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2 definitions found
 for Moldova
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Moldova
      n 1: a landlocked republic in eastern Europe; formerly a
           European soviet but achieved independence in 1991 [syn:
           Moldova, Republic of Moldova, Moldavia]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Moldova
  
     Introduction Moldova
     --------------------
                              Background: Formerly ruled by Romania, Moldova
                                          became part of the Soviet Union at
                                          the close of World War II. Although
                                          independent from the USSR since
                                          1991, Russian forces have remained
                                          on Moldovan territory east of the
                                          Dniester River supporting the Slavic
                                          majority population, mostly
                                          Ukrainians and Russians, who have
                                          proclaimed a "Transnistria"
                                          republic. One of the poorest nations
                                          in Europe, Moldova became the first
                                          former Soviet state to elect a
                                          Communist as its president in 2001.
    
     Geography Moldova
     -----------------
                                Location: Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
                  Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 29 00 E
                          Map references: Europe
                                    Area: total: 33,843 sq km
                                          water: 472 sq km
                                          land: 33,371 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly larger than Maryland
                         Land boundaries: total: 1,389 km
                                          border countries: Romania 450 km,
                                          Ukraine 939 km
                               Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
                         Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
                                 Climate: moderate winters, warm summers
                                 Terrain: rolling steppe, gradual slope south
                                          to Black Sea
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Dniester River 2 m
                                          highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430
                                          m
                       Natural resources: lignite, phosphorites, gypsum,
                                          arable land, limestone
                                Land use: arable land: 54.08%
                                          permanent crops: 12.1%
                                          other: 33.82% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 3,070 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: landslides (57 cases in 1998)
            Environment - current issues: heavy use of agricultural chemicals,
                                          including banned pesticides such as
                                          DDT, has contaminated soil and
                                          groundwater; extensive soil erosion
                                          from poor farming methods
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution,
                              agreements: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                          Desertification, Endangered Species,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer
                                          Protection, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: Air
                                          Pollution-Persistent Organic
                                          Pollutants
                        Geography - note: landlocked; well endowed with
                                          various sedimentary rocks and
                                          minerals including sand, gravel,
                                          gypsum, and limestone
    
     People Moldova
     --------------
                              Population: 4,434,547 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 21.7% (male 490,414;
                                          female 472,912)
                                          15-64 years: 68.2% (male 1,451,962;
                                          female 1,572,561)
                                          65 years and over: 10.1% (male
                                          165,860; female 280,838) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 0.09% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 13.82 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 12.64 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: -0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 0.91 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 42.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.74 years
                                          female: 69.31 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 60.39 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 4,500 (1999 est.)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Moldovan(s)
                                          adjective: Moldovan
                           Ethnic groups: Moldovan/Romanian 64.5%, Ukrainian
                                          13.8%, Russian 13%, Jewish 1.5%,
                                          Bulgarian 2%, Gagauz and other 5.2%
                                          (1989 est.)
                                          note: internal disputes with ethnic
                                          Slavs in the Transnistrian region
                               Religions: Eastern Orthodox 98.5%, Jewish 1.5%,
                                          Baptist (only about 1,000 members)
                                          (1991)
                               Languages: Moldovan (official, virtually the
                                          same as the Romanian language),
                                          Russian (official), Gagauz (a
                                          Turkish dialect)
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 96%
                                          male: 99%
                                          female: 94% (1989 est.)
    
