dict.org

The DICT Development Group


Search for:
Search type:
Database:

Database copyright information
Server information
Wiki: Resources, links, and other information


8 definitions found
 for Napoleon
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Napoleon \Napoleon\, Napoleon I \Napoleon
  I.\(n[aum]*p[=o]"l[=e]*[u^]n; F. pron.
     n[aum]`p[=o]`l[=a]`[o^]N")
     Napoleon Bonaparte (or Buonaparte), Born at Ajaccio, Corsica,
     Aug. 15, 1766, or, according to some, at Corte, Jan. 7, 1768;
     died at Longwood, St. Helena, May 5, 1821. Emperor of the
     French 1804-14. He was the son of Charles Marie Bonaparte and
     Laetitia Ramolino; studied at the military school of Brienne
     1779-84, and at that of Paris 1784-85; and received a
     lieutenant's commission in the French army in 1785. He
     opposed the patriot movement under Paoli in Corsica in 1793;
     commanded the artillery in the attack on Toulon in the same
     year; served in the army in Italy in 1794; and, as second in
     command to Barras, subdued the revolt of the sections at
     Paris in Oct., 1795. He married Josephine de Beauharnais
     March 9, 1796. Toward the close of this month (March 27) he
     assumed command at Nice of the army in Italy, which he found
     opposed by the Austrians and the Sardinians. He began his
     campaign April 10, and, after defeating the Austrians at
     Montenotte (April 12), Millesimo (April 14), and Dego (April
     15), turned (April 15) against the Sardinians, whom he
     defeated at Ceva (April 20) and Mondovi (April 22), forcing
     them to sign the separate convention of Cherasco (April 29).
     In the following month he began an invasion of Lombardy, and
     by a brilliant series of victories, including those of Lodi
     (May 10) and Arcole (Nov. 15-17), expelled the Austrians from
     their possessions in the north of Italy, receiving the
     capitulation of Mantua, their last stronghold, Feb. 2, 1797.
     Crossing the Alps, he penetrated Styria as far as Leoben,
     where he dictated preliminaries of peace April 18. The
     definitive peace of Campo-Formio followed (Oct 17). By the
     treaty of Campo-Formio northern Italy was reconstructed in
     the interest of France, which furthermore acquired the
     Austrian Netherlands, and received a guarantee of the left
     bank of the Rhine. Campo-Formio destroyed the coalition
     against France, and put an end to the Revolutionary war on
     the Continent. The only enemy that remained to France was
     England. At the instance of Bonaparte the Directory adopted
     the plan of attacking the English in India, which involved
     the conquest of Egypt. Placed at the head of an expedition of
     about 85,000 men, he set sail from Toulon May 19, 1798;
     occupied Malta June 12; disembarked at Alexandria July 2; and
     defeated the Mamelukes in the decisive battle of the Pyramids
     July 21. He was master of Egypt, but the destruction of his
     fleet by Nelson in the battle of the Nile (Aug. 1) cut him
     off from France and doomed his expedition to failure.
     Nevertheless he undertook the subjugation of Syria, and
     stormed Jaffa March 7, 1799. Repulsed at Acre, the defense of
     which was supported by the English, he commenced a retreat to
     Egypt May 21. He inflicted a final defeat on the Turks at
     Abukir July 26; transferred the command in Egypt to Kl['e]ber
     Aug. 22; and, setting sail with two frigates, arrived in the
     harbor of Fr['e]jus Oct. 9. During his absence a new
     coalition had been formed against France, and the Directory
     saw its armies defeated, both on the Rhine and in Italy. With
     the assistance of his brother Lucien and of Siey[`e]s and
     Roger Ducos, he executed the coup d'etat of Brumaire, whereby
     he abolished the Directory and virtually made himself monarch
     under the title of first consul, holding office for a term of
     10 years. He crossed the Great St. Bernard in May, 1800, and
     restored the French ascendancy in Italy by the victory of
     Marengo (June 14), which, with that won by Moreau at
     Hohenlinden (Dec. 8), brought about the peace of Lun['e]ville
     (Feb. 9, 1801). The treaty of Lun['e]ville, which was based
     on that of Campo-Formio, destroyed the coalition, and
     restored peace on the Continent. He concluded the peace of
     Amiens with England March 27, 1802. After the peace of
     Lun['e]ville he commenced the legislative reconstruction of
     France, the public institutions of which had been either
     destroyed or thrown into confusion during the Revolution. To
     this period belong the restoration of the Roman Catholic
     Church bythe Concordat (concluded July 15, 1801), the
     restoration of higher education by the erection of the new
     university (May 1, 1802), and the establishment of the Legion
     of Honor (May 19, 1802): preparation had been previously made
     for the codification of the laws.
     He was made consul for life Aug. 2, 1802; executed the Duc
     d'Enghien March 21, 1804; was proclaimed hereditary emperor
     of the French May 18, 1804 (the coronation ceremony took
     place Dec. 2, 1804); and was crowned king of Italy May 26,
     1805. In the meantime England had been provoked into
     declaring war (May 18, 1803), and a coalition consisting of
     England, Russia, Austria, and Sweden was formed against
     France in 1806: Spain was allied with France. The victory of
     Nelson at the battle of Trafalgar (Oct. 21, 1805) followed
     the failure of the projected invasion of England. Breaking up
     his camp at Boulogne, he invaded Austria, occupied Vienna,
     and (Dec. 2, 1805) defeated the allied Russians and Austrians
     at Austerlitz. The Russians retired from the contest under a
     military Convention; the Austrians signed the peace of
     Presburg (Dec. 26, 1805); and the coalition was destroyed.
     His intervention in germany brought about the erection of the
     Confederation of the Rhine July 12, 1806. This confederation,
     which was placed under his protection, ultimately embraced
     nearly all the states of Germany except Austria and Prussia.
