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5 definitions found
 for Japan
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Japan \Ja*pan"\ (j[.a]*p[a^]n"), n. [From Japan, the country.]
     Work varnished and figured in the Japanese manner; also, the
     varnish or lacquer used in japanning.
     [1913 Webster]

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Japan \Ja*pan"\, a.
     Of or pertaining to Japan, or to the lacquered work of that
     country; as, Japan ware.
     [1913 Webster]
  
     Japan allspice (Bot.), a spiny shrub from Japan
        ({Chimonanthus fragrans), related to the Carolina
        allspice.
  
     Japan black (Chem.), a quickly drying black lacquer or
        varnish, consisting essentially of asphaltum dissolved in
        naphtha or turpentine, and used for coating ironwork; --
        called also Brunswick black, Japan lacquer, or simply
        Japan.
  
     Japan camphor, ordinary camphor brought from China or
        Japan, as distinguished from the rare variety called
        borneol or Borneo camphor.
  
     Japan clover, or Japan pea (Bot.), a cloverlike plant
        ({Lespedeza striata) from Eastern Asia, useful for
        fodder, first noticed in the Southern United States about
        1860, but now become very common. During the Civil War it
        was called variously Yankee clover and Rebel clover.
        
  
     Japan earth. See Catechu.
  
     Japan ink, a kind of writing ink, of a deep, glossy black
        when dry.
  
     Japan varnish, a varnish prepared from the milky juice of
        the Rhus vernix, a small Japanese tree related to the
        poison sumac.
        [1913 Webster]

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Japan \Ja*pan"\ (j[.a]*p[a^]n"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Japanned
     (j[.a]*p[a^]nd"); p. pr. & vb. n. Japanning.]
     [1913 Webster]
     1. To cover with a coat of hard, brilliant varnish, in the
        manner of the Japanese; to lacquer.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     2. To give a glossy black to, as shoes. [R.] --Gay.
        [1913 Webster]

From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Japan
      n 1: a string of more than 3,000 islands to the east of Asia
           extending 1,300 miles between the Sea of Japan and the
           western Pacific Ocean [syn: Japan, Japanese Islands,
           Japanese Archipelago]
      2: a constitutional monarchy occupying the Japanese Archipelago;
         a world leader in electronics and automobile manufacture and
         ship building [syn: Japan, Nippon, Nihon]
      3: lacquerware decorated and varnished in the Japanese manner
         with a glossy durable black lacquer
      4: lacquer with a durable glossy black finish, originally from
         the orient
      v 1: coat with a lacquer, as done in Japan

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Japan
  
     Introduction Japan
     ------------------
                              Background: While retaining its time-honored
                                          culture, Japan rapidly absorbed
                                          Western technology during the late
                                          19th and early 20th centuries. After
                                          its devastating defeat in World War
                                          II, Japan recovered to become the
                                          second most powerful economy in the
                                          world and a staunch ally of the US.
                                          While the emperor retains his throne
                                          as a symbol of national unity,
                                          actual power rests in networks of
                                          powerful politicians, bureaucrats,
                                          and business executives. The economy
                                          experienced a major slowdown in the
                                          1990s following three decades of
                                          unprecedented growth.
    
