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2 definitions found
 for Kazakhstan
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Kazakhstan
      n 1: a landlocked republic to the south of Russia and to the
           northeast of the Caspian Sea; the original Turkic-speaking
           inhabitants were overrun by Mongols in the 13th century; an
           Asian soviet from 1936 to 1991 [syn: Kazakhstan,
           Republic of Kazakhstan, Kazakstan, Kazakh, Kazak]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Kazakhstan
  
     Introduction Kazakhstan
     -----------------------
                              Background: Native Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and
                                          Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated
                                          into the region in the 13th century,
                                          were rarely united as a single
                                          nation. The area was conquered by
                                          Russia in the 18th century and
                                          Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic
                                          in 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s
                                          agricultural "Virgin Lands" program,
                                          Soviet citizens were encouraged to
                                          help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern
                                          pastures. This influx of immigrants
                                          (mostly Russians, but also some
                                          other deported nationalities) skewed
                                          the ethnic mixture and enabled non-
                                          Kazakhs to outnumber natives.
                                          Independence has caused many of
                                          these newcomers to emigrate. Current
                                          issues include: developing a
                                          cohesive national identity;
                                          expanding the development of the
                                          country's vast energy resources and
                                          exporting them to world markets;
                                          achieving a sustainable economic
                                          growth outside the oil, gas, and
                                          mining sectors; and strengthening
                                          relations with neighboring states
                                          and other foreign powers.
    
     Geography Kazakhstan
     --------------------
                                Location: Central Asia, northwest of China
                  Geographic coordinates: 48 00 N, 68 00 E
                          Map references: Asia
                                    Area: total: 2,717,300 sq km
                                          water: 47,500 sq km
                                          land: 2,669,800 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly less than four times the
                                          size of Texas
                         Land boundaries: total: 12,012 km
                                          border countries: China 1,533 km,
                                          Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846
                                          km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan
                                          2,203 km
                               Coastline: 0 km (landlocked); note - Kazakhstan
                                          borders the Aral Sea, now split into
                                          two bodies of water (1,070 km), and
                                          the Caspian Sea (1,894 km)
                         Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
                                 Climate: continental, cold winters and hot
                                          summers, arid and semiarid
                                 Terrain: extends from the Volga to the Altai
                                          Mountains and from the plains in
                                          western Siberia to oases and desert
                                          in Central Asia
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Vpadina Kaundy -132 m
                                          highest point: Khan Tangiri Shyngy
                                          (Pik Khan-Tengri) 6,995 m
                       Natural resources: major deposits of petroleum, natural
                                          gas, coal, iron ore, manganese,
                                          chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper,
                                          molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite,
                                          gold, uranium
                                Land use: arable land: 11.23%
                                          permanent crops: 0.05%
                                          other: 88.72% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 23,320 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: earthquakes in the south, mudslides
                                          around Almaty
            Environment - current issues: radioactive or toxic chemical sites
                                          associated with its former defense
                                          industries and test ranges
                                          throughout the country pose health
                                          risks for humans and animals;
                                          industrial pollution is severe in
                                          some cities; because the two main
                                          rivers which flowed into the Aral
                                          Sea have been diverted for
                                          irrigation, it is drying up and
                                          leaving behind a harmful layer of
                                          chemical pesticides and natural
                                          salts; these substances are then
                                          picked up by the wind and blown into
                                          noxious dust storms; pollution in
                                          the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from
                                          overuse of agricultural chemicals
                                          and salination from poor
                                          infrastructure and wasteful
                                          irrigation practices
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution,
                              agreements: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                          Desertification, Endangered Species,
                                          Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                          Pollution
                                          signed, but not ratified: Climate
                                          Change-Kyoto Protocol
                        Geography - note: landlocked; Russia leases
                                          approximately 6,000 sq km of
                                          territory enclosing the Baykonur
                                          Cosmodrome
    