     Its erection, together with other provocation, caused Prnssia
     to mobilize its army in Aug., and Napoleon presently found
     himself opposed by a coalition with Prussia, Russia, and
     England as its principal members. He crushed the Prussian
     army at Jena and Auerst[aum]dt Oct. 14; entered Berlin Oct.
     27; fought the Russians and Prussians in the drawn battle of
     Eylau Feb. 7-8, 1807; defeated the Russians at the battle of
     Friedland June 14; and compelled both Russia and Prussia to
     conclude peace at Tilsit July 7 and 9, 1807, respectively.
     Russia became the ally of France; Prussia was deprived of
     nearly half her territory. Napoleon was now, perhaps, at the
     height of his power. The imperial title was no empty form. He
     was the head of a great confederacy of states. He had
     surrounded the imperial throne with subordinate thrones
     occupied by members of his own family. His stepson Eug[`e]ne
     de Beauharnais was viceroy of the kingdom of Italy in
     northern and central Italy; his brother Joseph was king of
     Naples in southern Italy; his brother Louis was king of
     Holland; his brother Jerome was king of Westphalia; his
     brother-in-law Murat was grandduke of Berg. The Confederation
     of the Rhine existed by virtue of his protection, and his
     troops occupied dismembered Prussia. He directed the policy
     of Europe.
     England alone, mistress of the seas, appeared to stand
     between him and universal dominion. England was safe from
     invasion, but she was vulnerable through her commerce.
     Napoleon undertook to starve her by closing the ports of the
     Continent against her commerce. This policy, known as "the
     Continental system," was inaugurated by the Berlin decree in
     1806, and was extended by the Milan decree in 1807. To
     further this policy he resolved to seize the maritime states
     of Portugal and Spain. His armies expelled the house of
     Braganza from Portugal, and Nov. 30, 1807, the French entered
     Lisbon. Under pretense of guarding the coast against the
     English, he quartered 80,000 troops in Spain, then in 1808
     enticed Ferdinand VII. and his father Charles IV. (who had
     recently abdicated) to Bayonne, extorted from both a
     renunciation of their claims, and placed his brother Joseph
     on the Spanish throne. An uprising of the Spaniards took
     place, followed by a popular insurrection in Portugal,
     movements which found response in Germany. The seizure of
     Spain and Portugal proved in the end a fatal error. The war
     which it kindled, known as the Peninsular war, drained him of
     his resources and placed an enemy in his rear when northern
     Europe rose against him in 1813. The English in 1808 landed
     an army in Portugal, whence they expelled the French, and
     penetrated into Spain. Napoleon, securing himself against
     Austria by a closer alliance with the czar Alexander at
     Erfurt (concluded Oct. 12, 1808), hastened in person to
     Spain. With 250,000 men, drove out the English, and entered
     Madrid (Dec. 4, 1808). He was recalled by the threatening
     attitude of Austria, against which he precipitated war in
     April, 1809. He occupied Vienna (May 13), was defeated by the
     archduke Charles at Aspern and Essling (May 21-22), defeated
     the archduke at Wagram (July 5-6), and concluded the peace of
     Sch["o]nbrunn Oct. 14, 1809. He divorced Josephine Dec. 16,
     1809, and married Maria Louisa of Austria March 11 (April 2),
     1810. He annexed the Papal States in 1809 (the Pope being
     carried prisoner to France), and Holland in 1810. The refusal
     of Alexander to carry out strictly the Continental system,
     which Napoleon himself evaded by the sale of licenses,
     brought on war with Russia. He crossed the Niemen June 24,
     1812; gained the victory of Borodino Sept. 7; and occupied
     Moscow Sept. 14. His proffer of truce was rejected by the
     Russians, and he was forced by the approach of winter to
     begin a retreat (Oct. 19). He was overtaken by the winter,
     and his army dwindled before the cold, hunger, and the enemy.
     He left the army in command of Murat Dec. 4, and hastened to
     Paris. Murat recrossed the Niemen Dec. 13, with 100,000 men),
     the remnant of the Grand Army of 600,000 veterans. The loss
     sustained by Napoleon in this campaign encouraged the
     defection of Prussia, which formed an alliance with Russia at
     Kalisch Feb. 28, 1813. Napoleon defeated the Russians and
     Prussians at L["u]tzen May 2, and at Bautzen May 20-21.
     Austria declared war Aug. 12, and Napoleon presently found
     himself opposed by a coalition of Russia, England, Sweden,
     Prussia, and Austria, of which the first three had been
     united since the previous year. He won his last great victory
     at Dresden Aug. 26-27, and lost the decisive battles of
     Leipsic (Oct. 16, 18, and 19), Laon (March 9-10, 1814), and
     Arcis-sur-Aube (March 20-21). On March 31 the Allies entered
     Paris. He was compelled to abdicate at Fontainebleau April
     11, but was allowed to retain the title of emperor, and
     received the island of Elba as a sovereign principality, and
     an aunual income of 2,000,000 francs. He arrived in Elba May
     4. The Congress of Vienna convened in Sept., 1814, for the
     purpose of restoring and regulating the relations between the
     powers disturbed by Napoleon. Encouraged by the quarrels
     which arose at the Congress between the Allies, Napoleon left
     Elba Feb. 26, 1816; landed at Cannes March 1; and entered
     Paris March 20, the troops sent against him, including Ney
     with his corps, having joined his standard. At the return of
     Napoleon, the Allies again took the field. He was finally
     overthrown at Waterloo June 18, 1815, and the Allies entered
     Paris a second time July 7. After futile attempts to escape
     to America, he surrendered himself to the British admiral
     Hotham at Rochefort July 16. By a unanimous resolve of the
     Allies he was transported as prisoner of war to St. Helena,
     where he arrived on Oct. 16, 1815, and where he was detained
     the rest of his life.
  
