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1 definition found
 for International Organizations and Groups
From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  International Organizations and Groups
  
                                                                         
      advanced developing countries     another term for those less       
                                        developed countries (LDCs) with   
                                        particularly rapid industrial     
                                        development; see newly            
                                        industrializing economies (NIEs)  
      advanced economies                a term used by the International  
                                        Monetary FUND (IMF) for the top   
                                        group in its hierarchy of advanced
                                        economies, countries in           
                                        transition, and developing        
                                        countries; it includes the        
                                        following 28 advanced economies:  
                                        Australia, Austria, Belgium,      
                                        Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, 
                                        Germany, Greece, Hong Kong,       
                                        Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy,  
                                        Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg,   
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal,
                                        Singapore, Spain, Sweden,         
                                        Switzerland, Taiwan, UK, US; note 
                                        - this group would presumably also
                                        cover the following seven smaller 
                                        countries of Andorra, Bermuda,    
                                        Faroe Islands, Holy See,          
                                        Liechtenstein, Monaco, and San    
                                        Marino which are included in the  
                                        more comprehensive group of       
                                        "developed countries"             
      African, Caribbean, and Pacific   established - 6 June 1975         
      Group of States (ACP Group)       aim - to manage their preferential
                                        economic and aid relationship with
                                        the EU                            
                                        members - (77) Angola, Antigua and
                                        Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados,   
                                        Belize, Benin, Botswana, Burkina  
                                        Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape     
                                        Verde, Central African Republic,  
                                        Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic
                                        of the Congo, Republic of the     
                                        Congo, Cook Islands, Cote         
                                        d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Dominica,     
                                        Dominican Republic, Equatorial    
                                        Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji,  
                                        Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada,
                                        Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,    
                                        Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati,  
                                        Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar,     
                                        Malawi, Mali, Marshall Islands,   
                                        Mauritania, Mauritius, Federated  
                                        States of Micronesia, Mozambique, 
                                        Namibia, Nauru, Niger, Nigeria,   
                                        Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea,    
                                        Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis,    
                                        Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
                                        Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and   
                                        Principe, Senegal, Seychelles,    
                                        Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands,    
                                        Somalia, South Africa, Sudan,     
                                        Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania,    
                                        Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, 
                                        Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Zambia,  
                                        Zimbabwe                          
      African Development Bank (AfDB)   note - also known as Banque       
                                        Africaine de Developpement (BAD)  
                                        established - 4 August 1963       
                                        aim - to promote economic and     
                                        social development                
                                        regional members- (53) Algeria,   
                                        Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina  
                                        Faso,  Burundi, Cameroon, Cape    
                                        Verde, Central African Republic,  
                                        Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic
                                        of the Congo, Republic of the     
                                        Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti,   
                                        Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea,
                                        Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia,      
                                        Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,     
                                        Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,   
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Mali,         
                                        Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco,   
                                        Mozambique, Namibia, Niger,       
                                        Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and     
                                        Principe, Senegal, Seychelles,    
                                        Sierra Leone, Somalia, South      
                                        Africa, Sudan, Swaziland,         
                                        Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda,  
                                        Zambia, Zimbabwe                  
                                        nonregional members - (24)        
                                        Argentina, Austria, Belgium,      
                                        Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark,   
                                        Finland, France, Germany, India,  
                                        Italy, Japan, South Korea, Kuwait,
                                        Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,    
                                        Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden,      
                                        Switzerland, UK, US               
      Agency for the French-Speaking    note - formerly Agency for        
      Community (ACCT)                  Cultural and Technical Cooperation
                                        established - 20 March 1970; name 
                                        changed 1996                      
                                        aim - to promote cultural and     
                                        technical cooperation among       
                                        French-speaking countries         
                                        members - (51) Albania, Belgium,  
                                        Benin, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso,    
                                        Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,      
                                        Canada, Cape Verde, Central       
                                        African Republic, Chad, Comoros,  
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Cote       
                                        d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Dominica,     
                                        Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, France, 
                                        French Community of Belgium,      
                                        Gabon, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,     
                                        Haiti, Laos, Lebanon, Luxembourg, 
                                        Former Yugoslav Republic of       
                                        Macedonia, Madagascar, Mali,      
                                        Mauritania, Mauritius, Moldova,   
                                        Monaco, Morocco, New Brunswick    
                                        (Canada), Niger, Quebec (Canada), 
                                        Romania, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Sao 
                                        Tome and Principe, Senegal,       
                                        Seychelles, Switzerland, Togo,    
                                        Tunisia, Vanuatu, Vietnam         
                                        observers - (4) Czech Republic,   
                                        Lithuania, Poland, Slovenia       
      Agency for the Prohibition of     note - acronym from Organismo para
      Nuclear Weapons in Latin America  la Proscripcion de las Armas      
      and the Caribbean (OPANAL)        Nucleares en la America Latina y  
                                        el Caribe (OPANAL)                
                                        established - 14 February 1967    
                                        under the Treaty of Tlatelolco;   
                                        effective - 25 April 1969 on the  
                                        11th ratification of the treaty   
                                        aim - to encourage the peaceful   
                                        uses of atomic energy and prohibit
                                        nuclear weapons                   
                                        members - (32) Antigua and        
                                        Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas,  
                                        Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil,
                                        Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica,      
                                        Dominica, Dominican Republic,     
                                        Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada,    
                                        Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti,         
                                        Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico,        
                                        Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru,
                                        Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint      
                                        Lucia, Saint Vincent and the      
                                        Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and
                                        Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela; note -
                                        Cuba signed the treaty but did not
                                        ratify it                         
      Andean Community of Nations (CAN) note - formerly known as the      
                                        Andean Group (AG), the Andean     
                                        Parliament, and most recently as  
                                        the Andean Common Market (Ancom)  
                                        established - 26 May 1969; present
                                        name established 1 October 1992;  
                                        effective - 16 October 1969       
                                        aim - to promote harmonious       
                                        development through economic      
                                        integration                       
                                        members - (5) Bolivia, Colombia,  
                                        Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela          
      Arab Bank for Economic            note - also known as Banque Arabe 
      Development in Africa (ABEDA)     de Developpement Economique en    
                                        Afrique (BADEA)                   
                                        established - 18 February 1974;   
                                        effective - 16 September 1974     
                                        aim - to promote economic         
                                        development                       
                                        members - (17 plus the Palestine  
                                        Liberation Organization) Algeria, 
                                        Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan,     
                                        Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya,           
                                        Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, 
                                        Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria,       
                                        Tunisia, UAE, Palestine Liberation
                                        Organization; note - these are all
                                        the members of the Arab League    
                                        excluding Comoros, Djibouti,      
                                        Somalia, Yemen                    
      Arab Cooperation Council (ACC)    established - 16 February 1989    
                                        aim - to promote economic         
                                        cooperation and integration,      
                                        possibly leading to an Arab Common
                                        Market                            
                                        members - (4) Egypt, Iraq, Jordan,
                                        Yemen                             
      Arab Fund for Economic and Social established - 16 May 1968         
      Development (AFESD)               aim - to promote economic and     
                                        social development                
                                        members - (20 plus the Palestine  
                                        Liberation Organization) Algeria, 
                                        Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq    
                                        (suspended 1993), Jordan, Kuwait, 
                                        Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania,       
                                        Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi       
                                        Arabia, Somalia (suspended 1993), 
                                        Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen,
                                        Palestine Liberation Organization 
      Arab League (AL)                  note - also known as League of    
                                        Arab States (LAS)                 
                                        established - 22 March 1945       
                                        aim - to promote economic, social,
                                        political, and military           
                                        cooperation                       
                                        members - (21 plus the Palestine  
                                        Liberation Organization) Algeria, 
                                        Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt,
                                        Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon,    
                                        Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, 
                                        Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia,     
                                        Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen,
                                        Palestine Liberation Organization 
      Arab Maghreb Union (AMU)          established - 17 February 1989    
                                        aim - to promote cooperation and  
                                        integration among the Arab states 
                                        of northern Africa                
                                        members - (5) Algeria, Libya,     
                                        Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia      
      Arab Monetary Fund (AMF)          established - 27 April 1976;      
                                        effective - 2 February 1977       
                                        aim - to promote Arab cooperation,
                                        development, and integration in   
                                        monetary and economic affairs     
                                        members - (20 plus the Palestine  
                                        Liberation Organization) Algeria, 
                                        Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq,   
                                        Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya,   
                                        Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, 
                                        Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan,     
                                        Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen,       
                                        Palestine Liberation Organization 
      Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation established - 7 November 1989     
      (APEC)                            aim - to promote trade and        
                                        investment in the Pacific basin   
                                        members - (21) Australia, Brunei, 
                                        Canada, Chile, China, Hong Kong,  
                                        Indonesia, Japan, South Korea,    
                                        Malaysia, Mexico, NZ, Papua New   
                                        Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Russia,
                                        Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, US,  
                                        Vietnam                           
                                        observers - (3) Association of    
                                        Southeast Asian Nations, Pacific  
                                        Economic Cooperation Conference,  
                                        Pacific Islands Forum             
      Asian Development Bank (AsDB)     established - 19 December 1966    
                                        aim - to promote regional economic
                                        cooperation                       
                                        regional members - (43)           
                                        Afghanistan, Australia,           
                                        Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan,   
                                        Burma, Cambodia, China, Cook      
                                        Islands, Fiji, Hong Kong, India,  
                                        Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan,     
                                        Kiribati, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan,
                                        Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall
                                        Islands, Federated States of      
                                        Micronesia, Mongolia, Nauru,      
                                        Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New    
                                        Guinea, Philippines, Samoa,       
                                        Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri   
                                        Lanka, Taiwan, Tajikistan,        
                                        Thailand, Tonga, Turkmenistan,    
                                        Tuvalu, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,      
                                        Vietnam                           
                                        nonregional members - (16)        
                                        Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
                                        Finland, France, Germany, Italy,  
                                        Netherlands, Norway, Spain,       
                                        Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK,  
                                        US                                
      Association of Southeast Asian    established - 8 August 1967       
      Nations (ASEAN)                   aim - to encourage regional       
                                        economic, social, and cultural    
                                        cooperation among the non-        
                                        Communist countries of Southeast  
                                        Asia                              
                                        members - (10) Brunei, Burma,     
                                        Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos,        
                                        Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, 
                                        Thailand, Vietnam                 
                                        associate member- (1) Papua New   
                                        Guinea                            
                                        dialogue partners - (12)          
                                        Australia, Canada, China, EU,     
                                        India, Japan, Pakistan, South     
                                        Korea, NZ, Russia, US, UNDP       
      ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)        established – NA 1994             
                                        aim - to foster constructive      
                                        dialogue and consultation on      
                                        political and security issues of  
                                        common interest and concern       
                                        members - (10) Brunei, Burma,     
                                        Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos,        
                                        Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, 
                                        Thailand, Vietnam                 
                                        dialogue partners - (13)          
                                        Australia, Canada, China, EU,     
                                        India, Japan, North Korea, South  
                                        Korea, Mongolia, NZ, Papua New    
                                        Guinea, Russia, US                
      Australia Group                   established – NA 1984             
                                        aim - to consult on and coordinate
                                        export controls related to        
                                        chemical and biological weapons   
                                        members - (34) Argentina,         
                                        Australia, Austria, Belgium,      
                                        Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech   
                                        Republic, Denmark, European       
                                        Commission, Finland, France,      
                                        Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,
                                        Ireland, Italy, Japan, South      
                                        Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands,   
                                        NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal,     
                                        Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, 
                                        Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US       
      Australia-New Zealand-United      established - 1 September 1951;   
      States Security Treaty (ANZUS)    effective - 29 April 1952         
                                        aim - to implement a trilateral   
                                        mutual security agreement,        
                                        although the US suspended security
                                        obligations to NZ on 11 August    
                                        1986; Australia and the US        
                                        continue to hold annual meetings  
                                        members - (3) Australia, NZ, US   
      Bank for International            established - 20 January 1930;    
      Settlements (BIS)                 effective - 17 March 1930         
                                        aim - to promote cooperation among
                                        central banks in international    
                                        financial settlements             
                                        members - (50) Argentina,         
                                        Australia, Austria, Belgium,      
                                        Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil,   
                                        Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, 
                                        Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, 
                                        European Central Bank, Finland,   
                                        France, Germany, Greece, Hong     
                                        Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India,    
                                        Ireland, Italy, Japan, South      
                                        Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, The     
                                        Former Yugoslav Republic of       
                                        Macedonia, Malaysia, Mexico,      
                                        Netherlands, Norway, Poland,      
                                        Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi  
                                        Arabia, Singapore, Slovakia,      
                                        Slovenia, South Africa, Spain,    
                                        Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand,    
                                        Turkey, UK, US, Yugoslavia        
      Benelux Economic Union (Benelux)  note - acronym from Belgium,      
                                        Netherlands, and Luxembourg       
                                        established - 3 February 1958;    
                                        effective - 1 November 1960       
                                        aim - to develop closer economic  
                                        cooperation and integration       
                                        members - (3) Belgium, Luxembourg,
                                        Netherlands                       
      Big Seven                         note - membership is the same as  
                                        the Group of 7                    
                                        established - NA 1975             
                                        aim - to discuss and coordinate   
                                        major economic policies           
                                        members - (7) Big Six (Canada,    
                                        France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK)
                                        plus the US                       
      Big Six                           note - not to be confused with the
                                        Group of 6                        
                                        established - NA 1967             
                                        aim - to foster economic          
                                        cooperation                       
                                        members - (6) Canada, France,     
                                        Germany, Italy, Japan, UK         
      Black Sea Economic Cooperation    established - 25 June 1992        
      Zone (BSEC)                       aim - to enhance regional         
                                        stability through economic        
                                        cooperation                       
                                        members - (11) Albania, Armenia,  
                                        Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia,    
                                        Greece, Moldova, Romania, Russia, 
                                        Turkey, Ukraine                   
                                        observers - (7) Austria, Egypt,   
                                        Israel, Italy, Poland, Slovakia,  
                                        Tunisia                           
      Caribbean Community and Common    established - 4 July 1973;        
      Market (Caricom)                  effective - 1 August 1973         
                                        aim - to promote economic         
                                        integration and development,      
                                        especially among the less         
                                        developed countries               
                                        members - (15) Antigua and        
                                        Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados,   
                                        Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana,
                                        Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint 
                                        Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,     
                                        Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 
                                        Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago;    
                                        note - when Haiti has deposited an
                                        appropriate instrument of         
                                        accession with the Secretary      
                                        General, it will become a full    
                                        member of the Community           
                                        associate members - (3) Anguilla, 
                                        British Virgin Islands, Turks and 
                                        Caicos Islands                    
                                        observers - (10) Aruba, Bermuda,  
                                        Cayman Islands, Colombia,         
                                        Dominican Republic, Mexico,       
                                        Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico,
                                        Venezuela                         
      Caribbean Development Bank (CDB)  established - 18 October 1969;    
                                        effective - 26 January 1970       
                                        aim - to promote economic         
                                        development and cooperation       
                                        regional members - (20) Anguilla, 
                                        Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, 
                                        Barbados, Belize, British Virgin  
                                        Islands, Cayman Islands, Colombia,
                                        Dominica, Grenada, Guyana,        
                                        Jamaica, Mexico, Montserrat, Saint
                                        Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,     
                                        Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 
                                        Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and    
                                        Caicos Islands, Venezuela         
                                        nonregional members - (5) Canada, 
                                        China, Germany, Italy, UK         
      Central African Customs and       see Monetary and Economic         
      Economic Union (UDEAC)            Community of Central Africa       
                                        (CEMAC)                           
      Central African States            note - acronym from Banque de     
      Development Bank (BDEAC)          Developpement des Etats de        
                                        l'Afrique Centrale                
                                        established - 3 December 1975     
                                        aim - to provide loans for        
                                        economic development              
                                        members - (11) African Development
                                        Bank (AfDB), Cameroon, Central    
                                        African States Bank (BEAC),       
                                        Central African Republic, Chad,   
                                        Republic of the Congo, Equatorial 
                                        Guinea, France, Gabon, Germany,   
                                        Kuwait                            
      Central American Bank for         note - acronym from Banco         
      Economic Integration (BCIE)       Centroamericano de Integracion    
                                        Economico                         
                                        established - 13 December 1960    
                                        signature of Articles of          
                                        Agreement; 31 May 1961 began      
                                        operations                        
                                        aim - to promote economic         
                                        integration and development       
                                        members - (5) Costa Rica, El      
                                        Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras,    
                                        Nicaragua                         
                                        nonregional members - (4)         
                                        Argentina, Colombia, Mexico,      
                                        Taiwan                            
      Central American Common Market    established - 13 December 1960,   
      (CACM)                            collapsed in 1969, reinstated in  
                                        1991                              
                                        aim - to promote establishment of 
                                        a Central American Common Market  
                                        members - (5) Costa Rica, El      
                                        Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras,    
                                        Nicaragua; note - Panama, although
                                        not a member, pursues full        
                                        regional cooperation              
      Central European Initiative (CEI) note - evolved from the           
                                        Quadrilateral Initiative and the  
                                        Hexagonal Initiative              
                                        established - 11 November 1989 as 
                                        the Quadrilateral Initiative, 27  
                                        July 1991 became the Hexagonal    
                                        Initiative, NA July 1992 present  
                                        name adopted                      
                                        aim - to form an economic and     
                                        political cooperation group for   
                                        the region between the Adriatic   
                                        and the Baltic Seas               
                                        members - (17) Albania, Austria,  
                                        Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina,  
                                        Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic,
                                        Hungary, Italy, The Former        
                                        Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,   
                                        Moldova, Poland, Romania,         
                                        Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine,      
                                        Yugoslavia                        
      centrally planned economies       a term applied mainly to the      
                                        traditionally communist states    
                                        that looked to the former USSR for
                                        leadership; most are now evolving 
                                        toward more democratic and market-
                                        oriented systems; also known      
                                        formerly as the Second World or as
                                        the communist countries; through  
                                        the 1980s, this group included    
                                        Albania, Bulgaria, Cambodia,      
                                        China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, GDR, 
                                        Hungary, North Korea, Laos,       
                                        Mongolia, Poland, Romania, USSR,  
                                        Vietnam, Yugoslavia               
      Colombo Plan (CP)                 established - NA May 1950 proposal
                                        was adopted; 1 July 1951 commenced
                                        full operations                   
                                        aim - to promote economic and     
                                        social development in Asia and the
                                        Pacific                           
                                        members - (24) Afghanistan,       
                                        Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan,    
                                        Burma, Cambodia, Fiji, India,     
                                        Indonesia, Iran, Japan, South     
                                        Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives,  
                                        Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New    
                                        Guinea, Philippines, Singapore,   
                                        Sri Lanka, Thailand, US           
                                        provisional member - (1) Mongolia 
      Commonwealth (C)                  note - also known as Commonwealth 
                                        of Nations                        
                                        established - 31 December 1931    
                                        aim - to foster multinational     
                                        cooperation and assistance, as a  
                                        voluntary association that evolved
                                        from the British Empire           
                                        members - (54) Antigua and        
                                        Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas,  
                                        Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize,     
                                        Botswana, Brunei, Cameroon,       
                                        Canada, Cyprus, Dominica, Fiji,   
                                        The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada,       
                                        Guyana, India, Jamaica, Kenya,    
                                        Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi,        
                                        Malaysia, Maldives, Malta,        
                                        Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia,   
                                        Nauru, NZ, Nigeria, Pakistan      
                                        (suspended), Papua New Guinea,    
                                        Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint      
                                        Lucia, Saint Vincent and the      
                                        Grenadines, Samoa, Seychelles,    
                                        Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon  
                                        Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, 
                                        Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga,       
                                        Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu,      
                                        Uganda, UK, Vanuatu, Zambia,      
                                        Zimbabwe (suspended)              
      Commonwealth of Independent       established - 8 December 1991;    
      States (CIS)                      effective - 21 December 1991      
                                        aim - to coordinate               
                                        intercommonwealth relations and to
                                        provide a mechanism for the       
                                        orderly dissolution of the USSR   
                                        members - (12) Armenia,           
                                        Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia,     
                                        Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova,  
                                        Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, 
                                        Ukraine, Uzbekistan               
      communist countries               traditionally the Marxist-Leninist
                                        states with authoritarian         
                                        governments and command economies 
                                        based on the Soviet model; most of
                                        the original and the successor    
                                        states are no longer communist;   
                                        see centrally planned economies   
      Coordinating Committee on Export  established in 1949 to control the
      Controls (COCOM)                  export of strategic products and  
                                        technical data from member        
                                        countries to proscribed           
                                        destinations; members were        
                                        Australia, Belgium, Canada,       
                                        Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, 
                                        Italy, Japan, Luxembourg,         
                                        Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,    
                                        Spain, Turkey, UK, US; abolished  
                                        31 March 1994; COCOM members      
                                        established a new organization,   
                                        the Wassenaar Arrangement, with   
                                        expanded membership on 12 July    
                                        1996 which focuses on             
                                        nonproliferation export controls  
                                        as opposed to East-West control of
                                        advanced technology               
      Council for Mutual Economic       note - also known as CMEA or      
      Assistance (CEMA)                 Comecon                           
                                        established 25 January 1949 to    
                                        promote the development of        
                                        socialist economies and abolished 
                                        1 January 1991; members included  
                                        Afghanistan (observer), Albania   
                                        (had not participated since 1961  
                                        break with USSR), Angola          
                                        (observer), Bulgaria, Cuba,       
                                        Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia          
                                        (observer), GDR, Hungary, Laos    
                                        (observer), Mongolia, Mozambique  
                                        (observer), Nicaragua (observer), 
                                        Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam,   
                                        Yemen (observer), Yugoslavia      
                                        (associate)                       
      Council of Arab Economic Unity    established - 3 June 1957;        
      (CAEU)                            effective - 30 May 1964           
                                        aim - to promote economic         
                                        integration among Arab nations    
                                        members - (11 plus the Palestine  
                                        Liberation Organization) Egypt,   
                                        Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya,      
                                        Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan, Syria,
                                        UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation  
                                        Organization                      
      Council of Europe (CE)            established - 5 May 1949;         
                                        effective - 3 August 1949         
                                        aim - to promote increased unity  
                                        and quality of life in Europe     
                                        members - (43) Albania, Andorra,  
                                        Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan,     
                                        Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,       
                                        Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,  
                                        Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia,
                                        Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,
                                        Ireland, Italy, Latvia,           
                                        Liechtenstein, Lithuania,         