     People Kazakhstan
     -----------------
                              Population: 16,741,519 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 26% (male 2,212,985;
                                          female 2,141,392)
                                          15-64 years: 66.5% (male 5,393,281;
                                          female 5,731,288)
                                          65 years and over: 7.5% (male
                                          434,879; female 827,694) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 0.1% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 17.83 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 10.69 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: -6.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.53 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 0.92 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 58.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.38 years
                                          female: 69.01 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 58.02 years
                    Total fertility rate: 2.12 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.04% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 3,500 (1999 est.)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Kazakhstani(s)
                                          adjective: Kazakhstani
                           Ethnic groups: Kazakh (Qazaq) 53.4%, Russian 30%,
                                          Ukrainian 3.7%, Uzbek 2.5%, German
                                          2.4%, Uighur 1.4%, other 6.6% (1999
                                          census)
                               Religions: Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%,
                                          Protestant 2%, other 7%
                               Languages: Kazakh (Qazaq, state language)
                                          64.4%, Russian (official, used in
                                          everyday business, designated the
                                          "language of interethnic
                                          communication") 95% (2001 est.)
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 98.4%
                                          male: 99.1%
                                          female: 97.7% (1999 est.)
    
     Government Kazakhstan
     ---------------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          Kazakhstan
                                          conventional short form: Kazakhstan
                                          local long form: Qazaqstan
                                          Respublikasy
                                          former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist
                                          Republic
                                          local short form: none
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Astana; note - the government moved
                                          from Almaty to Astana in December
                                          1998
                Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (oblystar, singular -
                                          oblys) and 3 cities* (qala, singular
                                          - qalasy); Almaty Oblysy, Almaty
                                          Qalasy*, Aqmola Oblysy (Astana),
                                          Aqtobe Oblysy, Astana Qalasy*,
                                          Atyrau Oblysy, Batys Qazaqstan
                                          Oblysy (Oral), Bayqongyr Qalasy*,
                                          Mangghystau Oblysy (Aqtau),
                                          Ongtustik Qazaqstan Oblysy
                                          (Shymkent), Pavlodar Oblysy,
                                          Qaraghandy Oblysy, Qostanay Oblysy,
                                          Qyzylorda Oblysy, Shyghys Qazaqstan
                                          Oblysy (Oskemen), Soltustik
                                          Qazaqstan Oblysy (Petropavlovsk),
                                          Zhambyl Oblysy (Taraz)
                                          note: administrative divisions have
                                          the same names as their
                                          administrative centers (exceptions
                                          have the administrative center name
                                          following in parentheses); in 1995
                                          the Governments of Kazakhstan and
                                          Russia entered into an agreement
                                          whereby Russia would lease for a
                                          period of 20 years an area of 6,000
                                          sq km enclosing the Baykonur space
                                          launch facilities and the city of
                                          Bayqongyr (Baykonyr, formerly
                                          Leninsk)
                            Independence: 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet
                                          Union)
                        National holiday: Republic Day, 25 October (1990)
                            Constitution: adopted by national referendum 30
                                          August 1995; first post-independence
                                          constitution was adopted 28 January
                                          1993
                            Legal system: based on civil law system
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Nursultan
                                          A. NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the
                                          Supreme Soviet from 22 February
                                          1990, elected president 1 December
                                          1991)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Imangali TASMAGAMBETOV (since 28
                                          January 2002)
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          appointed by the president
                                          election results: Nursultan A.
                                          NAZARBAYEV reelected president;
                                          percent of vote - Nursultan A.
                                          NAZARBAYEV 81.7%, Serikbolsyn
                                          ABDILDIN 12.1%, Gani KASYMOV 4.7%,
                                          Engels GABBASSOV 1.5%
                                          note: President NAZARBAYEV expanded
                                          his presidential powers by decree:
                                          only he can initiate constitutional
                                          amendments, appoint and dismiss the
                                          government, dissolve Parliament,
                                          call referenda at his discretion,
                                          and appoint administrative heads of
                                          regions and cities
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a seven-year term;
                                          election last held 10 January 1999,
                                          a year before it was previously
                                          scheduled (next to be held NA 2006);
                                          note - President NAZARBAYEV's
                                          previous term was extended to 2000
                                          by a nationwide referendum held 30
                                          April 1995; prime minister and first
                                          deputy prime minister appointed by
                                          the president
                      Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the
