dict.org

The DICT Development Group


Search for:
Search type:
Database:

Database copyright information
Server information
Wiki: Resources, links, and other information


2 definitions found
 for Latvia
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Latvia
      n 1: a republic in northeastern Europe on the eastern coast of
           the Baltic Sea [syn: Latvia, Republic of Latvia]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Latvia
  
     Introduction Latvia
     -------------------
                              Background: After a brief period of independence
                                          between the two World Wars, Latvia
                                          was annexed by the USSR in 1940. It
                                          reestablished its independence in
                                          1991 following the breakup of the
                                          Soviet Union. Although the last
                                          Russian troops left in 1994, the
                                          status of the Russian minority (some
                                          30% of the population) remains of
                                          concern to Moscow. Latvia continues
                                          to revamp its economy for eventual
                                          integration into various Western
                                          European political and economic
                                          institutions.
    
     Geography Latvia
     ----------------
                                Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic
                                          Sea, between Estonia and Lithuania
                  Geographic coordinates: 57 00 N, 25 00 E
                          Map references: Europe
                                    Area: total: 64,589 sq km
                                          water: 1,000 sq km
                                          land: 63,589 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia
                         Land boundaries: total: 1,150 km
                                          border countries: Belarus 141 km,
                                          Estonia 339 km, Lithuania 453 km,
                                          Russia 217 km
                               Coastline: 531 km
                         Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to
                                          the depth of exploitation
                                          exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: maritime; wet, moderate winters
                                 Terrain: low plain
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
                                          highest point: Gaizinkalns 312 m
                       Natural resources: peat, limestone, dolomite,
                                          hydropower, wood, arable land,
                                          minimal; amber
                                Land use: arable land: 29.01%
                                          permanent crops: 0.48%
                                          other: 70.51% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 200 sq km
                                          note: land in Latvia is often too
                                          wet, and in need of drainage, not
                                          irrigation; approximately 16,000 sq
                                          km or 85% of agricultural land has
                                          been improved by drainage (1998
                                          est.)
                         Natural hazards: NA
            Environment - current issues: Latvia's environment has benefited
                                          from a shift to service industries
                                          after the country regained
                                          independence; the main environmental
                                          priorities are improvement of
                                          drinking water quality and sewage
                                          system, household and hazardous
                                          waste management, and reduction of
                                          air pollution; in 2001, Latvia
                                          closed the EU accession negotiation
                                          chapter on environment committing to
                                          full enforcement of EU environmental
                                          directives by 2010
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution,
                              agreements: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                          Endangered Species, Hazardous
                                          Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                          Pollution, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: Air
                                          Pollution-Persistent Organic
                                          Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto
                                          Protocol
                        Geography - note: most of the country is composed of
                                          fertile, low-lying plains, with some
                                          hills in the east
    
     People Latvia
     -------------
                              Population: 2,366,515 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.8% (male 191,116;
                                          female 182,692)
                                          15-64 years: 68.6% (male 775,481;
                                          female 847,261)
                                          65 years and over: 15.6% (male
                                          120,304; female 249,661) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: -0.77% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 8.27 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 14.74 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: -1.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 0.85 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 14.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69 years
                                          female: 75.17 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 63.13 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.18 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.12% (2001 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 1,792 (15 January 2002)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 36 (15 January 2002)
                             Nationality: noun: Latvian(s)
                                          adjective: Latvian
                           Ethnic groups: Latvian 57.7%, Russian 29.6%,
                                          Belarusian 4.1%, Ukrainian 2.7%,
                                          Polish 2.5%, Lithuanian 1.4%, other
                                          2%
                               Religions: Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Russian
                                          Orthodox
                               Languages: Latvian (official), Lithuanian,
                                          Russian, other
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 99.8%
                                          male: NA%
                                          female: NA%
    