                                        Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav   
                                        Republic of Macedonia, Malta,     
                                        Moldova, Netherlands, Norway,     
                                        Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia,
                                        San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia,   
                                        Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,       
                                        Turkey, Ukraine, UK               
                                        guests - (2) Bosnia and           
                                        Herzegovina, Yugoslavia           
                                        observers - (6) Canada, Holy See, 
                                        Israel, Japan, Mexico, US         
      Council of the Baltic Sea States  established - 6 March 1992        
      (CBSS)                            aim - to promote cooperation among
                                        the Baltic Sea states in the areas
                                        of aid to new democratic          
                                        institutions, economic            
                                        development, humanitarian aid,    
                                        energy and the environment,       
                                        cultural programs and education,  
                                        and transportation and            
                                        communication                     
                                        members - (12) Denmark, Estonia,  
                                        EC, Finland, Germany, Iceland,    
                                        Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland,
                                        Russia, Sweden                    
      Council of the Entente (Entente)  established - 29 May 1959         
                                        aim - to promote economic, social,
                                        and political coordination        
                                        members - (5) Benin, Burkina Faso,
                                        Cote d'Ivoire, Niger, Togo        
      countries in transition           a term used by the International  
                                        Monetary FUND (IMF) for the middle
                                        group in its hierarchy of advanced
                                        economies, countries in           
                                        transition, and developing        
                                        countries; recently published IMF 
                                        statistics include the following  
                                        28 countries in transition:       
                                        Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan,     
                                        Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina,  
                                        Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic,
                                        Estonia, Georgia, Hungary,        
                                        Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia,   
                                        Lithuania, The Former Yugoslav    
                                        Republic of Macedonia, Moldova,   
                                        Mongolia, Poland, Romania, Russia,
                                        Slovakia, Slovenia, Tajikistan,   
                                        Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan,
                                        Yugoslavia; note - this group is  
                                        identical to the group            
                                        traditionally referred to as the  
                                        "former USSR/Eastern Europe"      
                                        except for the addition of        
                                        Mongolia                          
      Customs Cooperation Council (CCC) note - also known as World Customs
                                        Organization (WCO)                
                                        established - 15 December 1950    
                                        aim - to promote international    
                                        cooperation in customs matters    
                                        members - (157) Albania, Algeria, 
                                        Andorra, Angola, Argentina,       
                                        Armenia, Australia, Austria,      
                                        Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, 
                                        Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,    
                                        Belgium, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, 
                                        Botswana, Brazil, Brunei,         
                                        Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma,    
                                        Burundi,  Cambodia, Cameroon,     
                                        Canada, Cape Verde, Central       
                                        African Republic, Chile, China,   
                                        Colombia, Comoros, Democratic     
                                        Republic of the Congo, Republic of
                                        the Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Croatia,
                                        Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic,     
                                        Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, 
                                        Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, 
                                        France, Gabon, The Gambia,        
                                        Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece,  
                                        Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, 
                                        Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland,      
                                        India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,     
                                        Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,  
                                        Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, 
                                        South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan,  
                                        Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
                                        Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg,     
                                        Macau, The Former Yugoslav        
                                        Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar,
                                        Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, 
                                        Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius,     
                                        Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,        
                                        Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,     
                                        Netherlands Antilles, Nepal,      
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
                                        Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan,  
                                        Panama, Paraguay, Peru,           
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda,   
                                        Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
                                        Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia,
                                        Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri
                                        Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden,  
                                        Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan,   
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad
                                        and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,      
                                        Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine,    
                                        UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, 
                                        Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,        
                                        Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe      
      developed countries (DCs)         the top group in the hierarchy of 
                                        developed countries (DCs), former 
                                        USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/ 
                                        EE), and less developed countries 
                                        (LDCs); includes the market-      
                                        oriented economies of the mainly  
                                        democratic nations in the         
                                        Organization for Economic         
                                        Cooperation and Development       
                                        (OECD), Bermuda, Israel, South    
                                        Africa, and the European          
                                        ministates; also known as the     
                                        First World, high-income          
                                        countries, the North, industrial  
                                        countries; generally have a per   
                                        capita GDP in excess of $10,000   
                                        although four OECD countries and  
                                        South Africa have figures well    
                                        under $10,000 and two of the      
                                        excluded OPEC countries have      
                                        figures of more than $10,000; the 
                                        35 DCs are: Andorra, Australia,   
                                        Austria, Belgium, Bermuda, Canada,
                                        Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland,  
                                        France, Germany, Greece, Holy See,
                                        Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy,  
                                        Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, 
                                        Malta, Mexico, Monaco,            
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal,
                                        San Marino, South Africa, Spain,  
                                        Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK,  
                                        US; note - similar to the new     
                                        International Monetary Fund (IMF) 
                                        term "advanced economies" which   
                                        adds Hong Kong, South Korea,      
                                        Singapore, and Taiwan but drops   
                                        Malta, Mexico, South Africa, and  
                                        Turkey                            
      developing countries              a term used by the International  
                                        Monetary Fund (IMF) for the bottom
                                        group in its hierarchy of advanced
                                        economies, countries in           
                                        transition, and developing        
                                        countries; recently published IMF 
                                        statistics include the following  
                                        126 developing countries:         
                                        Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola,     
                                        Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,   
                                        Aruba, The Bahamas, Bahrain,      
                                        Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize,     
                                        Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, 
                                        Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma,      
                                        Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape 
                                        Verde, Central African Republic,  
                                        Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,     
                                        Comoros, Democratic Republic of   
                                        the Congo, Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus,
                                        Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican     
                                        Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El      
                                        Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,      
                                        Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia,
                                        Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
                                        Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,     
                                        Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, 
                                        Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya,     
                                        Kiribati, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon,  
                                        Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,          
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,     
                                        Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall   
                                        Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius,   
                                        Mexico, Federated States of       
                                        Micronesia, Morocco, Mozambique,  
                                        Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands       
                                        Antilles, Nicaragua, Niger,       
                                        Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama,  
                                        Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, 
                                        Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint 
                                        Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,     
                                        Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 
                                        Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe,     
                                        Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
                                        Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands,    
                                        Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, 
                                        Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria,
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad
                                        and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, UAE, 
                                        Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu,         
                                        Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia,
                                        Zimbabwe; note - this category    
                                        would presumably also cover the   
                                        following 46 other countries that 
                                        are traditionally included in the 
                                        more comprehensive group of "less 
                                        developed countries": American    
                                        Samoa, Anguilla, British Virgin   
                                        Islands, Brunei, Cayman Islands,  
                                        Christmas Island, Cocos Islands,  
                                        Cook Islands, Cuba, Eritrea,      
                                        Falkland Islands, French Guiana,  
                                        French Polynesia, Gaza Strip,     
                                        Gibraltar, Greenland, Grenada,    
                                        Guadeloupe, Guam, Guernsey,       
                                        Jersey, North Korea, Macau, Isle  
                                        of Man, Martinique, Mayotte,      
                                        Montserrat, Nauru, New Caledonia, 
                                        Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern    
                                        Mariana Islands, Palau, Pitcairn  
                                        Islands, Puerto Rico, Reunion,    
                                        Saint Helena, Saint Pierre and    
                                        Miquelon, Tokelau, Tonga, Turks   
                                        and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Virgin
                                        Islands, Wallis and Futuna, West  
                                        Bank, Western Sahara              
      East African Development Bank     established - 6 June 1967;        
      (EADB)                            effective - 1 December 1967       
                                        aim - to promote economic         
                                        development                       
                                        members - (3) Kenya, Tanzania,    
                                        Uganda                            
      Economic and Social Council       established - 26 June 1945;       
      (ECOSOC)                          effective - 24 October 1945       
                                        aim - to coordinate the economic  
                                        and social work of the UN;        
                                        includes five regional commissions
                                        (Economic Commission for Africa,  
                                        Economic Commission for Europe,   
                                        Economic Commission for Latin     
                                        America and the Caribbean,        
                                        Economic and Social Commission for
                                        Asia and the Pacific, Economic and
                                        Social Commission for Western     
                                        Asia) and 9 functional commissions
                                        (Commission for Social            
                                        Development, Commission on Human  
                                        Rights, Commission on Narcotic    
                                        Drugs, Commission on the Status of
                                        Women, Commission on Population   
                                        and Development, Statistical      
                                        Commission, Commission on Science 
                                        and Technology for Development,   
                                        Commission on Sustainable         
                                        Development, and Commission on    
                                        Crime Prevention and Criminal     
                                        Justice)                          
                                        members - (54) selected on a      
                                        rotating basis from all regions   
      Economic Community of the Great   note - acronym from Communaute    
      Lakes Countries (CEPGL)           Economique des Pays des Grands    
                                        Lacs                              
                                        established - 20 September 1976   
                                        aim - to promote regional economic
                                        cooperation and integration       
                                        members - (3) Burundi, Democratic 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Rwanda     
      Economic Community of West        established - 28 May 1975         
      African States (ECOWAS)           aim - to promote regional economic
                                        cooperation                       
                                        members - (15) Benin, Burkina     
                                        Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire,  
                                        The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-
                                        Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger,     
                                        Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone,   
                                        Togo                              
      Economic Cooperation Organization established - 27-29 January 1985  
      (ECO)                             aim - to promote regional         
                                        cooperation in trade,             
                                        transportation, communications,   
                                        tourism, cultural affairs, and    
                                        economic development              
                                        members - (10) Afghanistan,       
                                        Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan,     
                                        Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, 
                                        Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan  
                                        associate member - (1) "Turkish   
                                        Republic of Northern Cyprus"      
      Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council note - began as the North Atlantic
      (EAPC)                            Cooperation Council (NACC); an    
                                        extension of NATO                 
                                        established - 8 November 1991;    
                                        effective - 20 December 1991      
                                        aim - to discuss cooperation on   
                                        mutual political and security     
                                        issues                            
                                        members - (46) Albania, Armenia,  
                                        Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus,     
                                        Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada,        
                                        Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, 
                                        Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia,
                                        Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,
                                        Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan,       
                                        Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania,    
                                        Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav   
                                        Republic of Macedonia, Moldova,   
                                        Netherlands, Norway, Poland,      
                                        Portugal, Romania, Russia,        
                                        Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,
                                        Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey,  
                                        Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US,    
                                        Uzbekistan                        
      European Bank for Reconstruction  established - 8-9 January 1990    
      and Development (EBRD)            (proposals made); 15 April 1991   
                                        (bank inaugurated)                
                                        aim - to facilitate the transition
                                        of seven centrally planned        
                                        economies in Europe (Bulgaria,    
                                        former Czechoslovakia, Hungary,   
                                        Poland, Romania, former USSR, and 
                                        former Yugoslavia) to market      
                                        economies by committing 60% of its
                                        loans to privatization            
                                        members - (61) Albania, Armenia,  
                                        Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan,   
                                        Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and      
                                        Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada,    
                                        Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,  
                                        Denmark, Egypt, EU, European      
                                        Investment Bank (EIB), Estonia,   
                                        Finland, France, Georgia, Germany,
                                        Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,
                                        Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, 
                                        South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia,  
                                        Liechtenstein, Lithuania,         
                                        Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav   
                                        Republic of Macedonia, Malta,     
                                        Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,        
                                        Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, 
                                        Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia,
                                        Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,
                                        Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey,  
                                        Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US,    
                                        Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia            
      European Community (or European   was established 8 April 1965 to   
      Communities, EC)                  integrate the European Atomic     
                                        Energy Community (Euratom), the   
                                        European Coal and Steel Community 
                                        (ESC), the European Economic      
                                        Community (EEC or Common Market), 
                                        and to establish a completely     
                                        integrated common market and an   
                                        eventual federation of Europe;    
                                        merged into the European Union    
                                        (EU) on 7 February 1992; member   
                                        states at the time of merger were 
                                        Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany,
                                        Greece, Ireland, Italy,           
                                        Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal,
                                        Spain, UK                         
      European Free Trade Association   established - 4 January 1960;     
      (EFTA)                            effective - 3 May 1960            
                                        aim - to promote expansion of free
                                        trade                             
                                        members - (4) Iceland,            
                                        Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland
      European Investment Bank (EIB)    established - 25 March 1957;      
                                        effective - 1 January 1958        
                                        aim - to promote economic         
                                        development of the EU and its     
                                        predecessors, the EEC and the EC  
                                        members - (15) Austria, Belgium,  
                                        Denmark, Finland, France, Germany,
                                        Greece, Ireland, Italy,           
                                        Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal,
                                        Spain, Sweden, UK                 
      European Monetary Union (EMU)     note - an integral part of the    
                                        European Union; also known as the 
                                        European Economic and Monetary    
                                        Union                             
                                        proposed - 1-2 December 1969 at   
                                        summit conference of heads of     
                                        government; signed - 7 February   
                                        1992 - Maastricht Treaty          
                                        aim - to promote a single market  
                                        by creating a single currency, the
                                        euro; time table - 2 May 1998:    
                                        European exchange rates fixed for 
                                        1 January 1999; 1 January 1999:   
                                        all banks and stock exchanges     
                                        begin using euros; 1 January 2002:
                                        the euro goes into circulation; 1 
                                        July 2002 local currencies no     
                                        longer accepted                   
                                        members - (12) Austria, Belgium,  
                                        Finland, France, Germany, Greece, 
                                        Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,       
                                        Netherlands, Portugal, Spain; note
                                        - Denmark, Sweden, and UK decided 
                                        not to join                       
      European Organization for Nuclear note - acronym retained from the  
      Research (CERN)                   predecessor organization Conseil  
                                        Europeenne pour la Recherche      
                                        Nucleaire                         
                                        established - 1 July 1953;        
                                        effective - 29 September 1954     
                                        aim - to foster nuclear research  
                                        for peaceful purposes only        
                                        members - (20) Austria, Belgium,  
                                        Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark,
                                        Finland, France, Germany, Greece, 
                                        Hungary, Italy, Netherlands,      
                                        Norway, Poland, Portugal,         
                                        Slovakia, Spain, Sweden,          
                                        Switzerland, UK                   
                                        observers - (7) European          
                                        Commission, Israel, Japan, Russia,
                                        Turkey, United Nations            
                                        Educational, Scientific, and      
                                        Cultural Organization (UNESCO), US
      European Space Agency (ESA)       established - 31 May 1975         
                                        aim - to promote peaceful         
                                        cooperation in space research and 
                                        technology                        
                                        members - (15) Austria, Belgium,  
                                        Denmark, Finland, France, Germany,
                                        Ireland, Italy, Netherlands,      
                                        Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden,  
                                        Switzerland, UK                   
                                        cooperating state - (1) Canada    
      European Union (EU)               note - evolved from the European  
                                        Community (EC)                    
                                        established - 7 February 1992;    
                                        effective - 1 November 1993       
                                        aim - to coordinate policy among  
                                        the 15 members in three fields:   
                                        economics, building on the        
                                        European Economic Community's     
                                        (EEC) efforts to establish a      
                                        common market and eventually a    
                                        common currency to be called the  
                                        'euro', which superseded the EU's 
                                        accounting unit, the ECU; defense,
                                        within the concept of a Common    
                                        Foreign and Security Policy       
                                        (CFSP); and justice and home      
                                        affairs, including immigration,   
                                        drugs, terrorism, and improved    
                                        living and working conditions     
                                        members - (15) Austria, Belgium,  
                                        Denmark, Finland, France, Germany,
                                        Greece, Ireland, Italy,           
                                        Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal,
                                        Spain, Sweden, UK                 
                                        membership applicants - (13)      
                                        Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, 
                                        Estonia, Hungary, Latvia,         
                                        Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania,
                                        Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey        
      First World                       another term for countries with   
                                        advanced, industrialized          
                                        economies; this term is fading    
                                        from use; see developed countries 
                                        (DCs)                             
      Food and Agriculture Organization established - 16 October 1945     
      (FAO)                             aim - to raise living standards   
                                        and increase availability of      
                                        agricultural products, as a UN    
                                        specialized agency                
                                        members - (184) Afghanistan,      
                                        Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua 
                                        and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia,  
                                        Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan,   
                                        The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, 
                                        Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, 
                                        Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and       
                                        Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,    
                                        Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma,    
                                        Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,      
                                        Canada, Cape Verde, Central       
                                        African Republic, Chad, Chile,    
                                        China, Colombia, Comoros,         
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Cook       
                                        Islands, Costa Rica, Cote         
                                        d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,  
                                        Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
                                        Dominica, Dominican Republic,     
                                        Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,      
                                        Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea,       
                                        Estonia, Ethiopia, EC, Fiji,      
                                        Finland, France, Gabon, The       
                                        Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,  
                                        Greece, Grenada, Guatemala,       
                                        Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,    
                                        Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland,
                                        India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,     
                                        Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,  
                                        Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, 
                                        Kiribati, North Korea, South      
                                        Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,  
                                        Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
                                        Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The 
                                        Former Yugoslav Republic of       
                                        Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi,    
                                        Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,  
                                        Marshall Islands, Mauritania,     
                                        Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova,       
                                        Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco,        
                                        Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal,
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
                                        Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman,      
                                        Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New
                                        Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,           
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint     
                                        Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,     
                                        Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 
                                        Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and   
                                        Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,  
                                        Seychelles, Sierra Leone,         
                                        Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon       
                                        Islands, Somalia, South Africa,   
                                        Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
                                        Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,   
                                        Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania,      
                                        Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad   
                                        and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,      
                                        Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, UK, US,
                                        Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,     
                                        Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,        
                                        Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe      
      former Soviet Union (FSU)         former term often used to identify
                                        as a group the successor nations  
                                        to the Soviet Union or USSR; this 
                                        group of 15 countries consists of 
                                        Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus,     
                                        Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan,     
                                        Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania,    
                                        Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan,      
                                        Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan 
      former USSR/Eastern Europe        the middle group in the hierarchy 
      (former USSR/EE)                  of developed countries (DCs),     
                                        former USSR/Eastern Europe (former
                                        USSR/EE), and less developed      
                                        countries (LDCs); these countries 
                                        are in political and economic     
                                        transition and may well be grouped
                                        differently in the near future;   
                                        this group of 27 countries        
                                        consists of Albania, Armenia,     
                                        Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and   
                                        Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia,   
                                        Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, 
                                        Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,  
                                        Latvia, Lithuania, The Former     
                                        Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,   
                                        Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, 
                                        Slovakia, Slovenia, Tajikistan,   
                                        Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan,
                                        Yugoslavia; this group is         
                                        identical to the IMF group        
                                        "countries in transition" except  
                                        for the IMF's inclusion of        
                                        Mongolia                          
      Four Dragons                      the four small Asian less         
                                        developed countries (LDCs) that   
                                        have experienced unusually rapid  
                                        economic growth; also known as the
                                        Four Tigers; this group consists  
                                        of Hong Kong, South Korea,        
                                        Singapore, Taiwan; these countries
                                        are included in the IMF's         
                                        "advanced economies" group        
      Franc Zone (FZ)                   note - also known as Conference   
                                        des Ministres des Finances des    
                                        Pays de la Zone Franc             
                                        established - NA 1964             
                                        aim - to form a monetary union    
                                        among countries whose currencies  
                                        are linked to the French franc    
                                        members - (16) Benin, Burkina     
                                        Faso, Cameroon, Central African   
                                        Republic, Chad, Comoros, Republic 
                                        of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire,      
                                        Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, 
                                        Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger,       
                                        Senegal, Togo; note - France      
                                        includes metropolitan France, the 
                                        four overseas departments of      
                                        France (French Guiana, Guadeloupe,
                                        Martinique, Reunion), the two     
                                        territorial collectivities of     
                                        France (Mayotte, Saint Pierre and 
                                        Miquelon), and the three overseas 
                                        territories of France (French     
                                        Polynesia, New Caledonia, Wallis  
                                        and Futuna)                       
      Front Line States (FLS)           established to achieve black      
                                        majority rule in South Africa; has
                                        since gone out of existence;      
                                        members included Angola, Botswana,
                                        Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania,    
                                        Zambia, Zimbabwe                  
      General Agreement on Tariffs and  see the World Trade Organization  
      Trade (GATT)                      (WTrO)                            
      Group of 2 (G-2)                  informal term that came into use  
                                        about 1986; to facilitate         
                                        bilateral economic cooperation    
                                        between the two most powerful     
                                        economic giants; members were     
                                        Japan, US                         
      Group of 3 (G-3)                  established - NA September 1990   
                                        aim - mechanism for policy        
                                        coordination                      
                                        members - (3) Colombia, Mexico,   
                                        Venezuela                         
      Group of 5 (G-5)                  established - 22 September 1985   
                                        aim - to coordinate the economic  
