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5 definitions found
 for Israel
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Jacob \Ja"cob\, n. [Cf. F. Jacob. See 2d Jack.]
     A Hebrew patriarch (son of Isaac, and ancestor of the Jews),
     who in a vision saw a ladder reaching up to heaven (--Gen.
     xxviii. 12); -- also called Israel.
     [1913 Webster]
  
           And Jacob said . . . with my staff I passed over this
           Jordan, and now I am become two bands.   --Gen. xxxii.
                                                    9, 10.
     [1913 Webster]
  
           Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel.
                                                    --Gen. xxxii.
                                                    28.
     [1913 Webster]
  
     Jacob's ladder.
     (a) (Bot.) A perennial herb of the genus Polemonium
         ({Polemonium c[oe]ruleum), having corymbs of drooping
         flowers, usually blue. Gray.
     (b) (Naut.) A rope ladder, with wooden steps, for going
         aloft. --R. H. Dana, Jr.
     (c) (Naut.) A succession of short cracks in a defective spar.
         
  
     Jacob's membrane. See Retina.
  
     Jacob's staff.
     (a) A name given to many forms of staff or weapon, especially
         in the Middle Ages; a pilgrim's staff. [Obs.] --Spenser.
     (b) (Surveying) See under Staff.
         [1913 Webster]

From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Israel
      n 1: Jewish republic in southwestern Asia at eastern end of
           Mediterranean; formerly part of Palestine [syn: Israel,
           State of Israel, Yisrael, Zion, Sion]
      2: an ancient kingdom of the Hebrew tribes at the southeastern
         end of the Mediterranean Sea; founded by Saul around 1025 BC
         and destroyed by the Assyrians in 721 BC

From Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary :

  Israel
     the name conferred on Jacob after the great prayer-struggle at
     Peniel (Gen. 32:28), because "as a prince he had power with God
     and prevailed." (See JACOB.) This is the common name
     given to Jacob's descendants. The whole people of the twelve
     tribes are called "Israelites," the "children of Israel" (Josh.
     3:17; 7:25; Judg. 8:27; Jer. 3:21), and the "house of Israel"
     (Ex. 16:31; 40:38).
     
       This name Israel is sometimes used emphatically for the true
     Israel (Ps. 73:1: Isa. 45:17; 49:3; John 1:47; Rom. 9:6; 11:26).
     
       After the death of Saul the ten tribes arrogated to themselves
     this name, as if they were the whole nation (2 Sam. 2:9, 10, 17,
     28; 3:10, 17; 19:40-43), and the kings of the ten tribes were
     called "kings of Israel," while the kings of the two tribes were
     called "kings of Judah."
     
       After the Exile the name Israel was assumed as designating the
     entire nation.
     

From Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary (late 1800's) :

  Israel, who prevails with God
  

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Israel
  
     Introduction Israel
     -------------------
                              Background: Following World War II, the British
                                          withdrew from their mandate of
                                          Palestine, and the UN partitioned
                                          the area into Arab and Jewish
                                          states, an arrangement rejected by
                                          the Arabs. Subsequently, the
                                          Israelis defeated the Arabs in a
                                          series of wars without ending the
                                          deep tensions between the two sides.
                                          The territories occupied by Israel
                                          since the 1967 war are not included
                                          in the Israel country profile,
                                          unless otherwise noted. On 25 April
                                          1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai
                                          pursuant to the 1979 Israel-Egypt
                                          Peace Treaty. Outstanding
                                          territorial and other disputes with
                                          Jordan were resolved in the 26
                                          October 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of
                                          Peace. In keeping with the framework
                                          established at the Madrid Conference
                                          in October 1991, bilateral
                                          negotiations were conducted between
                                          Israel and Palestinian
                                          representatives (from the Israeli-
                                          occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip)
                                          and Syria, to achieve a permanent
                                          settlement; however, these efforts
                                          were derailed/postponed by the
                                          outbreak of Israeli-Palestinian
                                          violence in September 2000. On 25
                                          May 2000, Israel withdrew
                                          unilaterally from southern Lebanon,
                                          which it had occupied since 1982.
    