     Geography Japan
     ---------------
                                Location: Eastern Asia, island chain between
                                          the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea
                                          of Japan, east of the Korean
                                          Peninsula
                  Geographic coordinates: 36 00 N, 138 00 E
                          Map references: Asia
                                    Area: total: 377,835 sq km
                                          note: includes Bonin Islands
                                          (Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto,
                                          Minami-jima, Okino-tori-shima,
                                          Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and
                                          Volcano Islands (Kazan-retto)
                                          water: 3,091 sq km
                                          land: 374,744 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than California
                         Land boundaries: 0 km
                               Coastline: 29,751 km
                         Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM; between 3 NM
                                          and 12 NM in the international
                                          straits - La Perouse or Soya,
                                          Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and
                                          Western Channels of the Korea or
                                          Tsushima Strait
                                          exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                 Climate: varies from tropical in south to
                                          cool temperate in north
                                 Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Hachiro-gata -4 m
                                          highest point: Fujiyama 3,776 m
                       Natural resources: negligible mineral resources, fish
                                Land use: arable land: 12.13%
                                          permanent crops: 1.01%
                                          other: 86.86% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 26,790 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: many dormant and some active
                                          volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic
                                          occurrences (mostly tremors) every
                                          year; tsunamis; typhoons
            Environment - current issues: air pollution from power plant
                                          emissions results in acid rain;
                                          acidification of lakes and
                                          reservoirs degrading water quality
                                          and threatening aquatic life; Japan
                                          is one of the largest consumers of
                                          fish and tropical timber,
                                          contributing to the depletion of
                                          these resources in Asia and
                                          elsewhere
              Environment - international party to: Antarctic-Environmental
                              agreements: Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
                                          Resources, Antarctic Seals,
                                          Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
                                          Climate Change, Desertification,
                                          Endangered Species, Environmental
                                          Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law
                                          of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
                                          Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
                                          Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
                                          Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands,
                                          Whaling
                                          signed, but not ratified: Climate
                                          Change-Kyoto Protocol
                        Geography - note: strategic location in northeast Asia
    
     People Japan
     ------------
                              Population: 126,974,628 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.5% (male 9,465,282;
                                          female 8,999,888)
                                          15-64 years: 67.5% (male 43,027,320;
                                          female 42,586,112)
                                          65 years and over: 18% (male
                                          9,664,112; female 13,231,914) (2002
                                          est.)
                  Population growth rate: 0.15% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 10.03 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 8.53 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 0.96 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 3.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80.91 years
                                          female: 84.25 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 77.73 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.42 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.02% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 10,000 (1999 est.)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 150 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Japanese (singular and plural)
    
                                          adjective: Japanese
                           Ethnic groups: Japanese 99%, others 1% (Korean
                                          511,262, Chinese 244,241, Brazilian
                                          182,232, Filipino 89,851, other
                                          237,914) (2000)
                               Religions: observe both Shinto and Buddhist
                                          84%, other 16% (including Christian
                                          0.7%)
                               Languages: Japanese
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 99% (1970 est.)
                                          male: NA%
                                          female: NA%
    