                                        policies of five major            
                                        noncommunist economic powers      
                                        members - (5) France, Germany,    
                                        Japan, UK, US                     
      Group of 6 (G-6)                  note - also known as Groupe des   
                                        Six Sur le Desarmement; not to be 
                                        confused with the Big Six         
                                        established - 22 May 1984         
                                        aim - to achieve nuclear          
                                        disarmament                       
                                        members - (6) Argentina, Greece,  
                                        India, Mexico, Sweden, Tanzania   
      Group of 7 (G-7)                  note - membership is the same as  
                                        the Big Seven                     
                                        established - 22 September 1985   
                                        aim - to facilitate economic      
                                        cooperation among the seven major 
                                        noncommunist economic powers      
                                        members - (7) Group of 5 (France, 
                                        Germany, Japan, UK, US) plus      
                                        Canada and Italy                  
      Group of 8 (G-8)                  established - NA October 1975     
                                        aim - to facilitate economic      
                                        cooperation among the developed   
                                        countries (DCs) that participated 
                                        in the Conference on International
                                        Economic Cooperation (CIEC), held 
                                        in several sessions between NA    
                                        December 1975 and 3 June 1977     
                                        members - (9) Canada, EU (as one  
                                        member), France, Germany, Italy,  
                                        Japan, Russia, UK, US             
      Group of 9 (G-9)                  established - NA                  
                                        aim - to discuss matters of mutual
                                        interest on an informal basis     
                                        members - (9) Austria, Belgium,   
                                        Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland,       
                                        Hungary, Romania, Sweden,         
                                        Yugoslavia                        
      Group of 10 (G-10)                note - also known as the Paris    
                                        Club; includes the wealthiest     
                                        members of the IMF who provide    
                                        most of the money to be loaned and
                                        act as the informal steering      
                                        committee; name persists in spite 
                                        of the addition of Switzerland on 
                                        NA April 1984                     
                                        established - NA October 1962     
                                        aim - to coordinate credit policy 
                                        members - (11) Belgium, Canada,   
                                        France, Germany, Italy, Japan,    
                                        Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, 
                                        UK, US                            
                                        nonstate participants - (4) BIS,  
                                        EU, IMF, OECD                     
      Group of 11 (G-11)                note - also known as the Cartagena
                                        Group; established in 21-22 June  
                                        1984, in Cartagena, Colombia; aim 
                                        was to provide a forum for largest
                                        debtor nations in Latin America;  
                                        members were Argentina, Bolivia,  
                                        Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican
                                        Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru,  
                                        Uruguay, Venezuela                
      Group of 15 (G-15)                note - byproduct of the Nonaligned
                                        Movement                          
                                        established – NA September 1989   
                                        aim - to promote economic         
                                        cooperation among developing      
                                        nations; to act as the main       
                                        political organ for the Nonaligned
                                        Movement                          
                                        members - (16) Algeria, Argentina,
                                        Brazil, Chile, Egypt, India,      
                                        Indonesia, Jamaica, Kenya,        
                                        Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Senegal,  
                                        Sri Lanka, Venezuela, Zimbabwe    
      Group of 24 (G-24)                established - 1 August 1989       
                                        aim - to promote the interests of 
                                        developing countries in Africa,   
                                        Asia, and Latin America within the
                                        IMF                               
                                        members - (24) Algeria, Argentina,
                                        Brazil, Colombia, Democratic      
                                        Republic of the Congo, Cote       
                                        d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, 
                                        Ghana, Guatemala, India, Iran,    
                                        Lebanon, Mexico, Nigeria,         
                                        Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, South
                                        Africa, Sri Lanka, Syria, Trinidad
                                        and Tobago, Venezuela             
      Group of 77 (G-77)                established - 15 June 1964 was set
                                        up; NA October 1967 first         
                                        ministerial meeting               
                                        aim - to promote economic         
                                        cooperation among developing      
                                        countries; name persists in spite 
                                        of increased membership           
                                        members - (131 plus the Palestine 
                                        Liberation Organization)          
                                        Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola,     
                                        Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,   
                                        The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, 
                                        Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan,  
                                        Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,  
                                        Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina 
                                        Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,   
                                        Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central     
                                        African Republic, Chad, Chile,    
                                        China, Colombia, Comoros,         
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica,
                                        Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus,      
                                        Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican     
                                        Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El      
                                        Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,      
                                        Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia,
                                        Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
                                        Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,     
                                        Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, 
                                        Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya,     
                                        North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, 
                                        Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,  
                                        Libya, Madagascar, Malawi,        
                                        Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,  
                                        Marshall Islands, Mauritania,     
                                        Mauritius, Federated States of    
                                        Micronesia, Mongolia, Morocco,    
                                        Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal,       
                                        Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman,  
                                        Pakistan, Panama, Papua New       
                                        Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,           
                                        Philippines, Qatar, Romania,      
                                        Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis,    
                                        Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
                                        Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and   
                                        Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,  
                                        Seychelles, Sierra Leone,         
                                        Singapore, Solomon Islands,       
                                        Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, 
                                        Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria,
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,  
                                        Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,     
                                        Uganda, UAE, Uruguay, Vanuatu,    
                                        Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,        
                                        Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe,     
                                        Palestine Liberation Organization 
      Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)    note - also known as the          
                                        Cooperation Council for the Arab  
                                        States of the Gulf                
                                        established - 25 May 1981         
                                        aim - to promote regional         
                                        cooperation in economic, social,  
                                        political, and military affairs   
                                        members - (6) Bahrain, Kuwait,    
                                        Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE    
      high-income countries             another term for the              
                                        industrialized countries with high
                                        per capita GDPs; see developed    
                                        countries (DCs)                   
      Indian Ocean Commission (InOC)    established - 21 December 1982    
                                        aim - to organize and promote     
                                        regional cooperation in all       
                                        sectors, especially economic      
                                        members - (5) Comoros, France (for
                                        Reunion), Madagascar, Mauritius,  
                                        Seychelles                        
      industrial countries              another term for the developed    
                                        countries; see developed countries
                                        (DCs)                             
      Inter-American Development Bank   note - also known as Banco        
      (IADB)                            Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)
                                        established - 8 April 1959;       
                                        effective - 30 December 1959      
                                        aim - to promote economic and     
                                        social development in Latin       
                                        America                           
                                        members - (46) Argentina, Austria,
                                        The Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium,   
                                        Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada,  
                                        Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica,      
                                        Croatia, Denmark, Dominican       
                                        Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador,   
                                        Finland, France, Germany,         
                                        Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti,         
                                        Honduras, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, 
                                        Japan, Mexico, Netherlands,       
                                        Nicaragua, Norway, Panama,        
                                        Paraguay, Peru, Portugal,         
                                        Slovenia, Spain, Suriname, Sweden,
                                        Switzerland, Trinidad and Tobago, 
                                        UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela        
      Inter-Governmental Authority on   note - formerly known as Inter-   
      Development (IGAD)                Governmental Authority on Drought 
                                        and Development (IGADD)           
                                        established - 15-16 January 1986  
                                        as the Inter-Governmental         
                                        Authority on Drought and          
                                        Development; revitalized - 21     
                                        March 1996 as the Inter-          
                                        Governmental Authority on         
                                        Development                       
                                        aim - to promote a social,        
                                        economic, and scientific community
                                        among its members                 
                                        members - (7) Djibouti, Eritrea,  
                                        Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan,  
                                        Uganda                            
      International Atomic Energy       established - 26 October 1956;    
      Agency (IAEA)                     effective - 29 July 1957          
                                        aim - to promote peaceful uses of 
                                        atomic energy                     
                                        members - (133) Afghanistan,      
                                        Albania, Algeria, Angola,         
                                        Argentina, Armenia, Australia,    
                                        Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh,  
                                        Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, 
                                        Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil,   
                                        Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma,    
                                        Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada,       
                                        Central African Republic, Chile,  
                                        China, Colombia, Democratic       
                                        Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica,
                                        Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba,     
                                        Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,  
                                        Dominican Republic, Ecuador,      
                                        Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia,      
                                        Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, 
                                        Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece,  
                                        Guatemala, Haiti, Holy See,       
                                        Hungary, Iceland, India,          
                                        Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,   
                                        Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,    
                                        Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South  
                                        Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon,   
                                        Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein,    
                                        Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former 
                                        Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,   
                                        Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Malta,
                                        Marshall Islands, Mauritius,      
                                        Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia,
                                        Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, NZ,
                                        Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway,
                                        Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, 
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi     
                                        Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone,    
                                        Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,    
                                        South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka,   
                                        Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,
                                        Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand,   
                                        Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, 
                                        UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, 
                                        Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,        
                                        Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe; note
                                        - Honduras membership has been    
                                        approved; membership will take    
                                        effect once legal instruments have
                                        been deposited                    
      International Bank for            note - also known as the World    
      Reconstruction and Development    Bank                              
      (IBRD)                            established - 22 July 1944;       
                                        effective - 27 December 1945      
                                        aim - to provide economic         
                                        development loans; a UN           
                                        specialized agency                
                                        members - (184) Afghanistan,      
                                        Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua 
                                        and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia,  
                                        Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan,   
                                        The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, 
                                        Barbados, Belarus, Belgium,       
                                        Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,   
                                        Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, 
                                        Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina 
                                        Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,   
                                        Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde,     
                                        Central African Republic, Chad,   
                                        Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros,  
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica,
                                        Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus,   
                                        Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
                                        Dominica, Dominican Republic, East
                                        Timor, Ecuador, Egypt, El         
                                        Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,      
                                        Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, 
                                        Finland, France, Gabon, The       
                                        Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,  
                                        Greece, Grenada, Guatemala,       
                                        Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,    
                                        Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland,
                                        India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,     
                                        Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,  
                                        Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, 
                                        Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait,    
                                        Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon,
                                        Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,          
                                        Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former 
                                        Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,   
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,     
                                        Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall   
                                        Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius,   
                                        Mexico, Federated States of       
                                        Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia,    
                                        Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,     
                                        Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,
                                        Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman,     
                                        Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New
                                        Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,           
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda,   
                                        Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint      
                                        Lucia, Saint Vincent and the      
                                        Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao
                                        Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,  
                                        Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
                                        Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,    
                                        Solomon Islands, Somalia, South   
                                        Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,  
                                        Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,      
                                        Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan,   
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,  
                                        Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,     
                                        Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda,     
                                        Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,    
                                        Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela,   
                                        Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia,       
                                        Zambia, Zimbabwe                  
      International Chamber of Commerce established - NA 1919             
      (ICC)                             aim - to promote free trade and   
                                        private enterprise and to         
                                        represent business interests at   
                                        national and international levels 
                                        members - (80 national committees)
                                        Algeria, Argentina, Australia,    
                                        Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh,     
                                        Belgium, Brazil, Burkina Faso,    
                                        Cameroon, Canada, Caribbean,      
                                        Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba,     
                                        Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,  
                                        Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, France,  
                                        Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hong Kong,
                                        Hungary, Iceland, India,          
                                        Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, 
                                        Italy, Japan, Jordan, South Korea,
                                        Kuwait, Lebanon, Lithuania,       
                                        Luxembourg, Mexico, Monaco,       
                                        Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,  
                                        Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Peru,  
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi     
                                        Arabia, Senegal, Singapore,       
                                        Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, 
                                        Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden,         
                                        Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan,       
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia,
                                        Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay,          
                                        Venezuela, Yugoslavia             
      International Civil Aviation      established - 7 December 1944;    
      Organization (ICAO)               effective - 4 April 1947          
                                        aim - to promote international    
                                        cooperation in civil aviation; a  
                                        UN specialized agency             
                                        members - (187) Afghanistan,      
                                        Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola,
                                        Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,   
                                        Armenia, Australia, Austria,      
                                        Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, 
                                        Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,    
                                        Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan,   
                                        Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,  
                                        Botswana, Brazil, Brunei,         
                                        Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma,    
                                        Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,      
                                        Canada, Cape Verde, Central       
                                        African Republic, Chad, Chile,    
                                        China, Colombia, Comoros,         
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Cook       
                                        Islands, Costa Rica, Cote         
                                        d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,  
                                        Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
                                        Dominican Republic, Ecuador,      
                                        Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial    
                                        Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia,         
                                        Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France,  
                                        Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia,       
                                        Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada,  
                                        Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, 
                                        Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, 
                                        Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,  
                                        Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy,     
                                        Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,           
                                        Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North
                                        Korea, South Korea, Kuwait,       
                                        Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon,
                                        Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,          
                                        Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former 
                                        Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,   
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,     
                                        Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall   
                                        Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius,   
                                        Mexico, Federated States of       
                                        Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco,      
                                        Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique,    
                                        Namibia, Nauru, Nepal,            
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
                                        Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Palau,     
                                        Pakistan, Panama, Papua New       
                                        Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,           
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda,   
                                        Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
                                        Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao
                                        Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,  
                                        Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
                                        Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,    
                                        Solomon Islands, Somalia, South   
                                        Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,  
                                        Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,      
                                        Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan,   
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,  
                                        Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,     
                                        Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda,     
                                        Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,    
                                        Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela,   
                                        Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia,       
                                        Zambia, Zimbabwe                  
      International Committee of the    established - 17 February 1863    
      Red Cross (ICRC)                  aim - to provide humanitarian aid 
                                        in wartime                        
                                        members - (25 individuals) all    
                                        Swiss nationals                   
      International Confederation of    established - NA December 1949    
      Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)         aim - to promote the trade union  
                                        movement                          
                                        members - (225 affiliated         
                                        organizations in the following 148
                                        countries) Algeria, Angola,       
                                        Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,   
                                        Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan,   
                                        The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados,
                                        Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda,  
                                        Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria,       
                                        Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada,   
                                        Cape Verde, Central African       
                                        Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia,  
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Cook       
                                        Islands, Costa Rica, Cote         
                                        d'Ivoire, Croatia, Curacao,       
                                        Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,  
                                        Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican     
                                        Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador,   
                                        Eritrea, Estonia, Falkland        
                                        Islands, Fiji, Finland, France,   
                                        French Polynesia, Gabon, The      
                                        Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,  
                                        Greece, Grenada, Guatemala,       
                                        Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,    
                                        Holy See, Honduras, Hong Kong,    
                                        Hungary, Iceland, India,          
                                        Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy,
                                        Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya,    
                                        Kiribati, South Korea, Latvia,    
                                        Lebanon, Liberia, Lithuania,      
                                        Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi,   
                                        Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania,
                                        Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova,       
                                        Mongolia, Montserrat, Morocco,    
                                        Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal,       
                                        Netherlands, New Caledonia, NZ,   
                                        Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway,
                                        Pakistan, Panama, Papua New       
                                        Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,           
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Puerto Rico, Romania, Russia,     
                                        Rwanda, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts 
                                        and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint     
                                        Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa,
                                        San Marino, Senegal, Seychelles,  
                                        Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia,
                                        South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka,   
                                        Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,      
                                        Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania,    
                                        Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad   
                                        and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,      
                                        Uganda, UK, US, Vanuatu,          
                                        Venezuela, Yemen, Yugoslavia,     
                                        Zambia, Zimbabwe                  
      International Court of Justice    note - also known as the World    
      (ICJ)                             Court                             
                                        established - 3 February 1946     
                                        superseded Permanent Court of     
                                        International Justice             
                                        aim - primary judicial organ of   
                                        the UN                            
                                        members - (15 judges) elected by  
                                        the UN General Assembly and       
                                        Security Council to represent all 
                                        principal legal systems           
      International Criminal Police     established - NA September 1923   
      Organization (Interpol)           set up as the International       
                                        Criminal Police Commission; 13    
                                        June 1956 constitution modified   
                                        and present name adopted          
                                        aim - to promote international    
                                        cooperation among police          
                                        authorities in fighting crime     
                                        members - (179) Albania, Algeria, 
                                        Andorra, Angola, Antigua and      
                                        Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia,      
                                        Aruba, Australia, Austria,        
                                        Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, 
                                        Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,    
                                        Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia,  
                                        Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, 
                                        Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina 
                                        Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,   
                                        Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde,     
                                        Central African Republic, Chad,   
                                        Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros,  
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica,
                                        Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba,     
                                        Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,  
                                        Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican     
                                        Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El      
                                        Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,      
                                        Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, 
                                        Finland, France, Gabon, The       
                                        Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,  
                                        Greece, Grenada, Guatemala,       
                                        Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,    
                                        Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland,
                                        India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,     
                                        Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,  
                                        Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, 
                                        South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan,  
                                        Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho,   
                                        Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein,    
                                        Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former 
                                        Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,   
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,     
                                        Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall   
                                        Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius,   
                                        Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia,
                                        Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,     
                                        Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands,        
                                        Netherlands Antilles, NZ,         
                                        Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway,
                                        Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New 
                                        Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,           
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda,   
                                        Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint      
                                        Lucia, Saint Vincent and the      
                                        Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe,
                                        Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
                                        Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia,
                                        Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa,  
                                        Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
                                        Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,   
                                        Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo,  
                                        Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago,       
                                        Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, 
                                        UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, 
                                        Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,        
                                        Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe      
                                        subbureaus - (14) American Samoa, 
                                        Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin 
                                        Islands, Cayman Islands,          
                                        Gibraltar, Guam, Hong Kong, Macau,
                                        Montserrat, Northern Mariana      
                                        Islands, Puerto Rico, Turks and   
                                        Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands    
      International Development         established - 26 January 1960;    
      Association (IDA)                 effective - 24 September 1960     
                                        aim - UN specialized agency and   
                                        IBRD affiliate that provides      
                                        economic loans for low-income     
                                        countries                         
                                        members - (163)                   
                                        Part I - (27 developed countries) 
                                        Australia, Austria, Belgium,      
                                        Canada, Denmark, EU, Finland,     
                                        France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland,
                                        Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Luxembourg, 
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal,
                                        Russia, South Africa, Spain,      
                                        Sweden, Switzerland, UAE, UK, US  
                                        Part II - (136 less developed     
                                        countries) Afghanistan, Albania,  
                                        Algeria, Angola, Argentina,       
                                        Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh,  
                                        Barbados,  Belize, Benin, Bhutan, 
                                        Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,  