     Note: The spelling Buonaparte was used by Napoleon's father,
           and by Napoleon himself down to 1796, although the
           spelling Bonaparte occurs in early Italian documents.
           Aug. 15, 1769, is the commonly accepted date of
           Napoleon's birth, and Jan. 7, 1768 that of the birth of
           his brother Joseph. It has been said, but without good
           reason, that these dates were interchanged at the time
           of Napoleon's admission to the military school of
           Brienne in 1779, no candidate being eligible after 10
           years of age.
           --Century Dict. 1906

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Napoleon \Na*po"le*on\, n. [From the Emperor Napoleon 1.]
     1. A French gold coin of twenty francs, no longer minted or
        circulated. It bore the portrait of Napoleon I. or
        Napoleon III.
        [1913 Webster +PJC]
  
     2. (Card Playing)
        (a) A game in which each player holds five cards, the
            eldest hand stating the number of tricks he will bid
            to take, any subsequent player having the right to
            overbid him or a previous bidder, the highest bidder
            naming the trump and winning a number of points equal
            to his bid if he makes so many tricks, or losing the
            same number of points if he fails to make them.
        (b) A bid to take five tricks at napoleon. It is
            ordinarily the highest bid; but sometimes bids are
            allowed of wellington, or of blucher, to take five
            tricks, or pay double, or treble, if unsuccessful.
            [Webster 1913 Suppl.]
  