                                          Senate (39 seats - previously 47
                                          seats; 7 senators are appointed by
                                          the president; other members are
                                          popularly elected, two from each of
                                          the 14 oblasts, the capital of
                                          Astana, and the city of Almaty, to
                                          serve six-year terms) and the
                                          Majilis (77 seats; 10 out of the 77
                                          Majilis members are elected from the
                                          winning party's lists; members are
                                          popularly elected to serve five-year
                                          terms)
                                          election results: note - the
                                          election results are for the old
                                          Senate structure; Senate - percent
                                          of vote by party - NA%; seats by
                                          party - NA; 16 seats up for election
                                          in 1999, candidates nominated by
                                          local councils; Majilis - percent of
                                          vote by party - NA%; seats by party
                                          - Otan 23, Civic Party 13, Communist
                                          Party 3, Agrarian Party 3, People's
                                          Cooperative Party 1, independents
                                          34; note - most independent
                                          candidates are affiliated with
                                          parastatal enterprises and other
                                          pro-government institutions
                                          elections: Senate - (indirect) last
                                          held 17 September 1999 (next to be
                                          held NA December 2005); Majilis -
                                          last held 10 and 24 October and 26
                                          December 1999 (next to be held NA
                                          2004)
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court (44 members);
                                          Constitutional Council (7 members)
           Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party [Romin MADINOV];
                                          Alash [Sabet-Kazy AKATAY]; AZAMAT
                                          "Citizen" Movement [Petr SVOIK,
                                          Murat AUEZOV, and Galym ABILSEITOV,
                                          cochairmen]; Civic Party [Azat
                                          PERUASHEV, first secretary];
                                          Communist Party or KPK [Serikbolsyn
                                          ABDILDIN, first secretary]; Forum of
                                          Democratic Forces [a union of
                                          opposition parties, movements, and
                                          NGOs which includes Communists,
                                          RNPK, Orleu "Development" Movement,
                                          Pokoleniye "Generation" Pensioners'
                                          Movement, Labor Movement,
                                          Association of Independent Mass
                                          Media of Central Asia, and the
                                          Tabighat "Nature" Ecological
                                          Movement]; Labor and Worker's
                                          Movement [Madel ISMAILOV, chairman];
                                          Orleu "Development" Movement
                                          [Seidakhmet KUTTYKADAM]; Otan
                                          "Fatherland" [Sergei TERESCHENKO,
                                          chairman]; Pensioners Movement or
                                          Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA,
                                          chairwoman]; People's Congress of
                                          Kazakhstan of NKK [Olzhas
                                          SULEIMENOV, chairman]; People's
                                          Cooperative Party of Kazakhstan
                                          [Umirzak SARSENOV]; Republican
                                          People's Party of Kazakhstan or RNPK
                                          [Akezhan KAZHEGELDIN]; Socialist
                                          Party [Petr SVOIK]; United
                                          Democratic Party (a new party not
                                          yet registered) [leader NA]
            Political pressure groups and Adil-Soz [Tamara KALEYEVA];
                                 leaders: Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan
                                          [Galymzhan ZHAKIYANOV, Uraz
                                          ZHANDOSOV, Nurzhan SUBKHANBERDIN,
                                          Mukhtar ABLYAZOV, Zhanat YERTLESOVA,
                                          Bulat ABILOV, cofounders];
                                          Kazakhstan International Bureau on
                                          Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS,
                                          executive director]
               International organization AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
                           participation: ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
                                          IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS
                                          (associate), ILO, IMF, IMO,
                                          Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
                                          ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer),
                                          OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
                                          UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
                                          WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kanat
                                          B. SAUDABAYEV
                                          chancery: 1401 16th Street NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20036
                                          consulate(s): New York
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 232-5845
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 232-5488
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Larry
                                      US: C. NAPPER
                                          embassy: 99/97A Furmanova Street,
                                          Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan
                                          480091
                                          mailing address: American Embassy
                                          Almaty, Department of State,
                                          Washington, DC 20521-7030
                                          telephone: [7] (3272) 63-39-21, 50-
                                          76-23, 50-76-27 (emergency number)
                                          FAX: [7] (3272) 63-38-83, 50-76-24
                        Flag description: sky blue background representing the
                                          endless sky and a gold sun with 32
                                          rays soaring above a golden steppe
                                          eagle in the center; on the hoist
                                          side is a "national ornamentation"
                                          in gold
    