                                        Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso,   
                                        Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,         
                                        Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central     
                                        African Republic, Chad, Chile,    
                                        China, Colombia, Comoros,         
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica,
                                        Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus,   
                                        Czech Republic, Djibouti,         
                                        Dominica, Dominican Republic,     
                                        Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,      
                                        Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea,       
                                        Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia,
                                        Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Grenada,  
                                        Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, 
                                        Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, 
                                        India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,     
                                        Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,
                                        Kiribati, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan,
                                        Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho,   
                                        Liberia, Libya, The Former        
                                        Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,   
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,     
                                        Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, 
                                        Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,    
                                        Federated States of Micronesia,   
                                        Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco,       
                                        Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua,     
                                        Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan,   
                                        Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea,  
                                        Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,      
                                        Poland, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and   
                                        Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent 
                                        and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao    
                                        Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,  
                                        Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovakia,  
                                        Slovenia, Solomon Islands,        
                                        Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan,        
                                        Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan,     
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,  
                                        Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,     
                                        Turkey, Uganda, Uzbekistan,       
                                        Vanuatu, Vietnam, Yemen,          
                                        Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe      
      International Energy Agency (IEA) established - 15 November 1974    
                                        aim - to promote cooperation on   
                                        energy matters, especially        
                                        emergency oil sharing and         
                                        relations between oil consumers   
                                        and oil producers; established by 
                                        the OECD                          
                                        members - (26) Australia, Austria,
                                        Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic,  
                                        Denmark, Finland, France, Germany,
                                        Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy,  
                                        Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg,   
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal,
                                        Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,       
                                        Turkey, UK, US                    
      International Federation of Red   note - formerly known as League of
      Cross and Red Crescent Societies  Red Cross and Red Crescent        
      (IFRCS)                           Societies (LORCS)                 
                                        established - 5 May 1919          
                                        aim - to organize, coordinate, and
                                        direct international relief       
                                        actions; to promote humanitarian  
                                        activities; to represent and      
                                        encourage the development of      
                                        National Societies; to bring help 
                                        to victims of armed conflicts,    
                                        refugees, and displaced people; to
                                        reduce the vulnerability of people
                                        through development programs      
                                        members - (179) Afghanistan,      
                                        Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola,
                                        Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,   
                                        Armenia, Australia, Austria,      
                                        Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, 
                                        Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,    
                                        Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia,  
                                        Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, 
                                        Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina 
                                        Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,   
                                        Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde,     
                                        Central African Republic, Chad,   
                                        Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic
                                        Republic of the Congo, Republic of
                                        the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote       
                                        d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Czech    
                                        Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,      
                                        Dominica, Dominican Republic,     
                                        Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,      
                                        Equatorial Guinea, Estonia,       
                                        Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France,  
                                        Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia,       
                                        Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada,  
                                        Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, 
                                        Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, 
                                        Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,  
                                        Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica,    
                                        Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati,   
                                        North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, 
                                        Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon,
                                        Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,          
                                        Liechtenstein, Lithuania,         
                                        Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav   
                                        Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar,
                                        Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta,    
                                        Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,    
                                        Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia,        
                                        Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,     
                                        Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,
                                        Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, 
                                        Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea,  
                                        Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,      
                                        Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, 
                                        Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and   
                                        Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent 
                                        and the Grenadines, Samoa, San    
                                        Marino, Sao Tome and Principe,    
                                        Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
                                        Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia,
                                        Slovenia, Solomon Islands,        
                                        Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri 
                                        Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland,
                                        Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,       
                                        Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania,     
                                        Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad   
                                        and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,      
                                        Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine,    
                                        UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, 
                                        Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam,      
                                        Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia,        
                                        Zimbabwe                          
                                        associate members - (7 plus the   
                                        Palestine Liberation Organization)
                                        Comoros, Cook Islands, Eritrea,   
                                        Israel, Kazakhstan, Federated     
                                        States of Micronesia,  Tuvalu,    
                                        Palestine Liberation Organization 
      International Finance Corporation established - 25 May 1955;        
      (IFC)                             effective - 24 July 1956          
                                        aim - to support private          
                                        enterprise in international       
                                        economic development; a UN        
                                        specialized agency and IBRD       
                                        affiliate                         
                                        members - (175) Afghanistan,      
                                        Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua 
                                        and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia,  
                                        Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan,   
                                        The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, 
                                        Barbados, Belarus, Belgium,       
                                        Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and
                                        Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,    
                                        Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma,    
                                        Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,      
                                        Canada, Cape Verde, Central       
                                        African Republic, Chad, Chile,    
                                        China, Colombia, Comoros,         
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica,
                                        Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus,   
                                        Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
                                        Dominica, Dominican Republic,     
                                        Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,      
                                        Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea,       
                                        Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, 
                                        France, Gabon, The Gambia,        
                                        Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece,  
                                        Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,       
                                        Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,     
                                        Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,
                                        Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,   
                                        Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,    
                                        Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,        
                                        Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait,    
                                        Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon,
                                        Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,          
                                        Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former 
                                        Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,   
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,     
                                        Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, 
                                        Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,    
                                        Federated States of Micronesia,   
                                        Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco,       
                                        Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal,       
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
                                        Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan,  
                                        Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea,  
                                        Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,      
                                        Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia,
                                        Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis,    
                                        Saint Lucia, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, 
                                        Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
                                        Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,    
                                        Solomon Islands, Somalia, South   
                                        Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,  
                                        Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,   
                                        Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania,      
                                        Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad   
                                        and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,      
                                        Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine,    
                                        UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, 
                                        Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam,      
                                        Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia,        
                                        Zimbabwe                          
      International Fund for            established - NA November 1974    
      Agricultural Development (IFAD)   aim - to promote agricultural     
                                        development; a UN specialized     
                                        agency                            
                                        members - (162)                   
                                        Category I - (23 industrialized   
                                        aid contributors) Australia,      
                                        Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
                                        Finland, France, Germany, Greece, 
                                        Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan,   
                                        Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ,      
                                        Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden,  
                                        Switzerland, UK, US               
                                        Category II - (12 petroleum-      
                                        exporting aid contributors)       
                                        Algeria, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran,  
                                        Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria,     
                                        Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE,         
                                        Venezuela                         
                                        Category III - (127 aid           
                                        recipients) Afghanistan, Albania, 
                                        Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,      
                                        Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan,   
                                        Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize,     
                                        Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and
                                        Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,    
                                        Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi,     
                                        Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde,   
                                        Central African Republic, Chad,   
                                        Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros,  
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Cook       
                                        Islands, Costa Rica, Cote         
                                        d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,  
                                        Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican     
                                        Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El      
                                        Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,      
                                        Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, The      
                                        Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Grenada,  
                                        Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, 
                                        Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India,   
                                        Israel, Jamaica, Jordan,          
                                        Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea,   
                                        South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,    
                                        Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, The    
                                        Former Yugoslav Republic of       
                                        Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi,    
                                        Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,  
                                        Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,    
                                        Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco,       
                                        Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal,       
                                        Nicaragua, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, 
                                        Panama, Papua New Guinea,         
                                        Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,      
                                        Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and  
                                        Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent 
                                        and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao    
                                        Tome and Principe, Senegal,       
                                        Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon 
                                        Islands, Somalia, South Africa,   
                                        Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,       
                                        Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan,     
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,  
                                        Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,     
                                        Turkey, Uganda, Uruguay, Vietnam, 
                                        Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia,        
                                        Zimbabwe                          
      International Hydrographic        note - name changed from          
      Organization (IHO)                International Hydrographic Bureau 
                                        on 22 September 1970              
                                        established - NA June 1919;       
                                        effective - NA June 1921          
                                        aim - to train hydrographic       
                                        surveyors and nautical            
                                        cartographers to achieve          
                                        standardization in nautical charts
                                        and electronic chart displays; to 
                                        provide advice on nautical        
                                        cartography and hydrography; to   
                                        develop the sciences in the field 
                                        of hydrography and techniques used
                                        for descriptive oceanography      
                                        members - (70) Algeria, Argentina,
                                        Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh,   
                                        Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile,   
                                        China (including Hong Kong and    
                                        Macau), Colombia, Democratic      
                                        Republic of the Congo, Croatia,   
                                        Cuba, Cyprus, Denmark, Dominican  
                                        Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia,
                                        Fiji, Finland, France, Germany,   
                                        Greece, Guatemala, Iceland, India,
                                        Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Jamaica,  
                                        Japan, North Korea, South Korea,  
                                        Malaysia, Monaco, Morocco,        
                                        Mozambique, Netherlands, NZ,      
                                        Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan,  
                                        Papua New Guinea, Peru,           
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Russia, Singapore, South Africa,  
                                        Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname,       
                                        Sweden, Syria, Thailand, Tonga,   
                                        Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,     
                                        Turkey, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US,     
                                        Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia    
                                        membership pending - (3) Bulgaria,
                                        Mauritania, Qatar                 
      International Labor Organization  established - 28 June 1919 set up 
      (ILO)                             as part of Treaty of Versailles;  
                                        11 April 1919 became operative; 14
                                        December 1946 affiliated with the 
                                        UN                                
                                        aim - to deal with world labor    
                                        issues; a UN specialized agency   
                                        members - (175) Afghanistan,      
                                        Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua 
                                        and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia,  
                                        Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan,   
                                        The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, 
                                        Barbados, Belarus, Belgium,       
                                        Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and
                                        Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,    
                                        Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma,    
                                        Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,      
                                        Canada, Cape Verde, Central       
                                        African Republic, Chad, Chile,    
                                        China, Colombia, Comoros,         
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica,
                                        Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba,     
                                        Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,  
                                        Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican     
                                        Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El      
                                        Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,      
                                        Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, 
                                        Finland, France, Gabon, The       
                                        Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,  
                                        Greece, Grenada, Guatemala,       
                                        Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,    
                                        Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland,
                                        India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,     
                                        Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,  
                                        Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, 
                                        Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait,    
                                        Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon,
                                        Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,          
                                        Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former 
                                        Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,   
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,     
                                        Mali, Malta, Mauritania,          
                                        Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova,       
                                        Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique,    
                                        Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,  
                                        Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway,
                                        Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New 
                                        Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,           
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda,   
                                        Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint      
                                        Lucia, Saint Vincent and the      
                                        Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome  
                                        and Principe, Saudi Arabia,       
                                        Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
                                        Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,    
                                        Solomon Islands, Somalia, South   
                                        Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,  
                                        Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,      
                                        Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan,   
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad
                                        and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,      
                                        Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine,    
                                        UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, 
                                        Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,        
                                        Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe      
      International Maritime            note - name changed from          
      Organization (IMO)                Intergovernmental Maritime        
                                        Consultative Organization (IMCO)  
                                        on 22 May 1982                    
                                        established - 6 March 1948 set up 
                                        as the Inter-Governmental Maritime
                                        Consultative Organization;        
                                        effective - 17 March 1958         
                                        aim - to deal with international  
                                        maritime affairs; a UN specialized
                                        agency                            
                                        members - (161) Albania, Algeria, 
                                        Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,      
                                        Argentina, Australia, Austria,    
                                        Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, 
                                        Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium,    
                                        Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and
                                        Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei,      
                                        Bulgaria, Burma, Cambodia,        
                                        Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde,     
                                        Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros,  
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica,
                                        Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba,     
                                        Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,  
                                        Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican     
                                        Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El      
                                        Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,      
                                        Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, 
                                        Finland, France, Gabon, The       
                                        Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,  
                                        Greece, Grenada, Guatemala,       
                                        Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,    
                                        Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland,
                                        India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,     
                                        Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,  
                                        Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, 
                                        North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, 
                                        Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya,  
                                        Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former 
                                        Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,   
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,     
                                        Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands,
                                        Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,    
                                        Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia,        
                                        Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,     
                                        Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,
                                        Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan,  
                                        Panama, Papua New Guinea,         
                                        Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,      
                                        Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, 
                                        Russia, Saint Kitts and Nevis,    
                                        Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
                                        Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and   
                                        Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,  
                                        Seychelles, Sierra Leone,         
                                        Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,    
                                        Solomon Islands, Somalia, South   
                                        Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,  
                                        Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland,    
                                        Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo,  
                                        Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago,       
                                        Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan,    
                                        Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,    
                                        Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam,      
                                        Yemen, Yugoslavia                 
                                        associate members - (2) Hong Kong,
                                        Macau                             
      International Monetary Fund (IMF) established - 22 July 1944;       
                                        effective - 27 December 1945      
                                        aim - to promote world monetary   
                                        stability and economic            
                                        development; a UN specialized     
                                        agency                            
                                        members - (184) Afghanistan,      
                                        Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua 
                                        and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia,  
                                        Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan,   
                                        The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, 
                                        Barbados, Belarus, Belgium,       
                                        Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,   
                                        Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, 
                                        Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina 
                                        Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,   
                                        Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde,     
                                        Central African Republic, Chad,   
                                        Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros,  
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica,
                                        Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus,   
                                        Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
                                        Dominica, Dominican Republic, East
                                        Timor, Ecuador, Egypt, El         
                                        Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,      
                                        Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, 
                                        Finland, France, Gabon, The       
                                        Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,  
                                        Greece, Grenada, Guatemala,       
                                        Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,    
                                        Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland,
                                        India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,     
                                        Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,  
                                        Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, 
                                        Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait,    
                                        Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon,
                                        Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,          
                                        Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former 
                                        Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,   
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,     
                                        Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall   
                                        Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius,   
                                        Mexico, Federated States of       
                                        Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia,    
                                        Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,     
                                        Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,
                                        Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman,     
                                        Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New
                                        Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,           
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda,   
                                        Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint      
                                        Lucia, Saint Vincent and the      
                                        Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao
                                        Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,  
                                        Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
                                        Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,    
                                        Solomon Islands, Somalia, South   
                                        Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,  
                                        Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,      
                                        Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan,   
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,  
                                        Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,     
                                        Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda,     
                                        Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,    
                                        Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela,   
                                        Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia,       
                                        Zambia, Zimbabwe                  
      International Olympic Committee   established - 23 June 1894        
      (IOC)                             aim - to promote the Olympic      
                                        ideals and administer the Olympic 
                                        games: 2002 Winter Olympics in    
                                        Salt Lake City, United States;    
                                        2004 Summer Olympics in Athens,   
                                        Greece; 2006 Winter Olympics in   
                                        Turin, Italy                      
                                        National Olympic Committees - (199
                                        and the Palestine Liberation      
                                        Organization) Afghanistan,        
                                        Albania, Algeria, American Samoa, 
                                        Andorra, Angola (suspended),      
                                        Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,   
                                        Armenia, Aruba, Australia,        
                                        Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, 
                                        Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,    
                                        Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin,  
                                        Bermuda, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia  
                                        and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,
                                        British Virgin Islands, Brunei,   
                                        Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma,    
                                        Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,      
                                        Canada, Cape Verde, Cayman        
                                        Islands, Central African Republic,
                                        Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,     
                                        Comoros, Democratic Republic of   
                                        the Congo, Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote    
                                        d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,  
                                        Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
                                        Dominica, Dominican Republic,     
                                        Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,      
                                        Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea,       
                                        Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, 
                                        France, Gabon, The Gambia,        
                                        Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece,  
                                        Grenada, Guam, Guatemala, Guinea, 
                                        Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,     
                                        Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary,     
                                        Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,  
                                        Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy,     
                                        Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,           
                                        Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea,   
                                        South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan,  
                                        Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho,   
                                        Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein,    
                                        Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former 
                                        Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,   
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,     
                                        Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania,
                                        Mauritius, Mexico, Federated      
                                        States of Micronesia, Moldova,    
                                        Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco,        