     Geography Israel
     ----------------
                                Location: Middle East, bordering the
                                          Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and
                                          Lebanon
                  Geographic coordinates: 31 30 N, 34 45 E
                          Map references: Middle East
                                    Area: total: 20,770 sq km
                                          water: 440 sq km
                                          land: 20,330 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey
                         Land boundaries: total: 1,017 km
                                          border countries: Egypt 266 km, Gaza
                                          Strip 51 km, Jordan 238 km, Lebanon
                                          79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307 km
                               Coastline: 273 km
                         Maritime claims: continental shelf: to depth of
                                          exploitation
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: temperate; hot and dry in southern
                                          and eastern desert areas
                                 Terrain: Negev desert in the south; low
                                          coastal plain; central mountains;
                                          Jordan Rift Valley
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
                                          highest point: Har Meron 1,208 m
                       Natural resources: timber, potash, copper ore, natural
                                          gas, phosphate rock, magnesium
                                          bromide, clays, sand
                                Land use: arable land: 17.02%
                                          permanent crops: 4.17%
                                          other: 78.81% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 1,990 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: sandstorms may occur during spring
                                          and summer; droughts; periodic
                                          earthquakes
            Environment - current issues: limited arable land and natural
                                          fresh water resources pose serious
                                          constraints; desertification; air
                                          pollution from industrial and
                                          vehicle emissions; groundwater
                                          pollution from industrial and
                                          domestic waste, chemical
                                          fertilizers, and pesticides
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear
                                          Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
                                          Ship Pollution, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: Climate
                                          Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life
                                          Conservation
                        Geography - note: there are 231 Israeli settlements
                                          and civilian land use sites in the
                                          West Bank, 42 in the Israeli-
                                          occupied Golan Heights, 25 in the
                                          Gaza Strip, and 29 in East Jerusalem
                                          (August 2001 est.); Sea of Galilee
                                          is an important freshwater source
    
     People Israel
     -------------
                              Population: 6,029,529 (July 2002 est.)
                                          note: includes about 182,000 Israeli
                                          settlers in the West Bank, about
                                          20,000 in the Israeli-occupied Golan
                                          Heights, fewer than 7,000 in the
                                          Gaza Strip, and about 176,000 in
                                          East Jerusalem (August 2001 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 27.1% (male 837,491;
                                          female 798,695)
                                          15-64 years: 63% (male 1,905,677;
                                          female 1,889,525)
                                          65 years and over: 9.9% (male
                                          257,066; female 341,075) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 1.48% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 18.91 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 6.21 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: 2.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 0.99 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 7.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.86 years
                                          female: 81.01 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 76.82 years
                    Total fertility rate: 2.54 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.08% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 2,400 (1999 est.)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Israeli(s)
                                          adjective: Israeli
                           Ethnic groups: Jewish 80.1% (Europe/America-born
                                          32.1%, Israel-born 20.8%, Africa-
                                          born 14.6%, Asia-born 12.6%), non-
                                          Jewish 19.9% (mostly Arab) (1996
                                          est.)
                               Religions: Jewish 80.1%, Muslim 14.6% (mostly
                                          Sunni Muslim), Christian 2.1%, other
                                          3.2% (1996 est.)
                               Languages: Hebrew (official), Arabic used
                                          officially for Arab minority,
                                          English most commonly used foreign
                                          language
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 95%
                                          male: 97%
                                          female: 93% (1992 est.)
    
