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2 definitions found
 for Mongolia
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Mongolia
      n 1: a landlocked socialist republic in central Asia [syn:
           Mongolia, Mongolian People's Republic, Outer
           Mongolia]
      2: a vast region in Asia including the Mongolian People's
         Republic and China's Inner Mongolia

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Mongolia
  
     Introduction Mongolia
     ---------------------
                              Background: The Mongols entered history in the
                                          13th century when under GENGHIS KHAN
                                          they conquered a huge Eurasian
                                          empire. After his death the empire
                                          was divided into several powerful
                                          Mongol states, but these broke apart
                                          in the 14th century. The Mongols
                                          eventually retired to their original
                                          steppe homelands and came under
                                          Chinese rule. Mongolia won its
                                          independence in 1921 with Soviet
                                          backing. A Communist regime was
                                          installed in 1924. During the early
                                          1990s, the ex-Communist Mongolian
                                          People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP)
                                          gradually yielded its monopoly on
                                          power to the Democratic Union
                                          Coalition (DUC), which defeated the
                                          MPRP in a national election in 1996.
                                          Over the next four years the DUC put
                                          forward a number of key reforms to
                                          modernize the economy and
                                          democratize the political system.
                                          However, the former Communists were
                                          a strong opposition that stalled
                                          additional restructuring and made
                                          implementation difficult. In 2000,
                                          the MPRP won an overwhelming victory
                                          in the legislature - with 72 of the
                                          76 seats - and completely reshuffled
                                          the government. While it continues
                                          many of the reform policies, the
                                          MPRP is focusing on social welfare
                                          and public order priorities.
    
     Geography Mongolia
     ------------------
                                Location: Northern Asia, between China and
                                          Russia
                  Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 105 00 E
                          Map references: Asia
                                    Area: total: 1.565 million sq km
                                          water: 9,600 sq km
                                          land: 1,555,400 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska
                         Land boundaries: total: 8,162 km
                                          border countries: China 4,677 km,
                                          Russia 3,485 km
                               Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
                         Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
                                 Climate: desert; continental (large daily and
                                          seasonal temperature ranges)
                                 Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains,
                                          grassy steppe, mountains in west and
                                          southwest; Gobi Desert in south-
                                          central
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
                                          highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil
                                          (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
                       Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum,
                                          tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel,
                                          zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold,
                                          silver, iron, phosphate
                                Land use: arable land: 0.84%
                                          permanent crops: 0%
                                          other: 99.16% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 840 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: dust storms, grassland and forest
                                          fires, drought, and "zud", which is
                                          harsh winter conditions
            Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water
                                          resources in some areas; policies of
                                          the former Communist regime
                                          promoting rapid urbanization and
                                          industrial growth have raised
                                          concerns about their negative
                                          effects on the environment; the
                                          burning of soft coal in power plants
                                          and the lack of enforcement of
                                          environmental laws have severely
                                          polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar;
                                          deforestation, overgrazing, the
                                          converting of virgin land to
                                          agricultural production have
                                          increased soil erosion from wind and
                                          rain; desertification and mining
                                          activities have also had a
                                          deleterious effect on the
                                          environment
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
                                          Protocol, Desertification,
                                          Endangered Species, Environmental
                                          Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law
                                          of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
                                          Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: none of
                                          the selected agreements
                        Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location
                                          between China and Russia
    
     People Mongolia
     ---------------
                              Population: 2,694,432 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 32% (male 438,176;
                                          female 422,960)
                                          15-64 years: 64.1% (male 864,033;
                                          female 865,172)
                                          65 years and over: 3.9% (male
                                          45,080; female 59,011) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 1.48% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 21.8 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 7.01 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 1 male(s)/female
                                          (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 51.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.62 years
                                          female: 66.87 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 62.47 years
                    Total fertility rate: 2.37 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ less than 100 (1999 est.)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
                             Nationality: noun: Mongolian(s)
                                          adjective: Mongolian
                           Ethnic groups: Mongol (predominantly Khalkha) 85%,
                                          Turkic (of which Kazakh is the
                                          largest group) 7%, Tungusic 4.6%,
                                          other (including Chinese and
                                          Russian) 3.4% (1998)
                               Religions: Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism 96%, Muslim
                                          (primarily in the southwest),
                                          Shamanism, and Christian 4% (1998)
                               Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian
                                          (1999)
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 97.8%
                                          male: 98%
                                          female: 97.5% (2000)
    