     Government Latvia
     -----------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          Latvia
                                          conventional short form: Latvia
                                          local short form: Latvija
                                          former: Latvian Soviet Socialist
                                          Republic
                                          local long form: Latvijas Republika
                         Government type: parliamentary democracy
                                 Capital: Riga
                Administrative divisions: 26 counties (singular - rajons) and
                                          7 municipalities*: Aizkraukles
                                          Rajons, Aluksnes Rajons, Balvu
                                          Rajons, Bauskas Rajons, Cesu Rajons,
                                          Daugavpils*, Daugavpils Rajons,
                                          Dobeles Rajons, Gulbenes Rajons,
                                          Jekabpils Rajons, Jelgava*, Jelgavas
                                          Rajons, Jurmala*, Kraslavas Rajons,
                                          Kuldigas Rajons, Liepaja*, Liepajas
                                          Rajons, Limbazu Rajons, Ludzas
                                          Rajons, Madonas Rajons, Ogres
                                          Rajons, Preilu Rajons, Rezekne*,
                                          Rezeknes Rajons, Riga*, Rigas
                                          Rajons, Saldus Rajons, Talsu Rajons,
                                          Tukuma Rajons, Valkas Rajons,
                                          Valmieras Rajons, Ventspils*,
                                          Ventspils Rajons
                            Independence: 21 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 18 November
                                          (1918); note - 18 November 1918 is
                                          the date of independence from Soviet
                                          Russia, 21 August 1991 is the date
                                          of independence from the Soviet
                                          Union
                            Constitution: the 1991 Constitutional Law which
                                          supplements the 1922 constitution,
                                          provides for basic rights and
                                          freedoms
                            Legal system: based on civil law system
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal for
                                          Latvian citizens
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Vaira
                                          VIKE-FREIBERGA (since 8 July 1999)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Andris BERZINS (since 5 May 2000)
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          nominated by the prime minister and
                                          appointed by the Parliament
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          Parliament for a four-year term;
                                          election last held 17 June 1999
                                          (next to be held by June 2003);
                                          prime minister appointed by the
                                          president
                                          election results: Vaira VIKE-
                                          FREIBERGA elected as a compromise
                                          candidate in second phase of
                                          balloting, second round (after five
                                          rounds in first phase failed to
                                          produce a clear winner); percent of
                                          parliamentary vote - Vaira VIKE-
                                          FREIBERGA 53%, Valdis BIRKAVS 20%,
                                          Ingrida UDRE 9%
                      Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Saeima (100
                                          seats; members are elected by
                                          direct, popular vote to serve four-
                                          year terms)
                                          elections: last held 3 October 1998
                                          (next to be held NA October 2002)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - People's Party 21%, LC 18%,
                                          TSP 14%, TB/LNNK 14%, Social
                                          Democrats 13%, New Party 7%; seats
                                          by party - People's Party 24, LC 21,
                                          TB/LNNK 17, TSP 16, Social Democrats
                                          14, New Party 8
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges' appointments
                                          are confirmed by Parliament)
           Political parties and leaders: Anticommunist Union or PA [P.
                                          MUCENIEKS]; Christian Democrat Union
                                          or LKDS [Talavs JUNDZIS]; Christian
                                          People's Party or KTP [Uldis
                                          AUGSTKALNS]; Democratic Party
                                          "Saimnieks" or DPS [Ziedonis CEVERS,
                                          chairman]; For Fatherland and
                                          Freedom or TB [Maris GRINBLATS],
                                          merged with LNNK; For Human Rights
                                          in a United Latvia [Janis JURKANS],
                                          a coalition of the People's Harmony
                                          Party or TSP, the Latvian Socialist
                                          Party or LSP, and the Equal Rights
                                          Movement; Green Party or LZP [Olegs
                                          BATAREVSKI]; Latvian Liberal Party
                                          or LLP [J. DANOSS]; Latvian National
                                          Conservative Party or LNNK [Andrejs
                                          KRASTINS]; Latvian National
                                          Democratic Party or LNDP [A.
                                          MALINS]; Latvian Social-Democratic
                                          Workers Party (Social Democrats) or
                                          LSDWU [Juris BOJARS and Janis
                                          ADAMSONS]; Latvian Unity Party or
                                          LVP [Alberis KAULS]; Latvia's Way or
                                          LC [Andrei PANTELEJEVS]; New
                                          Christian Party [Ainars SLESERS];
                                          New Faction [Ingrida UDRE]; New
                                          Party [leader NA]; New Times Party
                                          [Einars REPSE]; "Our Land" or MZ [M.
                                          DAMBEKALNE]; Party of Russian
                                          Citizens or LKPP [V. SOROCHIN, V.
                                          IVANOV]; People's Party [Andris
                                          SKELE]; Political Union of
                                          Economists or TPA [Edvins KIDE]
            Political pressure groups and NA
                                 leaders:
               International organization BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
                           participation: EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD,
                                          ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS,
                                          ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
                                          ISO (correspondent), ITU, NSG, OAS
                                          (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP,
                                          UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WEU
                                          (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO,
                                          WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Aivis
                                          RONIS
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 726-6785
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 726-8213, 8214
                                          chancery: 4325 17th Street NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20011
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Brian
                                      US: E. CARLSON
                                          embassy: 7 Raina Boulevard, Riga LV-
                                          1510
                                          mailing address: American Embassy
                                          Riga, PSC 78, Box Riga, APO AE 09723
    
                                          telephone: [371] 721-0005
                                          FAX: [371] 782-0047
                        Flag description: three horizontal bands of maroon
                                          (top), white (half-width), and
                                          maroon
    