     Government Japan
     ----------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: none
                                          conventional short form: Japan
                         Government type: constitutional monarchy with a
                                          parliamentary government
                                 Capital: Tokyo
                Administrative divisions: 47 prefectures; Aichi, Akita,
                                          Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui,
                                          Fukuoka, Fukushima, Gifu, Gumma,
                                          Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki,
                                          Ishikawa, Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima,
                                          Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto,
                                          Mie, Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano,
                                          Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita,
                                          Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka, Saga,
                                          Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka,
                                          Tochigi, Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori,
                                          Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata,
                                          Yamaguchi, Yamanashi
                            Independence: 660 BC (traditional founding by
                                          Emperor Jimmu)
                        National holiday: Birthday of Emperor AKIHITO, 23
                                          December (1933)
                            Constitution: 3 May 1947
                            Legal system: modeled after European civil law
                                          system with English-American
                                          influence; judicial review of
                                          legislative acts in the Supreme
                                          Court; accepts compulsory ICJ
                                          jurisdiction, with reservations
                                Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: Emperor AKIHITO
                                          (since 7 January 1989)
                                          note: following the resignation of
                                          Prime Minister Yoshiro MORI,
                                          Junichiro KOIZUMI was elected as the
                                          new president of the majority
                                          Liberal Democratic Party, and soon
                                          thereafter designated by the Diet to
                                          become the next prime minister
                                          elections: none; the monarch is
                                          hereditary; the Diet designates the
                                          prime minister; the constitution
                                          requires that the prime minister
                                          must command a parliamentary
                                          majority, therefore, following
                                          legislative elections, the leader of
                                          the majority party or leader of a
                                          majority coalition in the House of
                                          Representatives usually becomes
                                          prime minister
                                          cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the
                                          prime minister
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Junichiro KOIZUMI (since 24 April
                                          2001)
                      Legislative branch: bicameral Diet or Kokkai consists of
                                          the House of Councillors or Sangi-in
                                          (247 seats - formerly 252; one-half
                                          of the members elected every three
                                          years - 73 seats of which are
                                          elected from the 47 multi-seat
                                          prefectural districts and 48 of
                                          which are elected from a single
                                          nationwide list; members elected by
                                          popular vote to serve six-year
                                          terms) and the House of
                                          Representatives or Shugi-in (480
                                          seats - 180 of which are elected
                                          from 11 regional blocks on a
                                          proportional representation basis
                                          and 300 of which are elected from
                                          300 single-seat districts; members
                                          elected by popular vote to serve
                                          four-year terms)
                                          election results: House of
                                          Councillors - percent of vote by
                                          party - NA%; seats by party - LDP
                                          110, DPJ 59, Komeito 23, JCP 20, SDP
                                          8, Liberal Party 8, Conservative
                                          Party 5, independents 14; note - the
                                          distribution of seats as of January
                                          2002 is: LDP 115, DPJ 60, Komeito
                                          24, JCP 20, SDP 8, Liberal Party 8,
                                          independents 6, others 6; House of
                                          Representatives - percent of vote by
                                          party - NA%; seats by party - LDP
                                          233, DPJ 127, Komeito 31, Liberal
                                          Party 22, JCP 20, SDP 19, other 28;
                                          note - the distribution of seats as
                                          of January 2002 is: LDP 242, DPJ
                                          126, Komeito 31, Liberal Party 22,
                                          JCP 20, SDP 19, NCP 7, other 13
                                          elections: House of Councillors -
                                          last held 29 July 2001 (next to be
                                          held NA July 2004); House of
                                          Representatives - last held 25 June
                                          2000 (next must be held by June
                                          2004, but may occur sooner)
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court (chief justice is
                                          appointed by the monarch after
                                          designation by the cabinet; all
                                          other justices are appointed by the
                                          cabinet)
           Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of Japan or DPJ
                                          [Yukio HATOYAMA, leader, Naoto KAN,
                                          secretary general]; Japan Communist
                                          Party or JCP [Tetsuzo FUWA,
                                          chairman, Tadayeshi ICHIDA,
                                          secretary general]; Komeito
                                          [Takenori KANZAKI, president,
                                          Tetsuzo FUYUSHIBA, secretary
                                          general]; Liberal Democratic Party
                                          or LDP [Junichiro KOIZUMI,
                                          president, Taku YAMASAKI, secretary
                                          general]; Liberal Party [Ichiro
                                          OZAWA, president, Hirohisa FUJII,
                                          secretary general]; New Conservative
                                          Party or NCP [Takeshi NODA,
                                          president, Toshihiro NIKAI,
                                          secretary general]; Social
                                          Democratic Party or SDP [Takako DOI,
                                          chairperson, Mizuho FUKUSHIMA,
                                          secretary general]
            Political pressure groups and NA
                                 leaders:
               International organization AfDB, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner),
                           participation: AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner),
                                          Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE
                                          (observer), CERN (observer), CP,
                                          EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8,
                                          G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
                                          ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
                                          IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
                                          IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest),
                                          NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD,
                                          OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN,
                                          UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
                                          UNITAR, UNMOVIC, UNRWA, UNU, UPU,
                                          WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
                                          WTrO, ZC
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ryozo
                                          KATO
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 328-2187
                                          consulate(s): Saipan (Northern
                                          Mariana Islands)
                                          consulate(s) general: Anchorage,
                                          Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver,
                                          Detroit, Hagatna (Guam), Honolulu,
                                          Houston, Kansas City (Missouri), Los
                                          Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New
                                          York, Portland (Oregon), San
                                          Francisco, and Seattle
                                          chancery: 2520 Massachusetts Avenue
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20008
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 238-6700
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Howard
                                      US: H. BAKER, Jr.
                                          embassy: 1-10-5 Akasaka, Minato-ku,
                                          Tokyo 107-8420
                                          mailing address: Unit 45004, Box
                                          205, APO AP 96337-5004
                                          telephone: [81] (03) 3224-5000
                                          FAX: [81] (03) 3505-1862
                                          consulate(s) general: Naha
                                          (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, Sapporo
                                          consulate(s): Fukuoka, Nagoya
                        Flag description: white with a large red disk
                                          (representing the sun without rays)
                                          in the center
    