     Government Israel
     -----------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: State of
                                          Israel
                                          conventional short form: Israel
                                          local short form: Yisra'el
                                          local long form: Medinat Yisra'el
                         Government type: parliamentary democracy
                                 Capital: Jerusalem; note - Israel proclaimed
                                          Jerusalem as its capital in 1950,
                                          but the US, like nearly all other
                                          countries, maintains its Embassy in
                                          Tel Aviv
                Administrative divisions: 6 districts (mehozot, singular -
                                          mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem,
                                          Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv
                            Independence: 14 May 1948 (from League of Nations
                                          mandate under British
                                          administration)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 14 May (1948);
                                          note - Israel declared independence
                                          on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish
                                          calendar is lunar and the holiday
                                          may occur in April or May
                            Constitution: no formal constitution; some of the
                                          functions of a constitution are
                                          filled by the Declaration of
                                          Establishment (1948), the Basic Laws
                                          of the parliament (Knesset), and the
                                          Israeli citizenship law
                            Legal system: mixture of English common law,
                                          British Mandate regulations, and, in
                                          personal matters, Jewish, Christian,
                                          and Muslim legal systems; in
                                          December 1985, Israel informed the
                                          UN Secretariat that it would no
                                          longer accept compulsory ICJ
                                          jurisdiction
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Moshe
                                          KATSAV (since 31 July 2000)
                                          elections: president elected by the
                                          Knesset for a five-year term;
                                          election last held 31 July 1999
                                          (next to be held NA July 2003);
                                          prime minister elected by popular
                                          vote for a four-year term; election
                                          last held 6 February 2001 (next to
                                          be held NA November 2003); note - in
                                          March 1992, the Knesset approved
                                          legislation, effective in 1996,
                                          which allowed for the direct
                                          election of the prime minister, but
                                          in 2001 the Knesset voted to restore
                                          the previous method under which the
                                          legislators will choose the next
                                          prime minister after the next
                                          legislative elections in 2003
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Ariel SHARON (since 7 March 2001)
                                          cabinet: Cabinet selected by prime
                                          minister and approved by the Knesset
    
                                          election results: Moshe KATSAV
                                          elected president by the 120-member
                                          Knesset with a total of 60 votes,
                                          other candidate, Shimon PERES,
                                          received 57 votes (there were three
                                          abstentions); Ariel SHARON elected
                                          prime minister; percent of vote -
                                          Ariel SHARON 62.5%, Ehud BARAK
                                          37.4%; note - after the next
                                          legislative elections scheduled for
                                          2003, the prime minister will be
                                          elected by the Knesset
                      Legislative branch: unicameral Knesset or parliament
                                          (120 seats; members elected by
                                          popular vote to serve four-year
                                          terms)
                                          elections: last held 17 May 1999
                                          (next to be held NA November 2003)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - One Israel 20.2%, Likud
                                          Party 14.1%, Shas 13%, Meretz 7.6%,
                                          Yisra'el Ba'Aliya 5.1%, Shinui 5%,
                                          Center Party 5%, National Religious
                                          Party 4.2%, United Torah Judaism
                                          3.7%, United Arab List 3.4%,
                                          National Union 3%, Hadash 2.6%,
                                          Yisra'el Beiteinu 2.6%, Balad 1.9%,
                                          One Nation 1.9%, Democratic Movement
                                          NA (party formed after election,
                                          members elected under Yisra'el
                                          Ba'Aliya list); seats by party - One
                                          Israel 24, Likud Party 19, Shas 17,
                                          MERETZ 10, Yisra'el Ba'Aliya 4,
                                          Shinui 6, Center Party 5, National
                                          Religious Party 5, United Torah
                                          Judaism 5, United Arab List 5,
                                          National Union 3, Hadash 3, Yisra'el
                                          Beiteinu 4, Democratic Movement 2
                                          (party formed after election,
                                          members elected under Yisra'el
                                          Ba'Aliya list), Balad 2, One Nation
                                          2
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court (justices appointed
                                          for life by the president)
           Political parties and leaders: Balad or National Democratic
                                          Alliance [Azmi BISHARA]; Center
                                          Party [Dan MERIDOR]; Democratic
                                          Movement [Roman BRONFMAN]; Gesher
                                          [David LEVI]; Hadash [Muhammad
                                          BARAKA]; Labor Party [Binyamin BEN-
                                          ELIEZER]; Likud Party [Ariel
                                          SHARON]; Meretz [Yossi SARID];
                                          National Religious Party [Yitzhak
                                          LEVY]; National Union [Benyamin
                                          ELON] (includes Herut, Tekuma, and
                                          Moledet); One Israel [Ra'anan
                                          COHEN]; One Nation [Amir PERETZ];
                                          Shas [Eliyahu YISHAI]; Shinui [Tommy
                                          LAPID]; United Arab List [Abd al-
                                          Malik DAHAMSHAH]; United Torah
                                          Judaism [Meir PORUSH]; Yisra'el
                                          Ba'Aliya [Natan SHARANSKY]; Yisra'el
                                          Beiteinu [Avigdor LIEBERMAN]
            Political pressure groups and Israeli nationalists advocating
                                 leaders: Jewish settlement on the West Bank
                                          and Gaza Strip; Peace Now supports
                                          territorial concessions in the West
                                          Bank and Gaza Strip; Yesha (settler)
                                          Council promotes settler interests
                                          and opposes territorial compromise;
                                          B'Tselem monitors human rights
                                          abuses
               International organization BSEC (observer), CCC, CE (observer),
                           participation: CERN (observer), EBRD, ECE, FAO,
                                          IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
                                          IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate),
                                          ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
                                          ISO, ITU, OAS (observer), OPCW
                                          (signatory), OSCE (partner), PCA,
                                          UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
                                          UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador David
                                          IVRY
                                          consulate(s) general: Atlanta,
                                          Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los
                                          Angeles, Miami, New York,
                                          Philadelphia, and San Francisco
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 364-3607
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 364-5500
                                          chancery: 3514 International Drive
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20008
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel
                                      US: C. KURTZER
                                          embassy: 71 Hayarkon Street, Tel
                                          Aviv
                                          mailing address: PSC 98, Unit 7228,
                                          APO AE 09830
                                          telephone: [972] (3) 519-7575
                                          FAX: [972] (3) 517-3227
                                          consulate(s) general: Jerusalem;
                                          note - an independent US mission,
                                          established in 1928, whose members
                                          are not accredited to a foreign
                                          government
                        Flag description: white with a blue hexagram (six-
                                          pointed linear star) known as the
                                          Magen David (Shield of David)
                                          centered between two equal
                                          horizontal blue bands near the top
                                          and bottom edges of the flag
    