                                        Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal,
                                        Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles,
                                        NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria,    
                                        Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau,    
                                        Panama, Papua New Guinea,         
                                        Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,      
                                        Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico,    
                                        Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda,   
                                        Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint      
                                        Lucia, Saint Vincent and the      
                                        Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao
                                        Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,  
                                        Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
                                        Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,    
                                        Solomon Islands, Somalia, South   
                                        Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,  
                                        Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,      
                                        Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan,       
                                        Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand,   
                                        Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, 
                                        Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan,    
                                        Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US,     
                                        Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,     
                                        Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin        
                                        Islands, Yemen, Yugoslavia,       
                                        Zambia, Zimbabwe, Palestine       
                                        Liberation Organization           
      International Organization for    note - established as Provisional 
      Migration (IOM)                   Intergovernmental Committee for   
                                        the Movement of Migrants from     
                                        Europe; renamed Intergovernmental 
                                        Committee for European Migration  
                                        (ICEM) on 15 November 1952;       
                                        renamed Intergovernmental         
                                        Committee for Migration (ICM) in  
                                        November 1980; current name       
                                        adopted 14 November 1989          
                                        established - 5 December 1951     
                                        aim - to facilitate orderly       
                                        international emigration and      
                                        immigration                       
                                        members - (91) Albania, Algeria,  
                                        Angola, Argentina, Armenia,       
                                        Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan,   
                                        Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize,      
                                        Benin, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Burkina 
                                        Faso, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile,  
                                        Colombia, Democratic Republic of  
                                        the Congo, Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire,        
                                        Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,  
                                        Denmark, Dominican Republic,      
                                        Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,      
                                        Finland, France, The Gambia,      
                                        Georgia, Germany, Greece,         
                                        Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, 
                                        Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iran,   
                                        Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan,     
                                        Kenya, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan,   
                                        Latvia, Liberia, Lithuania,       
                                        Luxembourg, Madagascar, Mali,     
                                        Morocco, Netherlands, Nicaragua,  
                                        Norway, Pakistan, Panama,         
                                        Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,      
                                        Poland, Portugal, Romania,        
                                        Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovakia,  
                                        Slovenia, South Africa, Sri Lanka,
                                        Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland,       
                                        Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand,   
                                        Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, UK, US, 
                                        Uruguay, Venezuela, Yemen,        
                                        Yugoslavia, Zambia                
                                        observers - (36) Afghanistan,     
                                        Belarus, Bhutan, Bosnia and       
                                        Herzegovina, Brazil, Cambodia,    
                                        China, Cuba, Estonia, Ethiopia,   
                                        Ghana, Holy See, India, Indonesia,
                                        Ireland, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, The 
                                        Former Yugoslav Republic of       
                                        Macedonia, Malta, Mexico, Moldova,
                                        Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, NZ,   
                                        Papua New Guinea, Russia, Rwanda, 
                                        San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe,
                                        Somalia, Spain, Turkey,           
                                        Turkmenistan, Vietnam, Zimbabwe   
      International Organization for    established - NA February 1947    
      Standardization (ISO)             aim - to promote the development  
                                        of international standards with a 
                                        view to facilitating international
                                        exchange of goods and services and
                                        to developing cooperation in the  
                                        sphere of intellectual,           
                                        scientific, technological and     
                                        economic activity                 
                                        members - (93 national standards  
                                        organizations) Algeria, Argentina,
                                        Armenia, Australia, Austria,      
                                        Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,    
                                        Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina,  
                                        Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria,       
                                        Canada, Chile, China, Colombia,   
                                        Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,
                                        Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, 
                                        Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, 
                                        Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary,  
                                        Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,  
                                        Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy,     
                                        Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,           
                                        Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea,   
                                        South Korea, Kuwait, Libya,       
                                        Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav   
                                        Republic of Macedonia, Malaysia,  
                                        Malta, Mauritius, Mexico,         
                                        Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands,   
                                        NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan,    
                                        Panama, Philippines, Poland,      
                                        Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi  
                                        Arabia, Singapore, Slovakia,      
                                        Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri
                                        Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad and  
                                        Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, 
                                        UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, 
                                        Venezuela, Vietnam, Yugoslavia,   
                                        Zimbabwe                          
                                        correspondent members - (36)      
                                        Albania, Azerbaijan, Bahrain,     
                                        Bolivia, Brunei, Cameroon,        
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Cote d'Ivoire, El Salvador,       
                                        Estonia, Guatemala, Hong Kong,    
                                        Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon,      
                                        Lithuania, Macau, Madagascar,     
                                        Malawi, Moldova, Mozambique,      
                                        Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Oman,  
                                        Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, 
                                        Qatar, Rwanda, Saint Lucia,       
                                        Seychelles, Sudan, Swaziland,     
                                        Turkmenistan, Uganda              
                                        subscriber members - (13 plus the 
                                        Palestine Liberation Organization)
                                        Antigua and Barbuda, Benin,       
                                        Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Comoros,  
                                        Dominica, Dominican Republic,     
                                        Fiji, Grenada, Guyana, Honduras,  
                                        Lesotho, Mali, Saint Lucia,       
                                        Palestine Liberation Organization 
      International Red Cross and Red   established - NA 1928             
      Crescent Movement (ICRM)          aim - to promote worldwide        
                                        humanitarian aid through the      
                                        International Committee of the Red
                                        Cross (ICRC) in wartime, and      
                                        International Federation of Red   
                                        Cross and Red Crescent Societies  
                                        (IFRCS; formerly League of Red    
                                        Cross and Red Crescent Societies  
                                        or LORCS) in peacetime            
                                        National Societies - (176         
                                        countries); note - same as        
                                        membership for International      
                                        Federation of Red Cross and Red   
                                        Crescent Societies (IFRCS)        
      International Telecommunication   established - 17 May 1865 set up  
      Union (ITU)                       as the International Telegraph    
                                        Union; 9 December 1932 adopted    
                                        present name                      
                                        effective - 1 January 1934;       
                                        affiliated with the UN - 15       
                                        November 1947                     
                                        aim - to deal with world          
                                        telecommunications issues; a UN   
                                        specialized agency                
                                        members - (189) Afghanistan,      
                                        Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola,
                                        Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,   
                                        Armenia, Australia, Austria,      
                                        Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, 
                                        Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,    
                                        Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan,   
                                        Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,  
                                        Botswana, Brazil, Brunei,         
                                        Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma,    
                                        Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,      
                                        Canada, Cape Verde, Central       
                                        African Republic, Chad, Chile,    
                                        China, Colombia, Comoros,         
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica,
                                        Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba,     
                                        Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,  
                                        Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican     
                                        Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El      
                                        Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,      
                                        Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, 
                                        Finland, France, Gabon, The       
                                        Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,  
                                        Greece, Grenada, Guatemala,       
                                        Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,    
                                        Haiti, Holy See, Honduras,        
                                        Hungary, Iceland, India,          
                                        Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,   
                                        Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,    
                                        Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,        
                                        Kiribati, North Korea, South      
                                        Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,  
                                        Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
                                        Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,  
                                        Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav   
                                        Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar,
                                        Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, 
                                        Malta, Marshall Islands,          
                                        Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,    
                                        Federated States of Micronesia,   
                                        Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia,        
                                        Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,     
                                        Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,    
                                        Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway,
                                        Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New 
                                        Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,           
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda,   
                                        Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
                                        Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao
                                        Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,  
                                        Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
                                        Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,    
                                        Solomon Islands, Somalia, South   
                                        Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,  
                                        Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,      
                                        Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan,   
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,  
                                        Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,     
                                        Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu,     
                                        Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US,     
                                        Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,     
                                        Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,        
                                        Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe      
      Islamic Development Bank (IDB)    established - 15 December 1973 by 
                                        declaration of intent; effective -
                                        12 August 1974                    
                                        aim - to promote Islamic economic 
                                        aid and social development        
                                        members - (52 plus the Palestine  
                                        Liberation Organization)          
                                        Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria,    
                                        Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh,  
                                        Benin, Brunei, Burkina Faso,      
                                        Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti,
                                        Egypt, Gabon, The Gambia, Guinea, 
                                        Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran,   
                                        Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, 
                                        Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya,       
                                        Malaysia, Maldives, Mali,         
                                        Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique,  
                                        Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar,     
                                        Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra     
                                        Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Suriname,  
                                        Syria, Tajikistan, Togo, Tunisia, 
                                        Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE,
                                        Yemen, Palestine Liberation       
                                        Organization                      
      Latin American Economic System    note - also known as Sistema      
      (LAES)                            Economico Latinoamericana (SELA)  
                                        established - 17 October 1975     
                                        aim - to promote economic and     
                                        social development through        
                                        regional cooperation              
                                        members - (28) Argentina, The     
                                        Bahamas, Barbados, Belize,        
                                        Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, 
                                        Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican       
                                        Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador,   
                                        Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti,
                                        Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico,        
                                        Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru,
                                        Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago,    
                                        Uruguay, Venezuela                
      Latin American Integration        note - also known as Asociacion   
      Association (LAIA)                Latinoamericana de Integracion    
                                        (ALADI)                           
                                        established - 12 August 1980;     
                                        effective - 18 March 1981         
                                        aim - to promote freer regional   
                                        trade                             
                                        members - (12) Argentina, Bolivia,
                                        Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba,    
                                        Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru,  
                                        Uruguay, Venezuela                
                                        observers - (23) China, Commission
                                        of the European Communities,      
                                        Corporacion Andina de Fomento,    
                                        Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El
                                        Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras,    
                                        Inter-American Development Bank,  
                                        Inter-American Institute for      
                                        Cooperation on Agriculture, Italy,
                                        Latin America Economic System,    
                                        Nicaragua, Organization of        
                                        American States, Panama,          
                                        Panamerican Health Organization,  
                                        Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, 
                                        Switzerland, United Nations       
                                        Development Program, United       
                                        Nations Economic Commission for   
                                        Latin America and the Caribbean   
      least developed countries (LLDCs) that subgroup of the less         
                                        developed countries (LDCs)        
                                        initially identified by the UN    
                                        General Assembly in 1971 as having
                                        no significant economic growth,   
                                        per capita GDPs normally less than
                                        $1,000, and low literacy rates;   
                                        also known as the undeveloped     
                                        countries; the 42 LLDCs are:      
                                        Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Benin,   
                                        Bhutan, Botswana, Burkina Faso,   
                                        Burma, Burundi, Cape Verde,       
                                        Central African Republic, Chad,   
                                        Comoros, Djibouti, Equatorial     
                                        Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, The    
                                        Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,    
                                        Haiti, Kiribati, Laos, Lesotho,   
                                        Malawi, Maldives, Mali,           
                                        Mauritania, Mozambique, Nepal,    
                                        Niger, Rwanda, Samoa, Sao Tome and
                                        Principe, Sierra Leone, Somalia,  
                                        Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Tuvalu,    
                                        Uganda, Vanuatu, Yemen            
      less developed countries (LDCs)   the bottom group in the hierarchy 
                                        of developed countries (DCs),     
                                        former USSR/Eastern Europe (former
                                        USSR/EE), and less developed      
                                        countries (LDCs); mainly countries
                                        and dependent areas with low      
                                        levels of output, living          
                                        standards, and technology; per    
                                        capita GDPs are generally below   
                                        $5,000 and often less than $1,500;
                                        however, the group also includes a
                                        number of countries with high per 
                                        capita incomes, areas of advanced 
                                        technology, and rapid rates of    
                                        growth; includes the advanced     
                                        developing countries, developing  
                                        countries, Four Dragons (Four     
                                        Tigers), least developed countries
                                        (LLDCs), low-income countries,    
                                        middle-income countries, newly    
                                        industrializing economies (NIEs), 
                                        the South, Third World,           
                                        underdeveloped countries,         
                                        undeveloped countries; the 172    
                                        LDCs are: Afghanistan, Algeria,   
                                        American Samoa, Angola, Anguilla, 
                                        Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,   
                                        Aruba, The Bahamas, Bahrain,      
                                        Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize,     
                                        Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, 
                                        Brazil, British Virgin Islands,   
                                        Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma,      
                                        Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape 
                                        Verde, Cayman Islands, Central    
                                        African Republic, Chad, Chile,    
                                        China, Christmas Island, Cocos    
                                        Islands, Colombia, Comoros,       
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Cook       
                                        Islands, Costa Rica, Cote         
                                        d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, 
                                        Dominica, Dominican Republic,     
                                        Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,      
                                        Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea,       
                                        Ethiopia, Falkland Islands, Fiji, 
                                        French Guiana, French Polynesia,  
                                        Gabon, The Gambia, Gaza Strip,    
                                        Ghana, Gibraltar, Greenland,      
                                        Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam,        
                                        Guatemala, Guernsey, Guinea,      
                                        Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,     
                                        Honduras, Hong Kong, India,       
                                        Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica,   
                                        Jersey, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati,  
                                        North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, 
                                        Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,  
                                        Libya, Macau, Madagascar, Malawi, 
                                        Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Isle of 
                                        Man, Marshall Islands, Martinique,
                                        Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte,   
                                        Federated States of Micronesia,   
                                        Mongolia, Montserrat, Morocco,    
                                        Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal,
                                        Netherlands Antilles, New         
                                        Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niger,      
                                        Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Island,    
                                        Northern Mariana Islands, Oman,   
                                        Palau, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New
                                        Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,           
                                        Philippines, Pitcairn Islands,    
                                        Puerto Rico, Qatar, Reunion,      
                                        Rwanda, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts 
                                        and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint     
                                        Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent
                                        and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao    
                                        Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,  
                                        Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
                                        Singapore, Solomon Islands,       
                                        Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan,        
                                        Suriname, Swaziland, Syria,       
                                        Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, 
                                        Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and      
                                        Tobago, Tunisia, Turks and Caicos 
                                        Islands, Tuvalu, UAE, Uganda,     
                                        Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela,      
                                        Vietnam, Virgin Islands, Wallis   
                                        and Futuna, West Bank, Western    
                                        Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe;  
                                        note - similar to the new         
                                        International Monetary Fund (IMF) 
                                        term "developing countries" which 
                                        adds Malta, Mexico, South Africa, 
                                        and Turkey but omits in its       
                                        recently published statistics     
                                        American Samoa, Anguilla, British 
                                        Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cayman    
                                        Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos  
                                        Islands, Cook Islands, Cuba,      
                                        Eritrea, Falkland Islands, French 
                                        Guiana, French Polynesia, Gaza    
                                        Strip, Gibraltar, Greenland,      
                                        Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam,        
                                        Guernsey, Jersey, North Korea,    
                                        Macau, Isle of Man, Martinique,   
                                        Mayotte, Montserrat, Nauru, New   
                                        Caledonia, Niue, Norfolk Island,  
                                        Northern Mariana Islands, Palau,  
                                        Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico,    
                                        Reunion, Saint Helena, Saint      
                                        Pierre and Miquelon, Tokelau,     
                                        Tonga, Turks and Caicos Islands,  
                                        Tuvalu, Virgin Islands, Wallis and
                                        Futuna, West Bank, Western Sahara 
      low-income countries              another term for those less       
                                        developed countries with below-   
                                        average per capita GDPs; see less 
                                        developed countries (LDCs)        
      middle-income countries           another term for those less       
                                        developed countries with above-   
                                        average per capita GDPs; see less 
                                        developed countries (LDCs)        
      Monetary and Economic Community   note – was formerly the Central   
      of Central Africa (CEMAC)         African Customs and Economic Union
                                        (UDEAC)                           
                                        established - 8 December 1964;    
                                        effective - 1 January 1966        
                                        aim - to promote the establishment
                                        of a Central African Common Market
                                        members - (7) Cameroon, Central   
                                        African Republic, Chad, Republic  
                                        of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea,  
                                        Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe      
      Near Abroad                       Russian term for the 14 non-      
                                        Russian successor states of the   
                                        USSR, in which 25 million ethnic  
                                        Russians live and in which Moscow 
                                        has expressed a strong national   
                                        security interest; the 14         
                                        countries are Armenia, Azerbaijan,
                                        Belarus, Estonia, Georgia,        
                                        Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia,   
                                        Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan,   
                                        Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan 
      new independent states (NIS)      a term referring to all those     
                                        countries of the FSU except the   
                                        Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia,
                                        Lithuania)                        
      newly industrializing countries   former term for the newly         
      (NICs)                            industrializing economies; see    
                                        newly industrializing economies   
                                        (NIEs)                            
      newly industrializing economies   that subgroup of the less         
      (NIEs)                            developed countries (LDCs) that   
                                        has experienced particularly rapid
                                        industrialization of their        
                                        economies; formerly known as the  
                                        newly industrializing countries   
                                        (NICs); also known as advanced    
                                        developing countries; usually     
                                        includes the Four Dragons (Hong   
                                        Kong, South Korea, Singapore,     
                                        Taiwan), and Brazil               
      Nonaligned Movement (NAM)         established - 1-6 September 1961  
                                        aim - to establish political and  
                                        military cooperation apart from   
                                        the traditional East or West blocs
                                        members - (113 plus the Palestine 
                                        Liberation Organization)          
                                        Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, The 
                                        Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh,     
                                        Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, 
                                        Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brunei,
                                        Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi,     
                                        Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde,   
                                        Central African Republic, Chad,   
                                        Chile, Colombia, Comoros,         
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Cote       
                                        d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, 
                                        Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea,
                                        Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The     
                                        Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala,
                                        Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,    
                                        Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, 
                                        Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya,     
                                        North Korea, Kuwait, Laos,        
                                        Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, 
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,     
                                        Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania,
                                        Mauritius, Mongolia, Morocco,     
                                        Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal,       
                                        Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman,  
                                        Pakistan, Panama, Papua New       
                                        Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, 
                                        Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Sao Tome and 
                                        Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,  
                                        Seychelles, Sierra Leone,         
                                        Singapore, Somalia, South Africa, 
                                        Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,       
                                        Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania,       
                                        Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and      
                                        Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan,    
                                        Uganda, UAE, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, 
                                        Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,        
                                        Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe,     
                                        Palestine Liberation Organization 
                                        observers - (16) Antigua and      
                                        Barbuda, Armenia, Azerbaijan,     
                                        Brazil, China, Costa Rica,        
                                        Croatia, Dominica, Dominican      
                                        Republic, El Salvador, Kazakhstan,
                                        Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Paraguay,     
                                        Ukraine, Uruguay                  
                                        guests - (28) Australia, Austria, 
                                        Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, 
                                        Canada, Finland, France, Germany, 
                                        Greece, Holy See, Hungary,        
                                        Ireland, Italy, Japan, South      
                                        Korea, Netherlands, NZ, Norway,   
                                        Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia,
                                        Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden,       
                                        Switzerland, UK, US               
      Nordic Council (NC)               established - 16 March 1952;      
                                        effective - 12 February 1953      
                                        aim - to promote regional         
                                        economic, cultural, and           
                                        environmental cooperation         
                                        members - (5) Denmark (including  
                                        Faroe Islands and Greenland),     
                                        Finland (including Aland Islands),
                                        Iceland, Norway, Sweden           
                                        observers - (3) the Sami (Lapp)   
                                        local parliaments of Finland,     
                                        Norway, and Sweden                
      Nordic Investment Bank (NIB)      established - 4 December 1975;    
                                        effective - 1 June 1976           
                                        aim - to promote economic         
                                        cooperation and development       
                                        members - (5) Denmark (including  
                                        Faroe Islands and Greenland),     
                                        Finland (including Aland Islands),
                                        Iceland, Norway, Sweden           
      North                             a popular term for the rich       
                                        industrialized countries generally
                                        located in the northern portion of
                                        the Northern Hemisphere; the      
                                        counterpart of the South; see     
                                        developed countries (DCs)         
      North Atlantic Treaty             established - 4 April 1949        
      Organization (NATO)               aim - to promote mutual defense   
                                        and cooperation                   
                                        members - (19) Belgium, Canada,   
                                        Czech Republic, Denmark, France,  
                                        Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,
                                        Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands,   
                                        Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain,  
                                        Turkey, UK, US                    
      Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)       note - also known as OECD Nuclear 
                                        Energy Agency                     
                                        established - 1 February 1958     
                                        aim - to promote the peaceful uses
                                        of nuclear energy; associated with
                                        OECD                              
                                        members - (27) Australia, Austria,
                                        Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic,  
                                        Denmark, Finland, France, Germany,
                                        Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,
                                        Italy, Japan, South Korea,        
                                        Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands,  
                                        Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden,  
                                        Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US       
      Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)     note - also known as the London   
                                        Suppliers Group or the London     
                                        Group                             
                                        established - NA 1974; effective -
                                        NA 1975                           
                                        aim - to establish guidelines for 
                                        exports of nuclear materials,     