     Economy Japan
     -------------
                      Economy - overview: Government-industry cooperation, a
                                          strong work ethic, mastery of high
                                          technology, and a comparatively
                                          small defense allocation (1% of GDP)
                                          have helped Japan advance with
                                          extraordinary rapidity to the rank
                                          of second most technologically
                                          powerful economy in the world after
                                          the US and third largest economy in
                                          the world after the US and China.
                                          One notable characteristic of the
                                          economy is the working together of
                                          manufacturers, suppliers, and
                                          distributors in closely-knit groups
                                          called keiretsu. A second basic
                                          feature has been the guarantee of
                                          lifetime employment for a
                                          substantial portion of the urban
                                          labor force. Both features are now
                                          eroding. Industry, the most
                                          important sector of the economy, is
                                          heavily dependent on imported raw
                                          materials and fuels. The much
                                          smaller agricultural sector is
                                          highly subsidized and protected,
                                          with crop yields among the highest
                                          in the world. Usually self-
                                          sufficient in rice, Japan must
                                          import about 50% of its requirements
                                          of other grain and fodder crops.
                                          Japan maintains one of the world's
                                          largest fishing fleets and accounts
                                          for nearly 15% of the global catch.
                                          For three decades overall real
                                          economic growth had been
                                          spectacular: a 10% average in the
                                          1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s,
                                          and a 4% average in the 1980s.
                                          Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s
                                          largely because of the aftereffects
                                          of overinvestment during the late
                                          1980s and contractionary domestic
                                          policies intended to wring
                                          speculative excesses from the stock
                                          and real estate markets. Government
                                          efforts to revive economic growth
                                          have met with little success and
                                          were further hampered in 2000-01 by
                                          the slowing of the US and Asian
                                          economies. The crowding of habitable
                                          land area and the aging of the
                                          population are two major long-run
                                          problems. Robotics constitutes a key
                                          long-term economic strength, with
                                          Japan possessing 410,000 of the
                                          world's 720,000 "working robots".
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.45
                                          trillion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: -0.3% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $27,200
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 2%
                                          industry: 36%
                                          services: 62% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 4.8%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 21.7% (1993)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 24.9 (1993)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.6% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 67.7 million (December 2000)
             Labor force - by occupation: services 65%, industry 30%,
                                          agriculture 5%
                       Unemployment rate: 4.9% (2001)
                                  Budget: revenues: $441 billion
                                          expenditures: $718 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures
                                          (public works only) of about $84
                                          billion (FY01/02 est.)
                              Industries: among world's largest and
                                          technologically advanced producers
                                          of motor vehicles, electronic
                                          equipment, machine tools, steel and
                                          nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals;
                                          textiles, processed foods
       Industrial production growth rate: -8.3% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 1.015 trillion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 60.69%
                                          hydro: 8.54%
                                          other: 1.82% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 28.95%
               Electricity - consumption: 943.71 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: rice, sugar beets, vegetables,
                                          fruit; pork, poultry, dairy
                                          products, eggs; fish
                                 Exports: $404.6 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: motor vehicles, semiconductors,
                                          office machinery, chemicals
                      Exports - partners: US 29.7%, Taiwan 7.5%, South Korea
                                          6.4%, China 6.3%, Hong Kong 5.7%
                                          (2000 est.)
                                 Imports: $331.6 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals,
                                          textiles, office machinery
                      Imports - partners: US 19%, China 14.5%, South Korea
                                          5.4%, Taiwan 4.7%, Indonesia 4.3%,
                                          Australia 3.9% (2000 est.)
                         Debt - external: $NA
                    Economic aid - donor: ODA, $9.1 billion (1999)
                                Currency: yen (JPY)
                           Currency code: JPY
                          Exchange rates: yen per US dollar - 132.66 (January
                                          2002), 121.53 (2001), 107.77 (2000),
                                          113.91 (1999), 130.91 (1998), 120.99
                                          (1997)
                             Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
    