     Economy Israel
     --------------
                      Economy - overview: Israel has a technologically
                                          advanced market economy with
                                          substantial government
                                          participation. It depends on imports
                                          of crude oil, grains, raw materials,
                                          and military equipment. Despite
                                          limited natural resources, Israel
                                          has intensively developed its
                                          agricultural and industrial sectors
                                          over the past 20 years. Israel is
                                          largely self-sufficient in food
                                          production except for grains. Cut
                                          diamonds, high-technology equipment,
                                          and agricultural products (fruits
                                          and vegetables) are the leading
                                          exports. Israel usually posts
                                          sizable current account deficits,
                                          which are covered by large transfer
                                          payments from abroad and by foreign
                                          loans. Roughly half of the
                                          government's external debt is owed
                                          to the US, which is its major source
                                          of economic and military aid. The
                                          influx of Jewish immigrants from the
                                          former USSR during the period 1989-
                                          99 coupled with the opening of new
                                          markets at the end of the Cold War,
                                          energized Israel's economy, which
                                          grew rapidly in the early 1990s. But
                                          growth began moderating in 1996 when
                                          the government imposed tighter
                                          fiscal and monetary policies and the
                                          immigration bonus petered out.
                                          Growth was a strong 6.4% in 2000.
                                          But the outbreak of Palestinian
                                          unrest in late September 2000 and
                                          the declines in the high-technology
                                          and tourist sectors led to a 0.6%
                                          drop in GDP in 2001.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $119
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: -0.6% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $20,000
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4%
                                          industry: 37%
                                          services: 59% (1999 est.)
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.8%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 26.9% (1992)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 35.5 (1992)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.1% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 2.4 million (2000 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: public services 31.2%, manufacturing
                                          20.2%, finance and business 13.1%,
                                          commerce 12.8%, construction 7.5%,
                                          personal and other services 6.4%,
                                          transport, storage, and
                                          communications 6.2%, agriculture,
                                          forestry, and fishing 2.6% (1996)
                       Unemployment rate: 9% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $40 billion
                                          expenditures: $42.4 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2000 est.)
                              Industries: high-technology projects (including
                                          aviation, communications, computer-
                                          aided design and manufactures,
                                          medical electronics), wood and paper
                                          products, potash and phosphates,
                                          food, beverages, and tobacco,
                                          caustic soda, cement, diamond
                                          cutting
       Industrial production growth rate: -4.5% (2001)
                Electricity - production: 38.876 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99.89%
                                          hydro: 0.11%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 34.897 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 1.27 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 12 million kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: citrus, vegetables, cotton; beef,
                                          poultry, dairy products
                                 Exports: $26.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, software,
                                          cut diamonds, agricultural products,
                                          chemicals, textiles and apparel
                      Exports - partners: US 37.4%, Benelux 6%, Germany 4.8%,
                                          Hong Kong 4.4%, UK 4.3%, Netherlands
                                          2.8% (2000)
                                 Imports: $30.6 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: raw materials, military equipment,
                                          investment goods, rough diamonds,
                                          fuels, consumer goods
                      Imports - partners: US 17.8%, Benelux 10%, UK 7.6%,
                                          Germany 7.5%, Switzerland 5.4%,
                                          Italy 4.8% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $42.8 billion (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: NA
                                Currency: new Israeli shekel (ILS)
                           Currency code: ILS
                          Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels per US dollar -
                                          4.2757 (December 2001), 4.2057
                                          (2001), 4.0773 (2000), 4.1397
                                          (1999), 3.8001 (1998), 3.4494 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
    