     Economy Kazakhstan
     ------------------
                      Economy - overview: Kazakhstan, the largest of the
                                          former Soviet republics in
                                          territory, excluding Russia,
                                          possesses enormous fossil fuel
                                          reserves as well as plentiful
                                          supplies of other minerals and
                                          metals. It also is a large
                                          agricultural - livestock and grain -
                                          producer. Kazakhstan's industrial
                                          sector rests on the extraction and
                                          processing of these natural
                                          resources and also on a growing
                                          machine-building sector specializing
                                          in construction equipment, tractors,
                                          agricultural machinery, and some
                                          defense items. The breakup of the
                                          USSR in December 1991 and the
                                          collapse in demand for Kazakhstan's
                                          traditional heavy industry products
                                          resulted in a short-term contraction
                                          of the economy, with the steepest
                                          annual decline occurring in 1994. In
                                          1995-97, the pace of the government
                                          program of economic reform and
                                          privatization quickened, resulting
                                          in a substantial shifting of assets
                                          into the private sector. Kazakhstan
                                          has enjoyed double-digit growth in
                                          2000-01 thanks largely to its
                                          booming energy sector, but also to
                                          economic reform, good harvests, and
                                          foreign investment. The opening of
                                          the Caspian Consortium pipeline in
                                          2001, from western Kazakhstan's
                                          Tengiz oilfield to the Black Sea,
                                          substantially raises export
                                          capacity. Astana has embarked upon
                                          an industrial policy designed to
                                          diversify the economy away from
                                          overdependence on the oil sector by
                                          developing light industry.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $98.1
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 12.2% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,900
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10%
                                          industry: 30%
                                          services: 60% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 26% (2001 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.8%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 27.3% (2001)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 35.4 (1996)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.5% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 8.4 million (1999)
             Labor force - by occupation: industry 30%, agriculture 20%,
                                          services 50% (2001 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 10% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $4.2 billion
                                          expenditures: $5.1 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2001 est.)
                              Industries: oil, coal, iron ore, manganese,
                                          chromite, lead, zinc, copper,
                                          titanium, bauxite, gold, silver,
                                          phosphates, sulfur, iron and steel,
                                          tractors and other agricultural
                                          machinery, electric motors,
                                          construction materials
       Industrial production growth rate: 11.4% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 48.692 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 86.4%
                                          hydro: 13.6%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 48.336 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 50 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 3.102 billion kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: grain (mostly spring wheat), cotton;
                                          wool, livestock
                                 Exports: $10.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: oil and oil products 52.8%, ferrous
                                          metals 12.9%, machinery, chemicals,
                                          grain, wool, meat, coal (2000)
                      Exports - partners: Russia 19.5%, China 7.3%, Germany
                                          6.2% (2000)
                                 Imports: $8.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and parts 29.5%, energy
                                          and fuels 11.3%, electrical
                                          equipment 8.8%, vehicles 8.7%,
                                          ferrous metals 6.4% (2000)
                      Imports - partners: Russia 48.7%, Germany 6.6%, US 5.5%
                                          (2000)
                         Debt - external: $11.6 billion (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $610 million in US assistance
                                          programs, 1992-2000
                                Currency: tenge (KZT)
                           Currency code: KZT
                          Exchange rates: tenge per US dollar - 151.14
                                          (January 2002), 146.74 (2001),
                                          142.13 (2000), 119.52 (1999), 78.30
                                          (1998), 75.44 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
    
