or SVP, People's
                                          Movement, Women's List) [Ossur
                                          SKARPHEDINSSON]; Women's List or WL
                                          [Kristin ASTGEIRSDOTTIR]
            Political pressure groups and NA
                                 leaders:
               International organization Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE,
                           participation: EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, FAO, IAEA,
                                          IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
                                          IEA (observer), IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
                                          IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
                                          ISO, ITU, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, OECD,
                                          OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
                                          UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNU, UPU, WEU
                                          (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jon-
                                          Baldvin HANNIBALSSON
                                          chancery: Suite 1200, 1156 15th
                                          Street NW, Washington, DC 20005-1704
    
                                          consulate(s) general: New York
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 265-6656
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 265-6653
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Barbara
                                      US: J. GRIFFITHS
                                          embassy: Laufasvegur 21, 101
                                          Reykjavik
                                          mailing address: US Embassy, PSC
                                          1003, Box 40, FPO AE 09728-0340
                                          telephone: [354] 5629100
                                          FAX: [354] 5629123
                        Flag description: blue with a red cross outlined in
                                          white extending to the edges of the
                                          flag; the vertical part of the cross
                                          is shifted to the hoist side in the
                                          style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
    
     Economy Iceland
     ---------------
                      Economy - overview: Iceland's Scandinavian-type economy
                                          is basically capitalistic, yet with
                                          an extensive welfare system, low
                                          unemployment, and remarkably even
                                          distribution of income. In the
                                          absence of other natural resources
                                          (except for abundant hydrothermal
                                          and geothermal power), the economy
                                          depends heavily on the fishing
                                          industry, providing 70% of export
                                          earnings and employing 12% of the
                                          work force. The economy remains
                                          sensitive to declining fish stocks
                                          as well as to drops in world prices
                                          for its main exports: fish and fish
                                          products, aluminum, and
                                          ferrosilicon. The center-right
                                          government plans to continue its
                                          policies of reducing the budget and
                                          current account deficits, limiting
                                          foreign borrowing, containing
                                          inflation, revising agricultural and
                                          fishing policies, diversifying the
                                          economy, and privatizing state-owned
                                          industries. The government remains
                                          opposed to EU membership, primarily
                                          because of Icelanders' concern about
                                          losing control over their fishing
                                          resources. Iceland's economy has
                                          been diversifying into manufacturing
                                          and service industries in the last
                                          decade, and new developments in
                                          software production, biotechnology,
                                          and financial services are taking
                                          place. The tourism sector is also
                                          expanding, with the recent trends in
                                          ecotourism and whale watching.
                                          Growth has been remarkably steady
                                          over the past five years at 4%-5%.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.85
                                          billion (2000 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 4.3% (2000 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $24,800
                                          (2000 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 15% (includes fishing
                                          13%)
                                          industry: 21%
                                          services: 64% (1999 est.)
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (2000 est.)
                             Labor force: 159,000 (2000)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 5.1%, fishing and fish
                                          processing 11.8%, manufacturing
                                          12.9%, construction 10.7%, other
                                          services 59.5% (1999)
                       Unemployment rate: 1% (April 2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $3.5 billion
                                          expenditures: $3.3 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $467 million (1999)
                              Industries: fish processing; aluminum smelting,
                                          ferrosilicon production, geothermal
                                          power; tourism
       Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (2000 est.)
                Electricity - production: 7.549 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 0.05%
                                          hydro: 83.3%
                                          other: 16.65% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 7.02 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: potatoes, turnips; cattle, sheep;
                                          fish
                                 Exports: $2 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
                   Exports - commodities: fish and fish products 70%, animal
                                          products, aluminum, diatomite,
                                          ferrosilicon
                      Exports - partners: EU 64% (UK 20%, Germany 13%, France
                                          5%, Denmark 5%), US 15%, Japan 5%
                                          (1999)
                                 Imports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum
                                          products; foodstuffs, textiles
                      Imports - partners: EU 56% (Germany 12%, UK 9%, Denmark
                                          8%, Sweden 6%), US 11%, Norway 10%
                                          (1999)
                         Debt - external: $2.6 billion (1999)
                    Economic aid - donor: $NA
                                Currency: Icelandic krona (ISK)
                           Currency code: ISK
                          Exchange rates: Icelandic kronur per US dollar -
                                          102.430 (January 2002), 97.425
                                          (2001), 78.616 (2000), 72.335
                                          (1999), 70.958 (1998), 70.904 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
    
     Communications Iceland
     ----------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 168,000 (1997)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 65,746 (1997)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: adequate
                                          domestic service
                                          domestic: the trunk network consists
                                          of coaxial and fiber-optic cables
                                          and microwave radio relay links
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic
                                          Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and
                                          Indian Ocean regions); note -
                                          Iceland shares the Inmarsat earth
                                          station with the other Nordic
                                          countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway,
                                          and Sweden)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM about 70 (including
                                          repeaters), shortwave 1 (1998)
                                  Radios: 260,000 (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 14 (plus 156 low-power repeaters)
                                          (1997)
                             Televisions: 98,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .is
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 7 (2000)
                          Internet users: 168,000 (2001)
    
     Transportation Iceland
     ----------------------
                                 Railways: 0 km
                                 Highways: total: 12,691 km
                                           paved: 3,262 km
                                           unpaved: 9,429 km (1999)
                                Waterways: none
                        Ports and harbors: Akureyri, Hornafjordhur,
                                           Isafjordhur, Keflavik, Raufarhofn,
                                           Reykjavik, Seydhisfjordhur,
                                           Straumsvik, Vesttmannaeyjar
                          Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over)
                                           totaling 1,816 GRT/2,500 DWT
                                           ships by type: chemical tanker 1
                                           (2002 est.)
                                 Airports: 86 (2001)
            Airports - with paved runways: total: 13
                                           over 3,047 m: 1
                                           1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
                                           914 to 1,523 m: 8 (2001)
          Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 73
                                           1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
                                           914 to 1,523 m: 21
                                           under 914 m: 49 (2001)
    
     Military Iceland
     ----------------
                       Military branches: no regular armed forces; Police,
                                          Coast Guard
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 71,142 (2002 est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 62,556 (2002 est.)
                                 service:
           Military expenditures - dollar $0
                                  figure:
                         Military - note: defense is provided by the US-manned
                                          Icelandic Defense Force (IDF)
                                          headquartered at Keflavik
    
     Transnational Issues Iceland
     ----------------------------
                Disputes - international: Rockall continental shelf dispute
                                          involving Denmark, Iceland, and the
                                          UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a
                                          boundary agreement in the Rockall
                                          area); dispute with Denmark over the
                                          Faroe Islands' fisheries median line
                                          boundary within 200 NM; disputes
                                          with Denmark, the UK, and Ireland
                                          over the Faroe Islands continental
                                          shelf boundary outside 200 NM
    
                                         
  
  

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