     3. A Napoleon gun.
        [Webster 1913 Suppl.]
  
     4. A kind of top boot of the middle of the 19th century.
        [Webster 1913 Suppl.]
  
     5. A shape and size of cigar. It is about seven inches long.
        [Webster 1913 Suppl.]
  
     6. a puff pastry confection, usually layered, with a filling
        of custard or cream, or sometimes jelly.
        [PJC]

From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Napoleon
      n 1: French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)
           [syn: Napoleon, Napoleon I, Napoleon Bonaparte,
           Bonaparte, Little Corporal]
      2: a rectangular piece of pastry with thin flaky layers and
         filled with custard cream
      3: a card game similar to whist; usually played for stakes [syn:
         Napoleon, nap]

From U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000) :

  Napoleon, MO -- U.S. city in Missouri
     Population (2000):    208
     Housing Units (2000): 99
     Land area (2000):     1.744031 sq. miles (4.517019 sq. km)
     Water area (2000):    0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
     Total area (2000):    1.744031 sq. miles (4.517019 sq. km)
     FIPS code:            51140
     Located within:       Missouri (MO), FIPS 29
     Location:             39.129800 N, 94.072099 W
     ZIP Codes (1990):     64074
     Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
     Headwords:
      Napoleon, MO
      Napoleon
  

From U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000) :

  Napoleon, ND -- U.S. city in North Dakota
     Population (2000):    857
     Housing Units (2000): 420
     Land area (2000):     1.389435 sq. miles (3.598620 sq. km)
     Water area (2000):    0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
     Total area (2000):    1.389435 sq. miles (3.598620 sq. km)
     FIPS code:            55420
     Located within:       North Dakota (ND), FIPS 38
     Location:             46.504657 N, 99.766979 W
     ZIP Codes (1990):     58561
     Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
     Headwords:
      Napoleon, ND
      Napoleon
  

From U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000) :

  Napoleon, OH -- U.S. city in Ohio
     Population (2000):    9318
     Housing Units (2000): 4066
     Land area (2000):     5.586107 sq. miles (14.467949 sq. km)
     Water area (2000):    0.382204 sq. miles (0.989905 sq. km)
     Total area (2000):    5.968311 sq. miles (15.457854 sq. km)
     FIPS code:            53550
     Located within:       Ohio (OH), FIPS 39
     Location:             41.392028 N, 84.126648 W
     ZIP Codes (1990):     43545
     Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
     Headwords:
      Napoleon, OH
      Napoleon
  

From U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000) :

  Napoleon, IN -- U.S. town in Indiana
     Population (2000):    238
     Housing Units (2000): 103
     Land area (2000):     0.187975 sq. miles (0.486854 sq. km)
     Water area (2000):    0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
     Total area (2000):    0.187975 sq. miles (0.486854 sq. km)
     FIPS code:            52002
     Located within:       Indiana (IN), FIPS 18
     Location:             39.204250 N, 85.328659 W
     ZIP Codes (1990):    
     Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
     Headwords:
      Napoleon, IN
      Napoleon
  

From U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000) :

  Napoleon, MI -- U.S. Census Designated Place in Michigan
     Population (2000):    1254
     Housing Units (2000): 498
     Land area (2000):     2.653725 sq. miles (6.873115 sq. km)
     Water area (2000):    0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
     Total area (2000):    2.653725 sq. miles (6.873115 sq. km)
     FIPS code:            56620
     Located within:       Michigan (MI), FIPS 26
     Location:             42.166088 N, 84.247065 W
     ZIP Codes (1990):    
     Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
     Headwords:
      Napoleon, MI
      Napoleon
  

Questions or comments about this site? Contact webmaster@dict.org