     Communications Kazakhstan
     -------------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 1.92 million (2001)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 400,000 (2001)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: service is poor;
                                          equipment antiquated
                                          domestic: intercity by landline and
                                          microwave radio relay; mobile
                                          cellular systems are available in
                                          most of Kazakhstan
                                          international: international traffic
                                          with other former Soviet republics
                                          and China carried by landline and
                                          microwave radio relay; with other
                                          countries by satellite and by the
                                          Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic
                                          cable; satellite earth stations - 2
                                          Intelsat
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 60, FM 17, shortwave 9 (1998)
                                  Radios: 6.47 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 12 (plus nine repeaters) (1998)
                             Televisions: 3.88 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .kz
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 10 (with their own international
                                          channels) (2001)
                          Internet users: 85,000 (2001)
    
     Transportation Kazakhstan
     -------------------------
                                Railways: total: 13,601 km in common carrier
                                          service; does not include industrial
                                          lines
                                          broad gauge: 13,601 km 1.520-m gauge
                                          (3,661 km electrified) (2001)
                                Highways: total: 189,000 km
                                          paved: 108,100 km (includes some
                                          all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)
                                          unpaved: 80,900 km (these roads are
                                          made of unstabilized earth and are
                                          difficult to negotiate in wet
                                          weather) (1990)
                               Waterways: 3,900 km
                                          note: on the Syr Darya (Syrdariya)
                                          and Ertis (Irtysh) rivers
                               Pipelines: crude oil 2,850 km; refined products
                                          1,500 km; natural gas 3,480 km
                                          (1992)
                       Ports and harbors: Aqtau (Shevchenko), Atyrau
                                          (Gur'yev), Oskemen (Ust-
                                          Kamenogorsk), Pavlodar, Semey
                                          (Semipalatinsk)
                         Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 1,064 GRT/646 DWT
                                          note: includes a foreign-owned ship
                                          registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: United States 1 (2002
                                          est.)
                                          ships by type: roll on/roll off 1
                                Airports: 449 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 28
                                          over 3,047 m: 6
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 14
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
                                          under 914 m: 3 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 421
                                          over 3,047 m: 11
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 18
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 45
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 101
                                          under 914 m: 246 (2001)
    
     Military Kazakhstan
     -------------------
                       Military branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense
                                          Forces, Naval Force, Border Service,
                                          Republican Guard
        Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 4,545,168 (2002
                                          est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 3,629,219 (2002
                                 service: est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 163,628 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $173 million (Ministry of Defense
                                  figure: expenditures) (FY01)
       Military expenditures - percent of 1% (Ministry of Defense
                                     GDP: expenditures) (FY01)
    
     Transnational Issues Kazakhstan
     -------------------------------
                Disputes - international: Kazakhstan is working rapidly with
                                          China and Russia to delimit its
                                          large open borders to control
                                          population migration, illegal
                                          activities, and trade; signed
                                          bilateral agreement with Russia
                                          delimiting the Caspian Sea seabed,
                                          but littoral states are far from any
                                          multilateral agreement on dividing
                                          the waters and seabed regimes - Iran
                                          insists on division of Caspian Sea
                                          into five equal sectors while
                                          Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and
                                          Turkmenistan have generally agreed
                                          upon equidistant seabed boundaries;
                                          border largely delimited with
                                          Uzbekistan, but unresolved dispute
                                          remains over sovereignty of two
                                          border villages, Bagys and
                                          Turkestan, and around the Arnasay
                                          dam; Kazakhstan, Tajikistan,
                                          Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan wrestle
                                          with sharing limited water resources
                                          and the regional environmental
                                          degradation caused by the shrinking
                                          of the Aral Sea; disputes with
                                          Kyrgyzstan over providing water and
                                          hydropower to Kazakhstan
                           Illicit drugs: significant illicit cultivation of
                                          cannabis and limited cultivation of
                                          opium poppy and ephedra (for the
                                          drug ephedrone); limited government
                                          eradication program; cannabis
                                          consumed largely in the CIS; used as
                                          transshipment point for illicit
                                          drugs to Russia, North America, and
                                          Western Europe from Southwest Asia;
                                          developing heroin addiction problem
    
                                         
  
  

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