                                        processing equipment for uranium  
                                        enrichment, and technical         
                                        information to countries of       
                                        proliferation concern and regions 
                                        of conflict and instability       
                                        members - (39) Argentina,         
                                        Australia, Austria, Belarus,      
                                        Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada,
                                        Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,  
                                        Finland, France, Germany, Greece, 
                                        Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan,   
                                        South Korea, Latvia, Luxembourg,  
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland,  
                                        Portugal, Romania, Russia,        
                                        Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, 
                                        Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,       
                                        Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US           
                                        observer - (1) European Commission
                                        (a policy-planning body for the   
                                        EU)                               
      Organization for Economic         established - 14 December 1960;   
      Cooperation and Development       effective - 30 September 1961     
      (OECD)                            aim - to promote economic         
                                        cooperation and development       
                                        members - (30) Australia, Austria,
                                        Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic,  
                                        Denmark, Finland, France, Germany,
                                        Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,
                                        Italy, Japan, South Korea,        
                                        Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands,  
                                        NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal,     
                                        Slovakia, Spain, Sweden,          
                                        Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US       
                                        special member - (1) EU           
      Organization for Security and     note - formerly the Conference on 
      Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)      Security and Cooperation in Europe
                                        (CSCE) established 3 July 1975    
                                        established - 1 January 1995      
                                        aim - to foster the implementation
                                        of human rights, fundamental      
                                        freedoms, democracy, and the rule 
                                        of law; to act as an instrument of
                                        early warning, conflict           
                                        prevention, and crisis management;
                                        and to serve as a framework for   
                                        conventional arms control and     
                                        confidence building measures      
                                        members - (55) Albania, Andorra,  
                                        Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan,     
                                        Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and      
                                        Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada,    
                                        Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,  
                                        Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
                                        Georgia, Germany, Greece, Holy    
                                        See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,   
                                        Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,    
                                        Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, 
                                        Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav   
                                        Republic of Macedonia, Malta,     
                                        Moldova, Monaco, Netherlands,     
                                        Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,
                                        Russia, San Marino, Slovakia,     
                                        Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,          
                                        Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey,  
                                        Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US,    
                                        Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia            
                                        partners for cooperation - (9)    
                                        Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Japan,    
                                        Jordan, South Korea, Morocco,     
                                        Thailand, Tunisia                 
      Organization for the Prohibition  established - 29 April 1997       
      of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)        aim - to enforce the Convention on
                                        the Prohibition of the            
                                        Development, Production,          
                                        Stockpiling and Use of Chemical   
                                        Weapons and on Their Destruction; 
                                        to provide a forum for            
                                        consultation and cooperation among
                                        the signatories of the Convention 
                                        members - (145) Albania, Algeria, 
                                        Argentina, Armenia, Australia,    
                                        Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain,     
                                        Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium,     
                                        Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and        
                                        Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,    
                                        Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso,   
                                        Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, 
                                        China, Colombia, Cook Islands,    
                                        Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire,        
                                        Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech      
                                        Republic, Denmark, Dominica,      
                                        Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial  
                                        Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia,         
                                        Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France,  
                                        Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia,       
                                        Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guinea,   
                                        Guyana, Holy See, Hungary,        
                                        Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,  
                                        Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,   
                                        Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,        
                                        Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait,    
                                        Laos, Latvia, Lesotho,            
                                        Liechtenstein, Lithuania,         
                                        Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav   
                                        Republic of Macedonia, Malawi,    
                                        Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,  
                                        Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,    
                                        Federated States of Micronesia,   
                                        Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia,        
                                        Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,     
                                        Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,    
                                        Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway,
                                        Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New 
                                        Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,           
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saint     
                                        Lucia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia,  
                                        Senegal, Seychelles, Singapore,   
                                        Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, 
                                        Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
                                        Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,   
                                        Tajikistan, Tanzania, Togo,       
                                        Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,     
                                        Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda,     
                                        Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,    
                                        Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam,   
                                        Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia,        
                                        Zimbabwe                          
                                        signatory states - (29)           
                                        Afghanistan, The Bahamas, Bhutan, 
                                        Burma, Cambodia, Cape Verde,      
                                        Central African Republic, Chad,   
                                        Comoros, Democratic Republic of   
                                        the Congo, Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Djibouti, Dominican Republic,     
                                        Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau,
                                        Haiti, Honduras, Israel,          
                                        Kyrgyzstan, Liberia, Madagascar,  
                                        Marshall Islands, Rwanda, Saint   
                                        Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and
                                        the Grenadines, Samoa, Sierra     
                                        Leone, Thailand; note - states    
                                        have signed but not ratified the  
                                        convention                        
      Organization of African Unity     established - 25 May 1963         
      (OAU)                             aim - to promote unity and        
                                        cooperation among African states  
                                        members - (53) Algeria, Angola,   
                                        Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso,    
                                        Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde,    
                                        Central African Republic, Chad,   
                                        Comoros, Democratic Republic of   
                                        the Congo, Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt,   
                                        Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea,       
                                        Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia,      
                                        Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,     
                                        Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,   
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Mali,         
                                        Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique,
                                        Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda,  
                                        Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, 
                                        Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal,   
                                        Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia,
                                        South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland,   
                                        Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda,  
                                        Zambia, Zimbabwe                  
      Organization of American States   established - 14 April 1890 as the
      (OAS)                             International Union of American   
                                        Republics; 30 April 1948 adopted  
                                        present charter; effective - 13   
                                        December 1951                     
                                        aim - to promote regional peace   
                                        and security as well as economic  
                                        and social development            
                                        members - (35) Antigua and        
                                        Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas,  
                                        Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil,
                                        Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa    
                                        Rica, Cuba (excluded from formal  
                                        participation since 1962),        
                                        Dominica, Dominican Republic,     
                                        Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada,    
                                        Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti,         
                                        Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico,        
                                        Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru,
                                        Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint      
                                        Lucia, Saint Vincent and the      
                                        Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and
                                        Tobago, US, Uruguay, Venezuela    
                                        observers - (51) Algeria, Angola, 
                                        Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan,     
                                        Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina,  
                                        Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech  
                                        Republic, Denmark, Egypt,         
                                        Equatorial Guinea, EU, Finland,   
                                        France, Germany, Ghana, Greece,   
                                        Holy See, Hungary, India, Ireland,
                                        Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, 
                                        South Korea, Latvia, Lebanon,     
                                        Morocco, Netherlands, Norway,     
                                        Pakistan, Philippines, Poland,    
                                        Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi  
                                        Arabia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, 
                                        Switzerland, Thailand, Tunisia,   
                                        Turkey, Ukraine, UK, Yemen        
      Organization of Arab Petroleum    established - 9 January 1968      
      Exporting Countries (OAPEC)       aim - to promote cooperation in   
                                        the petroleum industry            
                                        members - (10) Algeria, Bahrain,  
                                        Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar,
                                        Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE          
      Organization of Eastern Caribbean established - 18 June 1981;       
      States (OECS)                     effective - 4 July 1981           
                                        aim - to promote political,       
                                        economic, and defense cooperation 
                                        members - (7) Antigua and Barbuda,
                                        Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat,    
                                        Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint      
                                        Lucia, Saint Vincent and the      
                                        Grenadines                        
                                        associate members - (2) Anguilla, 
                                        British Virgin Islands            
      Organization of Petroleum         established - 14 September 1960   
      Exporting Countries (OPEC)        aim - to coordinate petroleum     
                                        policies                          
                                        members - (11) Algeria, Indonesia,
                                        Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya,        
                                        Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE,
                                        Venezuela                         
      Organization of the Islamic       established - 22-25 September 1969
      Conference (OIC)                  aim - to promote Islamic          
                                        solidarity in economic, social,   
                                        cultural, and political affairs   
                                        members - (56 plus the Palestine  
                                        Liberation Organization)          
                                        Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria,    
                                        Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh,  
                                        Benin, Brunei, Burkina Faso,      
                                        Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Cote     
                                        d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, 
                                        The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,
                                        Guyana, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,    
                                        Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait,       
                                        Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya,       
                                        Malaysia, Maldives, Mali,         
                                        Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique,  
                                        Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan,   
                                        Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,     
                                        Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan,     
                                        Suriname, Syria, Tajikistan, Togo,
                                        Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan,    
                                        Uganda, UAE, Uzbekistan, Yemen,   
                                        Palestine Liberation Organization 
                                        observers - (3) Bosnia and        
                                        Herzegovina, Central African      
                                        Republic, Thailand                
      Pacific Community                 note - formerly known as the South
                                        Pacific Commission (SPC)          
                                        established - 6 February 1947;    
                                        effective - 29 July 1948          
                                        aim - to promote regional         
                                        cooperation in economic and social
                                        matters                           
                                        members - (27) American Samoa,    
                                        Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji,    
                                        France, French Polynesia, Guam,   
                                        Kiribati, Marshall Islands,       
                                        Federated States of Micronesia,   
                                        Nauru, New Caledonia, NZ, Niue,   
                                        Northern Mariana Islands, Palau,  
                                        Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn        
                                        Islands, Samoa, Solomon Islands,  
                                        Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, UK, US,   
                                        Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna        
      Pacific Island Forum               note - used to the South Pacific 
                                        Forum (SPF)                       
                                        established - 5 August 1971       
                                        aim - to promote regional         
                                        cooperation in political matters  
                                        members - (16) Australia, Cook    
                                        Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall 
                                        Islands, Federated States of      
                                        Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue,      
                                        Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa,   
                                        Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu,   
                                        Vanuatu                           
                                        observer - (1) New Caledonia      
      Paris Club                        established -1956                 
                                        aim -to provide a forum for debtor
                                        countries to negotiate            
                                        rescheduling of debt service      
                                        payments or loans extended by     
                                        governments or official agencies  
                                        of participating countries; to    
                                        help restore normal trade and     
                                        project finance to debtor         
                                        countries                         
                                        members - (19) Austria, Australia,
                                        Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland,
                                        France, Germany, Ireland, Italy,  
                                        Japan, Netherlands, Norway,       
                                        Russia, Spain, Sweden,            
                                        Switzerland, UK, US               
      Partnership for Peace (PFP)       established - 10-11 January 1994  
                                        aim - to expand and intensify     
                                        political and military cooperation
                                        throughout Europe, increase       
                                        stability, diminish threats to    
                                        peace, and build relationships by 
                                        promoting the spirit of practical 
                                        cooperation and commitment to     
                                        democratic principles that        
                                        underpin NATO; program under the  
                                        auspices of NATO                  
                                        members - (29) Albania, Armenia,  
                                        Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus,     
                                        Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic,
                                        Estonia, Finland, Georgia,        
                                        Hungary, Ireland, Kazakhstan,     
                                        Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, The
                                        Former Yugoslav Republic of       
                                        Macedonia, Moldova, Poland,       
                                        Romania, Russia, Slovakia,        
                                        Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland,    
                                        Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan 
      Permanent Court of Arbitration    established - 29 July 1899        
      (PCA)                             aim - to facilitate the settlement
                                        of international disputes         
                                        members - (96) Argentina,         
                                        Australia, Austria, Belarus,      
                                        Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil,         
                                        Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, 
                                        Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China,   
                                        Colombia, Democratic Republic of  
                                        the Congo, Costa Rica, Croatia,   
                                        Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic,     
                                        Denmark, Dominican Republic,      
                                        Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,      
                                        Eritrea, Fiji, Finland, France,   
                                        Germany, Greece, Guatemala,       
                                        Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, 
                                        Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq,       
                                        Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan,     
                                        South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,    
                                        Latvia, Lebanon, Libya,           
                                        Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, The    
                                        Former Yugoslav Republic of       
                                        Macedonia, Malta, Mauritius,      
                                        Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, 
                                        Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway,       
                                        Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, 
                                        Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia,
                                        Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, 
                                        Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, 
                                        Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
                                        Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,   
                                        Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine,
                                        UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela,       
                                        Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe      
      Rio Group (RG)                    note - formerly known as Grupo de 
                                        los Ocho, established in December 
                                        1986; composed of the Contadora   
                                        Group and the Lima Group          
                                        established - NA 1988             
                                        aim - to consult on regional Latin
                                        American issues                   
                                        members - (19) Argentina, Bolivia,
                                        Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa    
                                        Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
                                        El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana,   
                                        Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua,      
                                        Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay,  
                                        Venezuela                         
      Second World                      another term for the traditionally
                                        Marxist-Leninist states of the    
                                        USSR and Eastern Europe, with     
                                        authoritarian governments and     
                                        command economies based on the    
                                        Soviet model; the term is fading  
                                        from use; see centrally planned   
                                        economies                         
      socialist countries               in general, countries in which the
                                        government owns and plans the use 
                                        of the major factors of           
                                        production; note - the term is    
                                        sometimes used incorrectly as a   
                                        synonym for communist countries   
      South                             a popular term for the poorer,    
                                        less industrialized countries     
                                        generally located south of the    
                                        developed countries; the          
                                        counterpart of the North; see less
                                        developed countries (LDCs)        
      South Asian Association for       established - 8 December 1985     
      Regional Cooperation (SAARC)      aim - to promote economic, social,
                                        and cultural cooperation          
                                        members - (7) Bangladesh, Bhutan, 
                                        India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, 
                                        Sri Lanka                         
      South Pacific Forum (SPF)         note- see Pacific Island Forum    
      South Pacific Regional Trade and  established - NA 1981             
      Economic Cooperation Agreement    aim - to redress unequal trade    
      (Sparteca)                        relationships of Australia and New
                                        Zealand with small island         
                                        economies in the Pacific region   
                                        members - (16) Australia, Cook    
                                        Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall 
                                        Islands, Federated States of      
                                        Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue,      
                                        Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa,   
                                        Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu,   
                                        Vanuatu                           
      Southern African Customs Union    established - 11 December 1969    
      (SACU)                            aim - to promote free trade and   
                                        cooperation in customs matters    
                                        members - (5) Botswana, Lesotho,  
                                        Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland  
      Southern African Development      note - evolved from the Southern  
      Community (SADC)                  African Development Coordination  
                                        Conference (SADCC)                
                                        established - 17 August 1992      
                                        aim - to promote regional economic
                                        development and integration       
                                        members - (14) Angola, Botswana,  
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius,       
                                        Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles,  
                                        South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania,
                                        Zambia, Zimbabwe                  
      Southern Cone Common Market       note - also known as Mercado Comun
      (Mercosur) or Southern Common     del Cono Sur (Mercosur)           
      Market                            established - 26 March 1991       
                                        aim - to increase regional        
                                        economic cooperation              
                                        members - (4) Argentina, Brazil,  
                                        Paraguay, Uruguay                 
                                        associate member - (2) Bolivia,   
                                        Chile                             
      Third World                       another term for the less         
                                        developed countries; the term is  
                                        obsolescent; see less developed   
                                        countries (LDCs)                  
      underdeveloped countries          refers to those less developed    
                                        countries with the potential for  
                                        above-average economic growth; see
                                        less developed countries (LDCs)   
      undeveloped countries             refers to those extremely poor    
                                        less developed countries (LDCs)   
                                        with little prospect for economic 
                                        growth; see least developed       
                                        countries (LLDCs)                 
      United Nations (UN)               established - 26 June 1945;       
                                        effective - 24 October 1945       
                                        aim - to maintain international   
                                        peace and security and to promote 
                                        cooperation involving economic,   
                                        social, cultural, and humanitarian
                                        problems                          
                                        constituent organizations - the UN
                                        is composed of six principal      
                                        organs and numerous subordinate   
                                        agencies and bodies as follows:   
                                        1) Secretariat                    
                                        2) General Assembly: International
                                        Research and Training Institute   
                                        for the Advancement of Women      
                                        (INSTRAW), United Nations Center  
                                        for Human Settlements (Habitat),  
                                        United Nations Children's Fund    
                                        (UNICEF), United Nations          
                                        Conference on Trade and           
                                        Development (UNCTAD), United      
                                        Nations Development Program       
                                        (UNDP), United Nations Drug       
                                        Control Program (UNDCP), United   
                                        Nations Environment Program       
                                        (UNEP), United Nations High       
                                        Commissioner for Human Rights     
                                        (UNHCHR), United Nations High     
                                        Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR),
                                        United Nations Institute for      
                                        Disarmament Research (UNIDIR),    
                                        United Nations Institute for      
                                        Training and Research (UNITAR),   
                                        United Nations Interregional Crime
                                        and Justice Research Institute    
                                        (UNICRI), United Nations          
                                        Population Fund (UNFPA), United   
                                        Nations Office of Project Services
                                        (UNOPS), United Nations Relief and
                                        Works Agency for Palestine        
                                        Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA),
                                        United Nations Research Institute 
                                        for Social Development (UNRISD),  
                                        United Nations System Staff       
                                        College (UNSSC), and United       
                                        Nations University (UNU), World   
                                        Food Program (WFP)                
                                        3) Security Council: International
                                        Criminal Tribunal for the Former  
                                        Yugoslavia (ICTY), International  
                                        Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda      
                                        (ICTR), United Nations            
                                        Compensation Commission, United   
                                        Nations Disengagement Observer    
                                        Force (UNDOF), United Nations     
                                        Interim Administration Mission in 
                                        Kosovo (UNMIK), United Nations    
                                        Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL),
                                        United Nations Iraq/Kuwait        
                                        Boundary Demarcation Commission,  
                                        United Nations Iraq-Kuwait        
                                        Observation Mission (UNIKOM),     
                                        United Nations Military Observer  
                                        Group in India and Pakistan       
                                        (UNMOGIP), United Nations Mission 
                                        for the Referendum in Western     
                                        Sahara (MINURSO), United Nations  
                                        Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina 
                                        (UNMIBH), United Nations Mission  
                                        in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE),  
                                        United Nations Mission in Sierra  
                                        Leone (UNAMSIL), United Nations   
                                        Mission of Observers in Prevlaka  
                                        (UNMOP), United Nations Monitoring
                                        and Verification Commission       
                                        (UNMOVIC), United Nations Observer
                                        Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG),      
                                        United Nations Organization       
                                        Mission in the Democratic Republic
                                        of the Congo (MONUC), United      
                                        Nations Peace-Keeping Force in    
                                        Cyprus (UNFICYP), United Nations  
                                        Transitional Administration in    
                                        East Timor (UNTAET), and United   
                                        Nations Truce Supervision         
                                        Organization (UNTSO)              
                                        4) Economic and Social Council    
                                        (ECOSOC): Commission for Social   
                                        Development, Commission on Crime  
                                        Prevention and Criminal Justice,  
                                        Commission on Human Rights,       
                                        Commission on Narcotics Drugs,    
                                        Commission on Population and      
                                        Development, Commission on Science
                                        and Technology for Development,   
                                        Commission on Sustainable         
                                        Development, Commission on the    
                                        Status of Women, Economic and     
                                        Social Commission for Asia and the
                                        Pacific (ESCAP), Economic and     
                                        Social Commission for Western Asia
                                        (ESCWA), Economic Commission for  
                                        Africa (ECA), Economic Commission 
                                        for Europe (ECE), Economic        
                                        Commission for Latin America and  
                                        the Caribbean (ECLAC), Food and   
                                        Agriculture Organization of the   
                                        United Nations (FAO),             
                                        International Atomic Energy Agency
                                        (IAEA), International Bank for    
                                        Reconstruction and Development    
                                        (IBRD), International Center for  
                                        Secretariat of Investment Disputes
                                        (ICSID), International Civil      
                                        Aviation Organization (ICAO),     
                                        International Development         
                                        Association (IDA), International  
                                        Finance Corporation (IFC),        
                                        International Fund for            
                                        Agricultural Development (IFAD),  
                                        International Labor Organization  
                                        (ILO), International Maritime     
                                        Organization (IMO), International 
                                        Monetary Fund (IMF), International
                                        Telecommunication Union (ITU),    
                                        Multilateral Investment Geographic
                                        Agency (MGIA), Statistical        
                                        Commission, United Nations        
                                        Educational, Scientific, and      
                                        Cultural Organization (UNESCO),   
                                        United Nations Industrial         
                                        Development Organization (UNIDO), 
                                        Universal Postal Union (UPU),     
                                        World Health Organization (WHO),  
                                        World Intellectual Property       
                                        Organization (WIPO), World        
                                        Meteorological Organization (WMO),
                                        World Tourism Organization (WToO),
                                        and World Trade Organization      
                                        (WTrO)                            
                                        5) Trusteeship Council (inactive; 
                                        no trusteeships at this time)     
                                        6) International Court of Justice 
                                        (ICJ)                             
                                        UN members - (189) Afghanistan,   
                                        Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola,
                                        Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,   
                                        Armenia, Australia, Austria,      
                                        Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, 
                                        Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,    
                                        Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan,   
                                        Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,  
                                        Botswana, Brazil, Brunei,         
                                        Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma,    
                                        Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,      
                                        Canada, Cape Verde, Central       
                                        African Republic, Chad, Chile,    
                                        China, Colombia, Comoros,         
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica,
                                        Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba,     
                                        Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,  
                                        Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican     
                                        Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El      