     Government Moldova
     ------------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          Moldova
                                          conventional short form: Moldova
                                          local short form: none
                                          former: Soviet Socialist Republic of
                                          Moldova; Moldavia
                                          local long form: Republica Moldova
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Chisinau
                Administrative divisions: 9 counties (juletule, singular -
                                          juletul), 1 municipality*
                                          (municipiul), 1 autonomous
                                          territorial unit** (unitate
                                          teritoriala autonoma), and 1
                                          territorial unit*** (unitate
                                          teritoriala); Balti, Cahul,
                                          Chisinau, Chisinau*, Edinet,
                                          Gagauzia**, Lapusna, Orhei, Soroca,
                                          Stinga Nistrului***, Tighina,
                                          Ungheni
                            Independence: 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 27 August (1991)
                            Constitution: new constitution adopted 28 July
                                          1994; replaces old Soviet
                                          constitution of 1979
                            Legal system: based on civil law system;
                                          Constitutional Court reviews
                                          legality of legislative acts and
                                          governmental decisions of
                                          resolution; it is unclear if Moldova
                                          accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
                                          but accepts many UN and Organization
                                          for Security and Cooperation in
                                          Europe (OSCE) documents
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Vladimir
                                          VORONIN (since 4 April 2001)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Vasile TARLEV (since 15 April 2001),
                                          First Deputy Prime Minister Vasile
                                          IOVV (since NA 2002), Deputy Prime
                                          Minister Stefan ODAGIU (since NA
                                          2002)
                                          cabinet: selected by prime minister,
                                          subject to approval of Parliament
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          Parliament for a four-year term;
                                          election last held 4 April 2001
                                          (next to be held NA 2005); note -
                                          presidential elections were
                                          scheduled for December 2000, but in
                                          July 2000, Parliament canceled
                                          direct, popular elections;
                                          Parliament's failure to chose a new
                                          president in December 2000 led to
                                          early parliamentary elections in
                                          February 2001; prime minister
                                          designated by the president, upon
                                          consultation with Parliament; note -
                                          within 15 days from designation, the
                                          prime minister-designate must
                                          request a vote of confidence from
                                          the Parliament regarding his/her
                                          work program and entire cabinet;
                                          prime minister designated 15 April
                                          2001, cabinet received a vote of
                                          confidence 19 April 2001
                                          election results: Vladimir VORONIN
                                          elected president; parliamentary
                                          votes - Vladimir VORONIN 71, Dumitru
                                          BRAGHIS 15, Valerian CHRISTEA 3;
                                          Vasile TARLEV designated prime
                                          minister; parliamentary votes of
                                          confidence - 75 of 101
                      Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul
                                          (101 seats; parties and electoral
                                          blocs, as well as independent
                                          candidates, elected by popular vote
                                          to serve four-year terms)
                                          elections: last held 25 February
                                          2001 (next to be held NA 2005)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - PCM 50.1%, Braghis Alliance
                                          13.4%, PPCD 8.2%, other parties
                                          28.3%; seats by party - PCM 71,
                                          Braghis Alliance 19, PPCD 11
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court
                                          (the sole authority for
                                          constitutional judicature)
           Political parties and leaders: Braghis Alliance [Dumitru BRAGHIS];
                                          Communist Party or PCM [Vladimir
                                          VORONIN, first chairman]; Popular
                                          Christian Democratic Party or PPCD
                                          [Iurie ROSCA]; Social Democratic
                                          Union (composed of Braghis Alliance
                                          and the Democratic Party of Moldova)
                                          [leader NA]
            Political pressure groups and NA
                                 leaders:
               International organization ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, CIS,
                           participation: EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD,
                                          ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
                                          ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM
                                          (observer), ISO (correspondent),
                                          ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
                                          UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
                                          WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mihai
                                          MANOLI
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
                                          chancery: 2101 S Street NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20008
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela
                                      US: Hyde SMITH
                                          embassy: 103 Mateevicie Street,
                                          Chisinau 2009
                                          mailing address: use embassy street
                                          address; pouch address - American
                                          Embassy Chisinau, Department of
                                          State, Washington, DC 20521-7080
                                          telephone: [373] (2) 23-37-72
                                          FAX: [373] (2) 23-30-44
                        Flag description: same color scheme as Romania - three
                                          equal vertical bands of blue (hoist
                                          side), yellow, and red; emblem in
                                          center of flag is of a Roman eagle
                                          of gold outlined in black with a red
                                          beak and talons carrying a yellow
                                          cross in its beak and a green olive
                                          branch in its right talons and a
                                          yellow scepter in its left talons;
                                          on its breast is a shield divided
                                          horizontally red over blue with a
                                          stylized ox head, star, rose, and
                                          crescent all in black-outlined
                                          yellow
    