     Economy Latvia
     --------------
                      Economy - overview: Latvia's transitional economy
                                          recovered from the 1998 Russian
                                          financial crisis, largely due to the
                                          SKELE government's budget stringency
                                          and a gradual reorientation of
                                          exports toward EU countries,
                                          lessening Latvia's trade dependency
                                          on Russia. The majority of
                                          companies, banks, and real estate
                                          have been privatized. Latvia
                                          officially joined the World Trade
                                          Organization in February 1999 - the
                                          first Baltic state to join - and was
                                          invited at the Helsinki EU Summit in
                                          December 1999 to begin accession
                                          talks in early 2000. Preparing for
                                          EU membership over the next few
                                          years remains a top foreign policy
                                          goal. The high current account
                                          deficit remains a major concern.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $18.6
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 6.3% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,800
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 5%
                                          industry: 24%
                                          services: 71% (2000)
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.9%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 25.9% (1998)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 32 (1999)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2001)
                             Labor force: 1.1 million (2001 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 15%, industry 25%,
                                          services 60% (2000 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 7.6% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $2.4 billion
                                          expenditures: $2.6 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2002 est.)
                              Industries: buses, vans, street and railroad
                                          cars, synthetic fibers, agricultural
                                          machinery, fertilizers, washing
                                          machines, radios, electronics,
                                          pharmaceuticals, processed foods,
                                          textiles; note - dependent on
                                          imports for energy and raw materials
       Industrial production growth rate: 6.4% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 3.301 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 33.02%
                                          hydro: 66.98%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 5.16 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 500 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 2.59 billion kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: grain, sugar beets, potatoes,
                                          vegetables; beef, pork, milk, eggs;
                                          fish
                                 Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Exports - commodities: wood and wood products, machinery
                                          and equipment, metals, textiles,
                                          foodstuffs
                      Exports - partners: Germany 17%, UK 16%, Sweden 10%,
                                          Lithuania 8% (2001 est.)
                                 Imports: $3.3 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals,
                                          fuels, vehicles
                      Imports - partners: Germany 17%, Russia 9%, Lithuania
                                          8%, Finland 8%, Sweden 7% (2001
                                          est.)
                         Debt - external: $2.6 billion (2000 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $96.2 million (1995)
                                Currency: Latvian lat (LVL)
                           Currency code: LVL
                          Exchange rates: lati per US dollar - 0.6384 (January
                                          2002), 0.628 (2001), 0.607 (2000),
                                          0.585 (1999), 0.590 (1998), 0.581
                                          (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
    
     Communications Latvia
     ---------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 734,693 (2000)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 401,263 (2000)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate, but
                                          is being modernized to provide an
                                          international capability independent
                                          of the Moscow international switch;
                                          more facilities are being installed
                                          for individual use
                                          domestic: expansion underway in
                                          intercity trunk line connections,
                                          rural exchanges, and mobile systems;
                                          still many unsatisfied subscriber
                                          applications
                                          international: international
                                          connections are now available via
                                          cable and a satellite earth station
                                          at Riga, enabling direct connections
                                          for most calls (1998)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 56, shortwave 1 (1998)
                                  Radios: 1.76 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 44 (plus 31 repeaters) (1995)
                             Televisions: 1.22 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .lv
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 41 (2001)
                          Internet users: 310,000 (2001)
    
     Transportation Latvia
     ---------------------
                                Railways: total: 2,412 km
                                          broad gauge: 2,379 km 1.520-m gauge
                                          (271 km electrified)
                                          narrow gauge: 33 km 0.750-m gauge
                                          (2001)
                                Highways: total: 59,178 km
                                          paved: 22,843 km
                                          unpaved: 36,335 km (1998 est.)
                               Waterways: 300 km (perennially navigable)
                               Pipelines: crude oil 750 km; refined products
                                          780 km; natural gas 560 km (1992)
                       Ports and harbors: Liepaja, Riga, Ventspils
                         Merchant marine: total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 30,119 GRT/30,572 DWT
                                          note: includes some foreign-owned
                                          ships registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: Greece 3 (2002 est.)
                                          ships by type: cargo 1, petroleum
                                          tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 4
                                Airports: 25 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 13
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 1
                                          under 914 m: 4 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 12
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 2
                                          under 914 m: 7 (2001)
    
     Military Latvia
     ---------------
                       Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air
                                          Defense Forces, Border Guard,
                                          National Guard
        Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 591,592 (2002 est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 464,843 (2002 est.)
                                 service:
             Military manpower - reaching males: 19,114 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $87 million (FY01)
                                  figure:
       Military expenditures - percent of 1.2% (FY01)
                                     GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Latvia
     ---------------------------
                 Disputes - international: the Russian Duma refuses to ratify
                                           boundary delimitation treaty with
                                           Latvia; the Latvian Parliament has
                                           not ratified its 1998 maritime
                                           boundary treaty with Lithuania,
                                           primarily due to concerns over oil
                                           exploration rights
                            Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and
                                           cannabis from Central and Southwest
                                           Asia to Western Europe and
                                           Scandinavia and Latin American
                                           cocaine and some synthetics from
                                           Western Europe to CIS
    
                                         
  
  

Questions or comments about this site? Contact webmaster@dict.org