                                        Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,      
                                        Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, 
                                        Finland, France, Gabon, The       
                                        Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,  
                                        Greece, Grenada, Guatemala,       
                                        Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,    
                                        Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland,
                                        India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,     
                                        Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,  
                                        Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, 
                                        Kiribati, North Korea, South      
                                        Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,  
                                        Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
                                        Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,  
                                        Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav   
                                        Republic of Macedonia,            
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,     
                                        Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall   
                                        Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius,   
                                        Mexico, Federated States of       
                                        Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco,      
                                        Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique,    
                                        Namibia, Nauru, Nepal,            
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
                                        Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan,  
                                        Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea,  
                                        Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,      
                                        Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, 
                                        Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and   
                                        Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent 
                                        and the Grenadines, Samoa, San    
                                        Marino, Sao Tome and Principe,    
                                        Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
                                        Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia,
                                        Slovenia, Solomon Islands,        
                                        Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri 
                                        Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland,
                                        Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan,        
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,  
                                        Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,     
                                        Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu,     
                                        Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US,     
                                        Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,     
                                        Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,        
                                        Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe; note
                                        - all UN members are represented  
                                        in the General Assembly; East     
                                        Timor and Switzerland are         
                                        scheduled to become UN members in 
                                        September 2002                    
                                        observers - (2 plus the Palestine 
                                        Liberation Organization) Holy See,
                                        Switzerland, Palestine Liberation 
                                        Organization                      
      United Nations Children's Fund    note - acronym retained from the  
      (UNICEF)                          predecessor organization, UN      
                                        International Children's Emergency
                                        Fund                              
                                        established - 11 December 1946    
                                        aim - to help establish child     
                                        health and welfare services       
                                        members - (36) selected on a      
                                        rotating basis from all regions   
      United Nations Civilian Police    established 28 November 1997; to  
      Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH)        support the professionalization of
                                        the Haitian National Police;      
                                        established by UN Security        
                                        Council; members were  Argentina, 
                                        Benin, Canada, France, India,     
                                        Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo,       
                                        Tunisia, US; mission ended March  
                                        2000                              
      United Nations Conference on      established - 30 December 1964    
      Trade and Development (UNCTAD)    aim - to promote international    
                                        trade                             
                                        members - (191) all UN members    
                                        plus Holy See, Switzerland        
      United Nations Development        established - 22 November 1965    
      Program (UNDP)                    aim - to provide technical        
                                        assistance to stimulate economic  
                                        and social development            
                                        members (executive board) - (36)  
                                        selected on a rotating basis from 
                                        all regions                       
      United Nations Disengagement      established - 31 May 1974         
      Observer Force (UNDOF)            aim - to observe the 1973 Arab-   
                                        Israeli cease-fire; established by
                                        the UN Security Council           
                                        members - (6) Austria, Canada,    
                                        Japan, Poland, Slovakia, Sweden   
      United Nations Educational,       established - 16 November 1945;   
      Scientific, and Cultural          effective - 4 November 1946       
      Organization (UNESCO)             aim - to promote cooperation in   
                                        education, science, and culture   
                                        members - (188) Afghanistan,      
                                        Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola,
                                        Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,   
                                        Armenia, Australia, Austria,      
                                        Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, 
                                        Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,    
                                        Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan,   
                                        Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,  
                                        Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria,       
                                        Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi,     
                                        Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape  
                                        Verde, Central African Republic,  
                                        Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,     
                                        Comoros, Democratic Republic of   
                                        the Congo, Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote    
                                        d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,  
                                        Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
                                        Dominica, Dominican Republic,     
                                        Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,      
                                        Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea,       
                                        Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, 
                                        France, Gabon, The Gambia,        
                                        Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece,  
                                        Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,       
                                        Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,     
                                        Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,
                                        Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,   
                                        Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,    
                                        Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,        
                                        Kiribati, North Korea, South      
                                        Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,  
                                        Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
                                        Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The 
                                        Former Yugoslav Republic of       
                                        Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi,    
                                        Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,  
                                        Marshall Islands, Mauritania,     
                                        Mauritius, Mexico, Federated      
                                        States of Micronesia, Moldova,    
                                        Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco,        
                                        Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal,
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
                                        Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman,      
                                        Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New
                                        Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,           
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda,   
                                        Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint      
                                        Lucia, Saint Vincent and the      
                                        Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao
                                        Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,  
                                        Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
                                        Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon       
                                        Islands, Somalia, South Africa,   
                                        Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
                                        Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,   
                                        Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania,      
                                        Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad   
                                        and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,      
                                        Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda,     
                                        Ukraine, UAE, UK, Uruguay,        
                                        Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela,   
                                        Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia,       
                                        Zambia, Zimbabwe                  
                                        associate members - (6) Aruba,    
                                        British Virgin Islands, Cayman    
                                        Islands, Macau, Netherlands       
                                        Antilles, Tokelau                 
      United Nations Environment        established - 15 December 1972    
      Program (UNEP)                    aim - to promote international    
                                        cooperation on all environmental  
                                        matters                           
                                        members - (58) selected on a      
                                        rotating basis from all regions   
      United Nations General Assembly   established - 26 June 1945;       
                                        effective - 24 October 1945       
                                        aim - to function as the primary  
                                        deliberative organ of the UN      
                                        members - (189) all UN members are
                                        represented in the General        
                                        Assembly                          
      United Nations High Commissioner  established - 3 December 1949;    
      for Refugees (UNHCR)              effective - 1 January 1951        
                                        aim - to ensure the humanitarian  
                                        treatment of refugees and find    
                                        permanent solutions to refugee    
                                        problems                          
                                        members (executive committee) -   
                                        (57) Algeria, Argentina,          
                                        Australia, Austria, Bangladesh,   
                                        Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile,   
                                        China, Colombia, Democratic       
                                        Republic of the Congo, Cote       
                                        d'Ivoire, Denmark, Ethiopia,      
                                        Finland, France, Germany, Greece, 
                                        Holy See, Hungary, India, Iran,   
                                        Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan,    
                                        South Korea, Lebanon, Lesotho,    
                                        Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco,      
                                        Mozambique, Namibia, Netherlands, 
                                        Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway,       
                                        Pakistan, Philippines, Poland,    
                                        Russia, Somalia, South Africa,    
                                        Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland,
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia,      
                                        Turkey, Uganda, UK, US, Venezuela 
      United Nations Industrial         established - 17 November 1966;   
      Development Organization (UNIDO)  effective - 1 January 1967        
                                        aim - UN specialized agency that  
                                        promotes industrial development   
                                        especially among the members      
                                        members - (169) Afghanistan,      
                                        Albania, Algeria, Angola,         
                                        Argentina, Armenia, Austria,      
                                        Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, 
                                        Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,    
                                        Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan,   
                                        Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,  
                                        Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria,       
                                        Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi,     
                                        Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde,   
                                        Central African Republic, Chad,   
                                        Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros,  
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica,
                                        Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba,     
                                        Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,  
                                        Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican     
                                        Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El      
                                        Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,      
                                        Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, 
                                        France, Gabon, The Gambia,        
                                        Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece,  
                                        Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,       
                                        Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,     
                                        Honduras, Hungary, India,         
                                        Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,   
                                        Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,    
                                        Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North  
                                        Korea, South Korea, Kuwait,       
                                        Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon,        
                                        Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,          
                                        Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former 
                                        Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,   
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,     
                                        Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania,
                                        Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova,       
                                        Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique,    
                                        Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,  
                                        Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway,
                                        Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New 
                                        Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,           
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda,   
                                        Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint      
                                        Lucia, Saint Vincent and the      
                                        Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe,
                                        Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
                                        Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, 
                                        Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri 
                                        Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland,
                                        Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,       
                                        Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand,   
                                        Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, 
                                        Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan,    
                                        Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, Uruguay,
                                        Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela,   
                                        Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia,       
                                        Zambia, Zimbabwe                  
      United Nations Institute for      established - 11 December 1963    
      Training and Research (UNITAR)    adoption of the resolution        
                                        establishing the Institute;       
                                        effective - 24 March 1965         
                                        aim - to help the UN become more  
                                        effective through training and    
                                        research                          
                                        members (Board of Trustees) - (20)
                                        Austria, Brazil, Cameroon, Chile, 
                                        China, Egypt, France, Ghana,      
                                        Ireland, Japan, Kuwait, Mexico,   
                                        Netherlands, Nigeria, Russia,     
                                        South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland,
                                        Thailand, US; note - the UN       
                                        Secretary General can appoint up  
                                        to 30 members                     
      United Nations Interim            established - 10 June 1999        
      Administration Mission in Kosovo  aim - to promote the establishment
      (UNMIK)                           of substantial autonomy and self- 
                                        government in Kosovo; to perform  
                                        basic civilian administrative     
                                        functions; to support the         
                                        reconstruction of key             
                                        infrastructure and humanitarian   
                                        and disaster relief               
                                        members - (53) Argentina, Austria,
                                        Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin,       
                                        Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, Czech 
                                        Republic, Denmark, Dominican      
                                        Republic, Egypt, Estonia, Fiji,   
                                        Finland, France, The Gambia,      
                                        Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary,  
                                        Iceland, India, Ireland, Italy,   
                                        Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan,        
                                        Lithuania, Malawi, Malaysia,      
                                        Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Norway,    
                                        Pakistan, Philippines, Poland,    
                                        Portugal, Romania, Russia,        
                                        Senegal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, 
                                        Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey,     
                                        Ukraine UK, US, Zambia, Zimbabwe  
      United Nations Interim Force in   established - 19 March 1978       
      Lebanon (UNIFIL)                  aim - to confirm the withdrawal of
                                        Israeli forces, and assist in     
                                        reestablishing Lebanese authority 
                                        in southern Lebanon; established  
                                        by the UN Security Council        
                                        members - (10) Fiji, Finland,     
                                        France, Ghana, India, Ireland,    
                                        Italy, Nepal, Poland, Ukraine     
      United Nations Iraq-Kuwait        established - 9 April 1991        
      Observation Mission (UNIKOM)      aim - to observe and monitor the  
                                        demilitarized zone established    
                                        between Iraq and Kuwait;          
                                        established by the UN Security    
                                        Council                           
                                        members - (33) Argentina, Austria,
                                        Bangladesh, China, Denmark, Fiji, 
                                        Finland, France, Germany, Ghana,  
                                        Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia,
                                        Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia,  
                                        Nigeria, Pakistan, Poland,        
                                        Romania, Russia, Senegal,         
                                        Singapore, Sweden, Thailand,      
                                        Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela
      United Nations Military Observer  established - 24 January 1949     
      Group in India and Pakistan       aim - to observe the 1949 India-  
      (UNMOGIP)                         Pakistan cease-fire; established  
                                        by the UN Security Council        
                                        members - (9) Austria, Belgium,   
                                        Chile, Denmark, Finland, Italy,   
                                        South Korea, Sweden, Uruguay      
      United Nations Mission for the    established - 29 April 1991       
      Referendum in Western Sahara      aim - to supervise the cease-fire 
      (MINURSO)                         and conduct a referendum in       
                                        Western Sahara; established by the
                                        UN Security Council               
                                        members - (25) Argentina, Austria,
                                        Bangladesh, Belgium, China, Egypt,
                                        El Salvador, France, Ghana,       
                                        Greece, Guinea, Honduras, Hungary,
                                        Ireland, Italy, Kenya, South      
                                        Korea, Malaysia, Nigeria,         
                                        Pakistan, Poland, Portugal,       
                                        Russia, US, Uruguay               
      United Nations Mission in Bosnia  established - 21 December 1995    
      and Herzegovina (UNMIBH)          aim - to establish an             
                                        International Police Task Force   
                                        (IPTF) to implement the Dayton    
                                        Peace Agreement in Bosnia and     
                                        Herzegovina                       
                                        members - (44) Argentina, Austria,
                                        Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Canada,     
                                        Chile, China, Czech Republic,     
                                        Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Fiji,    
                                        Finland, France, Germany, Ghana,  
                                        Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India,  
                                        Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Jordan,
                                        Kenya, Malaysia, Nepal,           
                                        Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan,    
                                        Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia,
                                        Senegal, Spain, Sweden,           
                                        Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey,    
                                        Ukraine, UK, US, Vanuatu          
      United Nations Mission in         established - 31 July 2000        
      Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE)      aim - to monitor the cessation of 
                                        hostilities                       
                                        members - (45) Algeria, Australia,
                                        Austria, Bangladesh, Benin, Bosnia
                                        and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada,
                                        China, Croatia, Czech Republic,   
                                        Denmark, Finland, France, The     
                                        Gambia, Ghana, Greece, India,     
                                        Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Kenya,    
                                        Malaysia, Namibia, Nepal,         
                                        Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway,     
                                        Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Romania,  
                                        Russia, Singapore, Slovakia, South
                                        Africa, Spain, Sweden,            
                                        Switzerland, Tanzania, Tunisia,   
                                        Ukraine, US, Uruguay, Zambia      
      United Nations Mission in Sierra  established - 22 October 1999     
      Leone (UNAMSIL)                   aim -  to cooperate with the      
                                        Government of Sierra Leone and the
                                        other parties to the Peace        
                                        Agreement in the implementation of
                                        the agreement; to monitor the     
                                        military and security situation in
                                        Sierra Leone; to monitor the      
                                        disarmament and demobilization of 
                                        combatants and members of the     
                                        Civil Defense Forces (CFD); to    
                                        assist in monitoring respect for  
                                        international humanitarian law    
                                        members - (32) Bangladesh,        
                                        Bolivia, Canada, China, Croatia,  
                                        Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt,   
                                        France, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea,
                                        Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya,         
                                        Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Mali, Nepal,
                                        NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan,    
                                        Paraguay, Russia, Slovakia,       
                                        Sweden, Tanzania, Thailand,       
                                        Ukraine, UK, Uruguay, Zambia      
      United Nations Mission of         established - 1 February 1996     
      Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP)     aim - to monitor the              
                                        demilitarization of the Prevlaka  
                                        peninsula in southern Croatia     
                                        members - (24) Argentina,         
                                        Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Czech
                                        Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland,
                                        Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan,
                                        Kenya, Nepal, NZ, Nigeria, Norway,
                                        Pakistan, Poland, Portugal,       
                                        Russia, Sweden, Switzerland,      
                                        Ukraine                           
      United Nations Mission of         established 16 December 1994; to  
      Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT)   monitor and investigate violations
                                        of the cease-fire of 17 September 
                                        1994 between Tajikistan and the   
                                        Tajik opposition and to assist in 
                                        the political negotiation process;
                                        established by the UN Security    
                                        Council; members were Austria,    
                                        Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Czech       
                                        Republic, Denmark, Ghana,         
                                        Indonesia, Jordan, Nepal, Nigeria,
                                        Poland, Ukraine, Uruguay; mission 
                                        ended May 2000                    
      United Nations Monitoring and     note - formerly known as United   
      Verification Commission (UNMOVIC) Nations Special Commission for the
                                        Elimination of Iraq's Weapons of  
                                        Mass Destruction (UNSCOM)         
                                        established - NA December 1999    
                                        aim - to identify, account for,   
                                        and eliminate Iraq's weapons of   
                                        mass destruction and the capacity 
                                        to produce them                   
                                        commissioners - (15) Argentina,   
                                        Brazil, Canada, China, Finland,   
                                        France, Germany, India, Japan,    
                                        Nigeria, Russia, Senegal, Ukraine,
                                        UK, US                            
      United Nations Observer Mission   established - 24 August 1993      
      in Georgia (UNOMIG)               aim - to verify compliance with   
                                        the cease-fire agreement, to      
                                        monitor weapons exclusion zone,   
                                        and to supervise CIS peacekeeping 
                                        force for Abkhazia; established by
                                        the UN Security Council           
                                        members - (22) Albania, Austria,  
                                        Bangladesh, Czech Republic,       
                                        Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany,  
                                        Greece, Hungary, Indonesia,       
                                        Jordan, South Korea, Pakistan,    
                                        Poland, Russia, Sweden,           
                                        Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US,      
                                        Uruguay                           
      United Nations Organization       established - 30 November 1999    
      Mission in the Democratic         aim - to establish contacts with  
      Republic of the Congo (MONUC)     the signatories to the cease-fire 
                                        agreement and to plan for the     
                                        observation of the cease-fire and 
                                        disengagement of forces           
                                        members - (42) Algeria,           
                                        Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin,       
                                        Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cameroon,  
                                        Canada, China, Czech Republic,    
                                        Denmark, Egypt, France, Ghana,    
                                        India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, 
                                        Jordan, Kenya, Malawi, Malaysia,  
                                        Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger,
                                        Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru,
                                        Poland, Romania, Russia, Senegal, 
                                        South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland,
                                        Tunisia, Ukraine, UK, Uruguay,    
                                        Zambia                            
      United Nations Peace-keeping      established - 4 March 1964        
      Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)         aim - to serve as a peacekeeping  
                                        force between Greek Cypriots and  
                                        Turkish Cypriots in Cyprus;       
                                        established by the UN Security    
                                        Council                           
                                        members - (9) Argentina, Austria, 
                                        Canada, Finland, Hungary, Ireland,
                                        Nepal, Slovakia, UK               
      United Nations Population Fund    note - acronym retained from      
      (UNFPA)                           predecessor organization UN Fund  
                                        for Population Activities         
                                        established - NA July 1967        
                                        aim - to assist both developed and
                                        developing countries to deal with 
                                        their population problems         
                                        members (executive board ) - (36) 
                                        selected on a rotating basis from 
                                        all regions                       
      United Nations Preventive         established 31 March 1995; to     
      Deployment Force (UNPREDEP)       monitor border activity in the    
                                        Former Yugoslav Republic of       
                                        Macedonia; members were Argentina,
                                        Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil,      
                                        Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark,  
                                        Egypt, Finland, Ghana, Indonesia, 
                                        Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, NZ,
                                        Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland,
                                        Portugal, Russia, Sweden,         
                                        Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, US; 
                                        mandate ended 25 March 1999       
      United Nations Relief and Works   established - 8 December 1949     
      Agency for Palestine Refugees in  aim - to provide assistance to    
      the Near East (UNRWA)             Palestinian refugees              
                                        members (advisory commission) -   
                                        (10) Belgium, Egypt, France,      
                                        Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria,    
                                        Turkey, UK, US                    
      United Nations Research Institute established - NA 1963             
      for Social Development (UNRISD)   aim - to conduct research into the
                                        problems of economic development  
                                        during different phases of        
                                        economic growth                   
                                        members - no country members, but 
                                        a Board of Directors consisting of
                                        a chairman appointed by the UN    
                                        secretary general and 11          
                                        individual members                
      United Nations Secretariat        established - 26 June 1945;       
                                        effective - 24 October 1945       
                                        aim - to serve as the primary     
                                        administrative organ of the UN; a 
                                        Secretary General is appointed for
                                        a five-year term by the General   
                                        Assembly on the recommendation of 
                                        the Security Council              
                                        members - the UN Secretary General
                                        and staff                         
      United Nations Security Council   established - 26 June 1945;       
                                        effective - 24 October 1945       
                                        aim - to maintain international   
                                        peace and security                
                                        permanent members - (5) China,    
                                        France, Russia, UK, US            
                                        nonpermanent members - (10)       
                                        elected for two-year terms by the 
                                        UN General Assembly; Bulgaria     
                                        (2002-03), Cameroon (2002-03),    
                                        Colombia (2001-02), Guinea (2002- 
                                        03), Ireland (2001-02), Mauritius 
                                        (2001-02), Mexico (2002-03),      
                                        Norway (2001-02), Singapore (2001-
                                        02), Syria (2002-03)              
      United Nations Transitional       established - 25 October 1999     
      Administration in East Timor      aim - to provide security         
      (UNTAET)                          throughout the territory of East  
                                        Timor; to establish an effective  
                                        administration; to ensure the     
                                        coordination and delivery of      
                                        humanitarian assistance; to       
                                        support capacity-building for     
                                        self-government                   
                                        members - (28) Australia,         
                                        Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil,      
                                        Chile, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji,      
                                        Ireland, Jordan, South Korea,     
                                        Malaysia, Mozambique, Nepal, NZ,  
                                        Norway, Pakistan, Philippines,    
                                        Portugal, Russia, Singapore,      
                                        Slovakia, Sweden, Thailand,       
                                        Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay           
      United Nations Truce Supervision  established - NA June 1948        
      Organization (UNTSO)              aim - to supervise the 1948 Arab- 
                                        Israeli cease-fire; currently     
                                        supports timely deployment of     
                                        reinforcements to other           
                                        peacekeeping operations in the    
                                        region as needed; initially       
                                        established by the UN Security    
                                        Council                           
                                        members - (22) Argentina,         
                                        Australia, Austria, Belgium,      
                                        Canada, Chile, China, Denmark,    
                                        Estonia, Finland, France, Ireland,
                                        Italy, Netherlands, NZ, Norway,   
                                        Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia,       
                                        Sweden, Switzerland, US           
      United Nations Trusteeship        established on 26 June 1945,      
      Council                           effective on 24 October 1945, to  
                                        supervise the administration of   
                                        the 11 UN trust territories;      
                                        members were China, France,       
                                        Russia, UK, US; it formally       
                                        suspended operations 1 November   
                                        1995 after the Trust Territory of 
                                        the Pacific Islands (Palau) became
                                        the Republic of Palau, a          
                                        constitutional government in free 
                                        association with the US; the      
                                        Trusteeship Council was not       
                                        dissolved                         
      United Nations University (UNU)   established - 3 December 1973     
                                        aim - to conduct research in      
                                        development, welfare, and human   
                                        survival and to train scholars    
                                        members - (24 members of UNU      
                                        Council and the Rector are        
                                        appointed by the Secretary General
                                        of the United Nations and the     
                                        Director General of UNESCO)       
      Universal Postal Union (UPU)      established - 9 October 1874,     
                                        affiliated with the UN 15 November
                                        1947; effective - 1 July 1948     
                                        aim - to promote international    