     Government Mongolia
     -------------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: none
                                          conventional short form: Mongolia
                                          local short form: Mongol Uls
                                          former: Outer Mongolia
                                          local long form: none
                         Government type: parliamentary
                                 Capital: Ulaanbaatar
                Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (aymguud, singular -
                                          aymag) and 1 municipality* (hot);
                                          Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy,
                                          Bulgan, Darhan Uul, Dornod,
                                          Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-
                                          Altay, Govi-Sumber, Hentiy, Hovd,
                                          Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon,
                                          Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov,
                                          Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
                            Independence: 11 July 1921 (from China)
                        National holiday: Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11
                                          July (1921)
                            Constitution: 12 February 1992
                            Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, Turkish,
                                          and Western systems of law that
                                          combines aspects of a parliamentary
                                          system with some aspects of a
                                          presidential system; constitution
                                          ambiguous on judicial review of
                                          legislative acts; has not accepted
                                          compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Natsagiyn
                                          BAGABANDI (since 20 June 1997)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 26 July
                                          2000)
                                          cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the
                                          State Great Hural in consultation
                                          with the president
                                          elections: president nominated by
                                          parties in the State Great Hural and
                                          elected by popular vote for a four-
                                          year term; election last held 20 May
                                          2001 (next to be held NA May 2005);
                                          following legislative elections, the
                                          leader of the majority party or
                                          majority coalition is usually
                                          elected prime minister by the State
                                          Great Hural; election last held 2
                                          July 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)
                                          election results: Natsagiyn
                                          BAGABANDI reelected president;
                                          percent of vote - Natsagiyn
                                          BAGABANDI (MPRP) 58.13%,
                                          Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJ (DP)
                                          36.58%, Luvsandamba DASHNYAM (CWP)
                                          3.54%, other 1.75%; Nambaryn
                                          ENKHBAYAR elected prime minister by
                                          a vote in the State Great Hural of
                                          68 to 3
                      Legislative branch: unicameral State Great Hural (76
                                          seats; members elected by popular
                                          vote to serve four-year terms)
                                          elections: last held 2 July 2000
                                          (next to be held NA July 2004)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - NA%; seats by party - MPRP
                                          72, other 4
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court (serves as appeals
                                          court for people's and provincial
                                          courts, but rarely overturns
                                          verdicts of lower courts; judges are
                                          nominated by the General Council of
                                          Courts for approval by the
                                          president)
           Political parties and leaders: Citizens' Will Party or CWP (also
                                          called Civil Will Party or Civil
                                          Courage Party) [Sanjaasurengyn
                                          OYUN]; Democratic Party or DP [D.
                                          DORLIGJAN]; Mongolian People's
                                          Revolutionary Party or MPRP
                                          [Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR]; Mongolian New
                                          Socialist Democratic Party or MNSDP
                                          [B. ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian Republican
                                          Party or MRP [B. JARGALSAIHAN]
                                          note: the MPRP is the ruling party
            Political pressure groups and NA
                                 leaders:
               International organization ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN
                           participation: (observer), CCC, CP (provisional),
                                          EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
                                          ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
                                          IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
                                          ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD,
                                          UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
                                          WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador
                                          Jalbuugiyn CHOINHOR
                                          chancery: 2833 M Street NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20007
                                          consulate(s) general: New York
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador John
                                      US: DINGER
                                          embassy: inner northeast part of the
                                          Big Ring Road, just west of the
                                          Selbe Gol, Ulaanbaatar
                                          mailing address: United States
                                          Embassy in Mongolia, P. O. Box 1021,
                                          Ulaanbaatar 13; PSC 461, Box 300,
                                          FPO AP 96521-0002
                                          telephone: [976] (11) 329095
                                          FAX: [976] (11) 320776
                        Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red
                                          (hoist side), blue, and red;
                                          centered on the hoist-side red band
                                          in yellow is the national emblem
                                          ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement
                                          of abstract and geometric
                                          representation for fire, sun, moon,
                                          earth, water, and the yin-yang
                                          symbol)
    