     Communications Israel
     ---------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 2.8 million (1999)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 2.5 million (1999)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: most highly
                                          developed system in the Middle East
                                          although not the largest
                                          domestic: good system of coaxial
                                          cable and microwave radio relay; all
                                          systems are digital
                                          international: 3 submarine cables;
                                          satellite earth stations - 3
                                          Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1
                                          Indian Ocean)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 23, FM 15, shortwave 2 (1998)
                                  Radios: 3.07 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 17 (plus 36 low-power repeaters)
                                          (1995)
                             Televisions: 1.69 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .il
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 21 (2000)
                          Internet users: 1.94 million (2001)
    
     Transportation Israel
     ---------------------
                                Railways: total: 647 km
                                          standard gauge: 647 km 1.435-m gauge
                                          (2001)
                                Highways: total: 15,965 km
                                          paved: 15,965 km (including 56 km of
                                          expressways)
                                          unpaved: 0 km (1998 est.)
                               Waterways: none
                               Pipelines: crude oil 708 km; petroleum products
                                          290 km; natural gas 89 km
                       Ports and harbors: Ashdod, Ashqelon, Elat (Eilat),
                                          Hadera, Haifa, Tel Aviv-Yafo
                         Merchant marine: total: 16 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 595,319 GRT/704,544 DWT
                                          ships by type: container 15, roll
                                          on/roll off 1 (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 54 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 29
                                          over 3,047 m: 2
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 11
                                          under 914 m: 5 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 25
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 4
                                          under 914 m: 20 (2001)
                               Heliports: 3 (2001)
    
     Military Israel
     ---------------
                       Military branches: Israel Defense Forces (IDF)
                                          (includes ground, naval, and air
                                          components with Air Defense Forces),
                                          Pioneer Fighting Youth (Nahal),
                                          Frontier Guard, Chen (women); note -
                                          historically there have been no
                                          separate Israeli military services
        Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,542,835
                                          females age 15-49: 1,499,830 (2002
                                          est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 1,262,973
                                 service: females age 15-49: 1,223,939 (2002
                                          est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 51,666
                   military age annually: females: 49,207 (2002 est.)
           Military expenditures - dollar $8.866 bilion (FY01)
                                  figure:
       Military expenditures - percent of 8% (FY01)
                                     GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Israel
     ---------------------------
                Disputes - international: West Bank and Gaza Strip are
                                          Israeli-occupied with current status
                                          subject to the Israeli-Palestinian
                                          Interim Agreement - permanent status
                                          to be determined through further
                                          negotiation; Golan Heights is
                                          Israeli-occupied (Lebanon claims the
                                          Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights)
                           Illicit drugs: increasingly concerned about cocaine
                                          and heroin abuse; drugs arrive in
                                          country from Lebanon and
                                          increasingly Jordan
    
                                         
  
  

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