                                        postal cooperation; a UN          
                                        specialized agency                
                                        members - (189) Afghanistan,      
                                        Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua 
                                        and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia,  
                                        Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan,   
                                        The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, 
                                        Barbados, Belarus, Belgium,       
                                        Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,   
                                        Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, 
                                        Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina 
                                        Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,   
                                        Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde,     
                                        Central African Republic, Chad,   
                                        Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros,  
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica,
                                        Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba,     
                                        Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,  
                                        Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican     
                                        Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El      
                                        Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,      
                                        Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, 
                                        Finland, France, Gabon, The       
                                        Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,  
                                        Greece, Grenada, Guatemala,       
                                        Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,    
                                        Haiti, Holy See, Honduras,        
                                        Hungary, Iceland, India,          
                                        Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,   
                                        Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,    
                                        Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,        
                                        Kiribati, North Korea, South      
                                        Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,  
                                        Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
                                        Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,  
                                        Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav   
                                        Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar,
                                        Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, 
                                        Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius,     
                                        Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia,
                                        Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,     
                                        Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands,        
                                        Netherlands Antilles, NZ,         
                                        Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway,
                                        Oman, Overseas Territories of the 
                                        UK, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New   
                                        Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,           
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda,   
                                        Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint      
                                        Lucia, Saint Vincent and the      
                                        Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao
                                        Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,  
                                        Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
                                        Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,    
                                        Solomon Islands, Somalia, South   
                                        Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,  
                                        Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,      
                                        Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan,   
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,  
                                        Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,     
                                        Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu,     
                                        Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US,     
                                        Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,     
                                        Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,        
                                        Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe      
      Warsaw Pact (WP)                  established 14 May 1955 to promote
                                        mutual defense; members met 1 July
                                        1991 to dissolve the alliance;    
                                        member states at the time of      
                                        dissolution were Bulgaria,        
                                        Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland,  
                                        Romania, and the USSR; earlier    
                                        members included GDR and Albania  
      West African Development Bank     note - also known as Banque Ouest-
      (WADB)                            Africaine de Developpement (BOAD);
                                        is a financial institution of     
                                        WAEMU                             
                                        established - 14 November 1973    
                                        aim - to promote regional economic
                                        development and integration       
                                        regional members - (9) Central    
                                        Bank of West African States,      
                                        Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote         
                                        d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali,    
                                        Niger, Senegal, Togo              
                                        international/nonregional members 
                                        - (5) African Development Bank,   
                                        Belgium, European Investment Bank,
                                        France, Germany                   
      West African Economic and         note - also known as Union        
      Monetary Union (WAEMU)            Economique et Monetaire Ouest     
                                        Africaine (UEMOA)                 
                                        established - 1 August 1994       
                                        aim - to increase competitiveness 
                                        of members' economic markets; to  
                                        create a common market            
                                        members - (8) Benin, Burkina Faso,
                                        Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau,     
                                        Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo        
      Western European Union (WEU)      established - 23 October 1954;    
                                        effective - 6 May 1955            
                                        aim - to provide mutual defense   
                                        and to move toward political      
                                        unification                       
                                        members - (10) Belgium, France,   
                                        Germany, Greece, Italy,           
                                        Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal,
                                        Spain, UK                         
                                        associate members - (6) Czech     
                                        Republic, Hungary, Iceland,       
                                        Norway, Poland, Turkey            
                                        associate partners - (7) Bulgaria,
                                        Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania,       
                                        Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia       
                                        observers - (5) Austria, Denmark, 
                                        Finland, Ireland, Sweden          
      World Bank Group                  includes International Bank for   
                                        Reconstruction and Development    
                                        (IBRD), International Development 
                                        Association (IDA), and            
                                        International Finance Corporation 
                                        (IFC)                             
      World Confederation of Labor      established - 19 June 1920 as the 
      (WCL)                             International Federation of       
                                        Christian Trade Unions (IFCTU),   
                                        renamed 4 October 1968            
                                        aim - to promote the trade union  
                                        movement                          
                                        members - (101 national           
                                        organizations) Antigua and        
                                        Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba,        
                                        Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium,     
                                        Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bonaire   
                                        Island, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina 
                                        Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Central   
                                        African Republic, Chad, Chile,    
                                        Colombia, Democratic Republic of  
                                        the Congo, Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba,  
                                        Cyprus, Czech Republic, Dominica, 
                                        Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El   
                                        Salvador, France, French Guiana,  
                                        Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana,         
                                        Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea,    
                                        Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong     
                                        Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia,  
                                        Iran, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan,   
                                        South Korea, Liberia,             
                                        Liechtenstein, Lithuania,         
                                        Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav   
                                        Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar,
                                        Malaysia, Malta, Martinique,      
                                        Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,    
                                        Montserrat, Morocco, Namibia,     
                                        Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles,
                                        Nicaragua, Niger, Pakistan,       
                                        Panama, Paraguay, Peru,           
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Puerto Rico, Romania, Rwanda,     
                                        Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
                                        Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe,
                                        Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, 
                                        Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sri
                                        Lanka, Suriname, Switzerland,     
                                        Taiwan, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad  
                                        and Tobago, Ukraine, US, Uruguay, 
                                        Venezuela, Vietnam, Windward      
                                        Islands, Zimbabwe                 
      World Federation of Trade Unions  established - 3 October 1945      
      (WFTU)                            aim - to promote the trade union  
                                        movement                          
                                        members - (125 and the Palestine  
                                        Liberation Organization)          
                                        Afghanistan, Albania, Angola,     
                                        Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,   
                                        Armenia, Australia, Austria,      
                                        Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh,  
                                        Barbados, Belarus, Benin, Bolivia,
                                        Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria,       
                                        Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, 
                                        Canada, Chile, Colombia,          
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica,
                                        Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
                                        Republic, Djibouti, Dominican     
                                        Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El      
                                        Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji,
                                        Finland, France, French Guiana,   
                                        The Gambia, Ghana, Greece,        
                                        Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea,    
                                        Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,     
                                        Honduras, Hungary, India,         
                                        Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica,   
                                        Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, North  
                                        Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,  
                                        Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, 
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,     
                                        Mali, Martinique, Mauritius,      
                                        Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal, New    
                                        Caledonia, NZ, Niger, Nigeria,    
                                        Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New 
                                        Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
                                        Portugal, Puerto Rico, Reunion,   
                                        Romania, Russia, Saint Lucia,     
                                        Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint  
                                        Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi 
                                        Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone,    
                                        Slovakia, Solomon Islands,        
                                        Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, 
                                        Sudan, Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan, 
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad
                                        and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,      
                                        Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine,    
                                        Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,     
                                        Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,        
                                        Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation    
                                        Organization                      
      World Food Program (WFP)          established - 24 November 1961    
                                        aim - to provide food aid in      
                                        support of economic development or
                                        disaster relief; an ECOSOC        
                                        organization                      
                                        members - (36) selected on a      
                                        rotating basis from all regions   
      World Health Organization (WHO)   established - 22 July 1946;       
                                        effective - 7 April 1948          
                                        aim - to deal with health matters 
                                        worldwide; a UN specialized agency
                                        members - (191) Afghanistan,      
                                        Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola,
                                        Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,   
                                        Armenia, Australia, Austria,      
                                        Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, 
                                        Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,    
                                        Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan,   
                                        Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,  
                                        Botswana, Brazil, Brunei,         
                                        Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma,    
                                        Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,      
                                        Canada, Cape Verde, Central       
                                        African Republic, Chad, Chile,    
                                        China, Colombia, Comoros,         
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Cook       
                                        Islands, Costa Rica, Cote         
                                        d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,  
                                        Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
                                        Dominica, Dominican Republic,     
                                        Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,      
                                        Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea,       
                                        Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, 
                                        France, Gabon, The Gambia,        
                                        Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece,  
                                        Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,       
                                        Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,     
                                        Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,
                                        Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,   
                                        Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,    
                                        Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,        
                                        Kiribati, North Korea, South      
                                        Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,  
                                        Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
                                        Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The 
                                        Former Yugoslav Republic of       
                                        Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi,    
                                        Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,  
                                        Marshall Islands, Mauritania,     
                                        Mauritius, Mexico, Federated      
                                        States of Micronesia, Moldova,    
                                        Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco,        
                                        Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal,
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
                                        Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman,      
                                        Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New
                                        Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,           
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda,   
                                        Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint      
                                        Lucia, Saint Vincent and the      
                                        Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao
                                        Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,  
                                        Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
                                        Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,    
                                        Solomon Islands, Somalia, South   
                                        Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,  
                                        Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,      
                                        Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan,   
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,  
                                        Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,     
                                        Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu,     
                                        Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US,     
                                        Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,     
                                        Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,        
                                        Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe      
                                        associate members - (2) Puerto    
                                        Rico, Tokelau                     
                                        observers - (2) Holy See,         
                                        Liechtenstein                     
      World Intellectual Property       established - 14 July 1967;       
      Organization (WIPO)               effective - 26 April 1970         
                                        aim - to furnish protection for   
                                        literary, artistic, and scientific
                                        works; a UN specialized agency    
                                        members - (178) Albania, Algeria, 
                                        Andorra, Angola, Antigua and      
                                        Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia,      
                                        Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan,   
                                        The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, 
                                        Barbados, Belarus, Belgium,       
                                        Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,   
                                        Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, 
                                        Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina 
                                        Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,   
                                        Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde,     
                                        Central African Republic, Chad,   
                                        Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic
                                        Republic of the Congo, Republic of
                                        the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote       
                                        d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,  
                                        Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica,
                                        Dominican Republic, Ecuador,      
                                        Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial    
                                        Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia,         
                                        Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France,  
                                        Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia,       
                                        Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada,  
                                        Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, 
                                        Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras,
                                        Hungary, Iceland, India,          
                                        Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,   
                                        Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,    
                                        Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North  
                                        Korea, South Korea, Kuwait,       
                                        Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon,
                                        Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,          
                                        Liechtenstein, Lithuania,         
                                        Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav   
                                        Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar,
                                        Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta,    
                                        Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,    
                                        Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia,        
                                        Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,     
                                        Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,
                                        Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman,     
                                        Pakistan, Panama, Papua New       
                                        Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,           
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda,   
                                        Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint      
                                        Lucia, Saint Vincent and the      
                                        Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao
                                        Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,  
                                        Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
                                        Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,    
                                        Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri 
                                        Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland,
                                        Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan,  
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,  
                                        Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,     
                                        Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda,     
                                        Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,    
                                        Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam,   
                                        Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia,        
                                        Zimbabwe                          
      World Meteorological Organization established - 11 October 1947;    
      (WMO)                             effective - 4 April 1951          
                                        aim - to sponsor meteorological   
                                        cooperation; a UN specialized     
                                        agency                            
                                        members - (185) Afghanistan,      
                                        Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua 
                                        and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia,  
                                        Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan,   
                                        The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, 
                                        Barbados, Belarus, Belgium,       
                                        Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and
                                        Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,    
                                        British Caribbean Territories,    
                                        Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso,   
                                        Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,         
                                        Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde,     
                                        Central African Republic, Chad,   
                                        Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros,  
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Cook       
                                        Islands, Costa Rica, Cote         
                                        d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,  
                                        Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
                                        Dominica, Dominican Republic,     
                                        Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,      
                                        Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, 
                                        Finland, France, French Polynesia,
                                        Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia,       
                                        Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala,
                                        Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,    
                                        Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong,       
                                        Hungary, Iceland, India,          
                                        Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,   
                                        Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,    
                                        Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North  
                                        Korea, South Korea, Kuwait,       
                                        Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon,
                                        Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,          
                                        Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau, The 
                                        Former Yugoslav Republic of       
                                        Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi,    
                                        Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,  
                                        Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,    
                                        Federated States of Micronesia,   
                                        Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia,        
                                        Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,     
                                        Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands   
                                        Antilles, New Caledonia, NZ,      
                                        Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue,  
                                        Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama,   
                                        Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, 
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda,   
                                        Saint Lucia, Samoa, Sao Tome and  
                                        Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,  
                                        Seychelles, Sierra Leone,         
                                        Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,    
                                        Solomon Islands, Somalia, South   
                                        Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,  
                                        Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,      
                                        Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan,   
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,  
                                        Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,     
                                        Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda,     
                                        Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,    
                                        Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela,   
                                        Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia,       
                                        Zambia, Zimbabwe                  
      World Tourism Organization (WToO) established - 2 January 1975      
                                        aim - to promote tourism as a     
                                        means of contributing to economic 
                                        development, international        
                                        understanding, and peace          
                                        members - (138) Afghanistan,      
                                        Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola,
                                        Argentina, Armenia, Austria,      
                                        Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh,  
                                        Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and        
                                        Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,    
                                        Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma,    
                                        Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,      
                                        Canada, Central African Republic, 
                                        Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,     
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica,
                                        Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba,     
                                        Cyprus, Czech Republic, Djibouti, 
                                        Dominican Republic, Ecuador,      
                                        Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial    
                                        Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji,  
                                        France, Gabon, The Gambia,        
                                        Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece,  
                                        Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, 
                                        Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India,  
                                        Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel,    
                                        Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,    
                                        Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea,   
                                        South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,    
                                        Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, The      
                                        Former Yugoslav Republic of       
                                        Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi,    
                                        Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,  
                                        Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,    
                                        Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia,        
                                        Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,     
                                        Nepal, Netherlands, Nicaragua,    
                                        Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, 
                                        Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,      
                                        Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, 
                                        Russia, Rwanda, San Marino, Sao   
                                        Tome and Principe, Senegal,       
                                        Seychelles, Sierra Leone,         
                                        Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, 
                                        Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,          
                                        Swaziland, Switzerland, Syria,    
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia,
                                        Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda,     
                                        Ukraine, Uruguay, Uzbekistan,     
                                        Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,        
                                        Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe      
                                        associate members - (6) Aruba,    
                                        Flanders, Hong Kong, Macau,       
                                        Madeira Islands, Netherlands      
                                        Antilles                          
                                        observers - (2) Holy See,         
                                        Palestine Liberation Organization 
      World Trade Organization (WTrO)   note - succeeded General Agreement
                                        on Tariff and Trade (GATT)        
                                        established - 15 April 1994;      
                                        effective - 1 January 1995        
                                        aim - to provide a means to       
                                        resolve trade conflicts between   
                                        members and to carry on           
                                        negotiations with the goal of     
                                        further lowering and/or           
                                        eliminating tariffs and other     
                                        trade barriers                    
                                        members - (144) Albania, Angola,  
                                        Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,   
                                        Australia, Austria, Bahrain,      
                                        Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium,    
                                        Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, 
                                        Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina 
                                        Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon,   
                                        Canada, Central African Republic, 
                                        Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,     
                                        Democratic Republic of the Congo, 
                                        Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica,
                                        Cote d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba,     
                                        Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,  
                                        Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican     
                                        Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El      
                                        Salvador, Estonia, EU, Fiji,      
                                        Finland, France, Gabon, The       
                                        Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,  
                                        Greece, Grenada, Guatemala,       
                                        Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,    
                                        Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong,       
                                        Hungary, Iceland, India,          
                                        Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy,
                                        Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya,    
                                        South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan,  
                                        Latvia, Lesotho, Liechtenstein,   
                                        Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau,     
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,     
                                        Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania,
                                        Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova,       
                                        Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique,    
                                        Namibia, Netherlands, NZ,         
                                        Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway,
                                        Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New 
                                        Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,           
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,    
                                        Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint     
                                        Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,     
                                        Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 
                                        Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, 
                                        Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon       
                                        Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri 
                                        Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland,       
                                        Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan,      
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad
                                        and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,      
                                        Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,     
                                        Venezuela, Zambia, Zimbabwe       
                                        observers - (31) Algeria, Andorra,
                                        Armenia, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, 
                                        Belarus, Bhutan, Bosnia and       
                                        Herzegovina, Cambodia, Cape Verde,
                                        Ethiopia, The Former Yugoslav     
                                        Republic of Macedonia, Holy See,  
                                        Kazakhstan, Laos, Lebanon, Nepal, 
                                        Russia, Samoa, Sao Tome and       
                                        Principe, Saudi Arabia,           
                                        Seychelles, Sudan, Tajikistan,    
                                        Tonga, Ukraine, Uzbekistan,       
                                        Vanuatu, Vietnam, Yemen,          
                                        Yugoslavia; note - must start     
                                        accession negotiations within five
                                        years of becoming observers       
      Zangger Committee (ZC)            established - early 1970s         
                                        aim - to establish guidelines for 
                                        the export control provisions of  
                                        the Nonproliferation of Nuclear   
                                        Weapons Treaty (NPT)              
                                        members - (35) Argentina,         
                                        Australia, Austria, Belgium,      
                                        Bulgaria, Canada, China, Czech    
                                        Republic, Denmark, Finland,       
                                        France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, 
                                        Ireland, Italy, Japan, South      
                                        Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands,   
                                        Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,
                                        Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South 
                                        Africa, Spain, Sweden,            
                                        Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, 
                                        US                                
  
  

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