     Economy Mongolia
     ----------------
                      Economy - overview: Economic activity traditionally has
                                          been based on agriculture and
                                          breeding of livestock. Mongolia also
                                          has extensive mineral deposits:
                                          copper, coal, molybdenum, tin,
                                          tungsten, and gold account for a
                                          large part of industrial production.
                                          Soviet assistance, at its height
                                          one-third of GDP, disappeared almost
                                          overnight in 1990-91, at the time of
                                          the dismantlement of the USSR.
                                          Mongolia was driven into deep
                                          recession, prolonged by the
                                          Mongolian People's Revolutionary
                                          Party's (MPRP) reluctance to
                                          undertake serious economic reform.
                                          The Democratic Coalition (DC)
                                          government has embraced free-market
                                          economics, easing price controls,
                                          liberalizing domestic and
                                          international trade, and attempting
                                          to restructure the banking system
                                          and the energy sector. Major
                                          domestic privatization programs were
                                          undertaken, as well as the fostering
                                          of foreign investment through
                                          international tender of the oil
                                          distribution company, a leading
                                          cashmere company, and banks. Reform
                                          was held back by the ex-Communist
                                          MPRP opposition and by the political
                                          instability brought about through
                                          four successive governments under
                                          the DC. Economic growth picked up in
                                          1997-99 after stalling in 1996 due
                                          to a series of natural disasters and
                                          declines in world prices of copper
                                          and cashmere. In August and
                                          September 1999, the economy suffered
                                          from a temporary Russian ban on
                                          exports of oil and oil products, and
                                          Mongolia remains vulnerable in this
                                          sector. Mongolia joined the World
                                          Trade Organization (WTrO) in 1997.
                                          The international donor community
                                          pledged over $300 million per year
                                          at the last Consultative Group
                                          Meeting, held in Ulaanbaatar in June
                                          1999. The MPRP government, elected
                                          in July 2000, is anxious to improve
                                          the investment climate; it must also
                                          deal with a heavy burden of external
                                          debt. Falling prices for Mongolia's
                                          mainly primary sector exports,
                                          widespread opposition to
                                          privatization, and adverse effects
                                          of weather on agriculture in early
                                          2000 and 2001 restrained real GDP
                                          growth in 2000-01.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.7
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 2.4% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,770
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 32%
                                          industry: 30%
                                          services: 38% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 36% (2001 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.9%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 24.5% (1995)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 33.2 (1995)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.8% (2000 est.)
                             Labor force: 1.4 million (2000)
             Labor force - by occupation: primarily herding/agricultural
                       Unemployment rate: 20% (2000)
                                  Budget: revenues: $262 million
                                          expenditures: $328 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2000 est.)
                              Industries: construction materials, mining
                                          (coal, copper, molybdenum,
                                          fluorspar, and gold); oil; food and
                                          beverages, processing of animal
                                          products
       Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (2000 est.)
                Electricity - production: 2.77 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%
                                          hydro: 0%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 2.732 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 25 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 181 million kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, potatoes, forage
                                          crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels,
                                          horses
                                 Exports: $466.1 million (f.o.b., 2000)
                   Exports - commodities: copper, livestock, animal products,
                                          cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar,
                                          other nonferrous metals
                      Exports - partners: China 59%, US 20%, Russia 10%, Japan
                                          2% (2000)
                                 Imports: $614.5 million (c.i.f., 2000)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, food
                                          products, industrial consumer goods,
                                          chemicals, building materials,
                                          sugar, tea
                      Imports - partners: Russia 34%, China 21%, Japan 12%,
                                          South Korea 9%, US 4% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $760 million (2000 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $208.7 million (1999 est.)
                                Currency: togrog/tugrik (MNT)
                           Currency code: MNT
                          Exchange rates: togrogs/tugriks per US dollar -
                                          1,101.29 (December 2001), 1,097.70
                                          (2001), 1,076.67 (2000), 1,072.37
                                          (1999), 840.83 (1998), 789.99 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
    
     Communications Mongolia
     -----------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 104,100 (1999)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 110,000 (2001)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: very low
                                          density: about 3.5 telephones for
                                          each thousand persons
                                          domestic: NA
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian
                                          Ocean Region)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2001)
                                  Radios: 155,900 (1999)
           Television broadcast stations: 4 (plus 18 provincial repeaters and
                                          many low powered repeaters) (1999)
                             Televisions: 168,800 (1999)
                   Internet country code: .mn
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (2001)
                          Internet users: 30,000 (2001)
    
     Transportation Mongolia
     -----------------------
                                Railways: 1,815 km
                                          broad gauge: 1,815 km 1.524-m gauge
                                          (2001)
                                Highways: total: 3,387 km
                                          paved: 1,563 km
                                          note: there are also 45,862 km of
                                          rural roads that consist of rough,
                                          unimproved, cross-country tracks
                                          (2000)
                                          unpaved: 1,824 km
                               Waterways: 400 km (1999)
                       Ports and harbors: none
                                Airports: 34 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 8
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
                                          under 914 m: 1 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 26
                                          over 3,047 m: 3
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 3
                                          under 914 m: 5 (2001)
    
     Military Mongolia
     -----------------
                       Military branches: Mongolian Armed Forces (includes
                                          General Purpose Forces, Air and Air
                                          Defense Forces, Civil Defense
                                          Troops); note - Border Troops are
                                          under Ministry of Justice and Home
                                          Affairs in peacetime
        Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 772,619 (2002 est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 501,493 (2002 est.)
                                 service:
             Military manpower - reaching males: 30,230 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $24.3 million (FY01)
                                  figure:
       Military expenditures - percent of 2.5% (FY01)
                                     GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Mongolia
     -----------------------------
                                                Disputes - international: none
    
                                         
  
  

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