     Economy Moldova
     ---------------
                      Economy - overview: Moldova enjoys a favorable climate
                                          and good farmland but has no major
                                          mineral deposits. As a result, the
                                          economy depends heavily on
                                          agriculture, featuring fruits,
                                          vegetables, wine, and tobacco.
                                          Moldova must import all of its
                                          supplies of oil, coal, and natural
                                          gas, largely from Russia. Energy
                                          shortages contributed to sharp
                                          production declines after the
                                          breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991.
                                          As part of an ambitious reform
                                          effort, Moldova introduced a
                                          convertible currency, freed all
                                          prices, stopped issuing preferential
                                          credits to state enterprises, backed
                                          steady land privatization, removed
                                          export controls, and freed interest
                                          rates. Yet these efforts could not
                                          offset the impact of political and
                                          economic difficulties, both internal
                                          and regional. In 1998, the economic
                                          troubles of Russia, by far Moldova's
                                          leading trade partner, were a major
                                          cause of the 8.6% drop in GDP. In
                                          1999, GDP fell again, by 4.4%, the
                                          fifth drop in the past seven years;
                                          exports were down, and energy
                                          supplies continued to be erratic.
                                          Following the return to positive GDP
                                          growth in 2000 (1.9%), Moldova
                                          experienced strong 6.1% rise in GDP
                                          in 2001, driven by a marked
                                          improvement in industry and a 20%
                                          improvement in agriculture.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.3
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 6.1% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,550
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 28%
                                          industry: 21%
                                          services: 51% (2000)
           Population below poverty line: 80% (2001 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.2%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 30.7% (1997)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 40.6 (1997)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.6% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 1.7 million (1998)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry 14%,
                                          services 46% (1998)
                       Unemployment rate: 1.9% (includes only officially
                                          registered unemployed; large numbers
                                          of underemployed workers; 25% of
                                          working age Moldovans are employed
                                          abroad) (November 2000)
                                  Budget: revenues: $536 million
                                          expenditures: $594 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (1998 est.)
                              Industries: food processing, agricultural
                                          machinery, foundry equipment,
                                          refrigerators and freezers, washing
                                          machines, hosiery, sugar, vegetable
                                          oil, shoes, textiles
       Industrial production growth rate: 14.2% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 3.317 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 90.44%
                                          hydro: 9.56%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 3.655 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 630 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 1.2 billion kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: vegetables, fruits, wine, grain,
                                          sugar beets, sunflower seed,
                                          tobacco; beef, milk
                                 Exports: $580 million (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Exports - commodities: foodstuffs 42%, textiles and
                                          footwear, machinery (2000)
                      Exports - partners: Russia 45%, Romania 8%, Germany 8%,
                                          Ukraine 8%, Italy 8% (2000)
                                 Imports: $865 million (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Imports - commodities: mineral products and fuel 32%,
                                          machinery and equipment, chemicals,
                                          textiles (2000)
                      Imports - partners: Romania 16%, Ukraine 14%, Russia
                                          13%, Germany 11%, Italy 6% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $700 million (2001)
                Economic aid - recipient: $100.8 million (1995); note - $547
                                          million from the IMF and World Bank
                                          (1992-99)
                                Currency: Moldovan leu (MDL)
                           Currency code: MDL
                          Exchange rates: lei per US dollar - 12.8579 (October
                                          2001), 12.4342 (2000), 10.5158
                                          (1999), 5.3707 (1998), 4.6236
                                          (1997); note - lei is the plural
                                          form of leu
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
    
     Communications Moldova
     ----------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 627,000 (1997)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,200 (1997)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate,
                                          outmoded, poor service outside
                                          Chisinau, some effort to modernize
                                          is under way
                                          domestic: new subscribers face long
                                          wait for service; mobile cellular
                                          telephone service being introduced
                                          international: service through
                                          Romania and Russia via landline;
                                          satellite earth stations - Intelsat,
                                          Eutelsat, and Intersputnik
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 50, shortwave 3 (1998)
                                  Radios: 3.22 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus 30 repeaters) (1995)
                             Televisions: 1.26 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .md
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)
                          Internet users: 15,000 (2000)
    
     Transportation Moldova
     ----------------------
                                Railways: total: 1,328 km
                                          broad gauge: 1,328 km 1.520-m gauge
                                          (2001)
                                Highways: total: 20,000 km
                                          paved: 13,900 km (includes some all-
                                          weather gravel-surfaced roads)
                                          unpaved: 6,100 km (these roads are
                                          made of unstabilized earth and are
                                          difficult to negotiate in wet
                                          weather) (1990)
                               Waterways: 424 km (1994)
                               Pipelines: natural gas 310 km (1992)
                       Ports and harbors: none
                                Airports: 30 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 7
                                          over 3,047 m: 1
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
                                          under 914 m: 1 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 23
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 4
                                          under 914 m: 14 (2001)
    
     Military Moldova
     ----------------
                       Military branches: Ground Forces (includes Air and Air
                                          Defense Forces), Republic Security
                                          Forces (includes paramilitary
                                          Internal Troops and Border Troops)
        Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,172,714 (2002
                                          est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 929,316 (2002 est.)
                                 service:
             Military manpower - reaching males: 42,268 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $6 million (FY01)
                                  figure:
       Military expenditures - percent of 0.4% (FY01)
                                     GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Moldova
     ----------------------------
                Disputes - international: Moldovan difficulties with break-
                                          away Transnistria region inhibit
                                          establishment of a joint customs
                                          regime with Ukraine to curtail
                                          smuggling, arms transfers, and other
                                          illegal activities
                           Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy
                                          and cannabis, mostly for CIS
                                          consumption; transshipment point for
                                          illicit drugs from Southwest Asia
                                          via Central Asia to Russia, Western
                                          Europe, and possibly the US
    
                                         
  
  

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