     Communications Japan
     --------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 60.381 million (1997)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 63.88 million (2000)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: excellent
                                          domestic and international service
                                          domestic: high level of modern
                                          technology and excellent service of
                                          every kind
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific
                                          Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1
                                          Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region),
                                          and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian
                                          Ocean regions); submarine cables to
                                          China, Philippines, Russia, and US
                                          (via Guam) (1999)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 215 plus 370 repeaters, FM 89
                                          plus 485 repeaters, shortwave 21
                                          (2001)
                                  Radios: 120.5 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 211 plus 7,341 repeaters
                                          note: in addition, US Forces are
                                          served by 3 TV stations and 2 TV
                                          cable services (1999)
                             Televisions: 86.5 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .jp
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 73 (2000)
                          Internet users: 47.08 million (2001)
    
     Transportation Japan
     --------------------
                                Railways: total: 23,654 km (15,895 km
                                          electrified)
                                          standard gauge: 3,059 km 1.435-
                                          m gauge (entirely electrified)
                                          narrow gauge: 77 km 1.372-m gauge
                                          (entirely electrified); 20,491 km
                                          1.067-m gauge (12,732 km
                                          electrified); 27 km 0.762-m gauge
                                          (entirely electrified) (2000)
                                Highways: total: 1,152,207 km
                                          paved: 863,003 km (including 6,114
                                          km of expressways)
                                          unpaved: 289,204 km (1997 est.)
                               Waterways: 1,770 km approximately
                                          note: seagoing craft ply all coastal
                                          inland seas
                               Pipelines: crude oil 84 km; petroleum products
                                          322 km; natural gas 1,800 km
                       Ports and harbors: Akita, Amagasaki, Chiba, Hachinohe,
                                          Hakodate, Higashi-Harima, Himeji,
                                          Hiroshima, Kawasaki, Kinuura, Kobe,
                                          Kushiro, Mizushima, Moji, Nagoya,
                                          Osaka, Sakai, Sakaide, Shimizu,
                                          Tokyo, Tomakomai
                         Merchant marine: total: 615 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 10,995,839 GRT/14,405,159
                                          DWT
                                          note: includes some foreign-owned
                                          ships registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: China 1, Panama 1,
                                          Singapore 1 (2002 est.)
                                          ships by type: bulk 133, cargo 48,
                                          chemical tanker 17, combination bulk
                                          24, combination ore/oil 3, container
                                          19, liquefied gas 50, passenger 9,
                                          passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker
                                          189, refrigerated cargo 13, roll on/
                                          roll off 48, short-sea passenger 6,
                                          vehicle carrier 54
                                Airports: 173 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 142
                                          over 3,047 m: 7
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 37
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 30
                                          under 914 m: 31 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 37
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 31
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 3
                                          under 914 m: 27 (2001)
                               Heliports: 16 (2001)
    
     Military Japan
     --------------
                       Military branches: Japan Ground Self-Defense Force
                                          (Army), Japan Maritime Self-Defense
                                          Force (Navy), Japan Air Self-Defense
                                          Force (Air Force), Japanese Coast
                                          Guard
        Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 29,644,498 (2002
                                          est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 25,637,387 (2002
                                 service: est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 765,817 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $40,774.3 million (FY01)
                                  figure:
       Military expenditures - percent of 1% (FY01)
                                     GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Japan
     --------------------------
                Disputes - international: islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and
                                          Shikotan, and the Habomai group
                                          occupied by the Soviet Union in
                                          1945, now administered by Russia,
                                          claimed by Japan; Liancourt Rocks
                                          (Takeshima/Tokdo) disputed with
                                          South Korea; Senkaku Islands (Diaoyu
                                          Tai) claimed by China and Taiwan
    
                                         
  
  

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