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3 definitions found
 for Pakistan
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Pakistan \Pakistan\ prop. n.
     A country in South Asia formerly part of British India.
  
     Syn: West Pakistan.
          [WordNet 1.5]
  
     Note: Data on Pakistan from the CIA WOrld Factbook, 1996
           Geography: Location: Southern Asia, bordering the
           Arabian Sea, between India and Iran Geographic
           coordinates: 30 00 N, 70 00 E Map references: Asia
           Area: total area: 803,940 sq km land area: 778,720 sq
           km comparative area: slightly less than twice the size
           of California Land boundaries: total: 6,774 km border
           countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India
           2,912 km, Iran 909 km Coastline: 1,046 km Maritime
           claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200
           nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive
           economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm
           International disputes: status of Kashmir with India;
           border dispute with Afghanistan (Durand Line);
           water-sharing problems over the Indus (Wular Barrage)
           with upstream riparian India Climate: mostly hot, dry
           desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
           Terrain: flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north
           and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west lowest
           point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: K2 (Mt.
           Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m Natural resources: land,
           extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor
           quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone Land
           use: arable land: 23% permanent crops: 0% meadows and
           pastures: 6% forest and woodland: 4% other: 67% (1993)
           Irrigated land: 170,000 sq km (1992) Environment:
           current issues: water pollution from raw sewage,
           industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited
           natural fresh water resources; a majority of the
           population does not have access to potable water;
           deforestation; soil erosion; desertification natural
           hazards: frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe
           especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus
           after heavy rains (July and August) international
           agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
           Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
           Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
           Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not
           ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life
           Conservation Geographic note: controls Khyber Pass and
           Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central
           Asia and the Indian Subcontinent People: Population:
           129,275,660 (July 1996 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years:
           42% (male 28,286,823; female 26,640,019) 15-64 years:
           53% (male 35,396,281; female 33,733,798) 65 years and
           over: 5% (male 2,621,721; female 2,597,018) (July 1996
           est.) Population growth rate: 2.24% (1996 est.) Birth
           rate: 36.16 births/1,000 population (1996 est.) Death
           rate: 11.22 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.) Net
           migration rate: -2.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996
           est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15
           years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05
           male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
           all ages: 1.05 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant
           mortality rate: 96.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996
           est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 58.46
           years male: 57.7 years female: 59.25 years (1996 est.)
           Total fertility rate: 5.25 children born/woman (1996
           est.) Nationality: noun: Pakistani(s) adjective:
           Pakistani Ethnic divisions: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun
           (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India and
           their descendants) Religions: Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%,
           Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other 3% Languages:
           Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant)
           10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko
           2%, Brahui 1%, English (official and lingua franca of
           Pakistani elite and most government ministries),
           Burushaski, and other 8% Literacy: age 15 and over can
           read and write (1995 est.) total population: 37.8%
           male: 50% female: 24.4% Government: Name of country:
           conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
           conventional short form: Pakistan former: West Pakistan
           Data code: PK Type of government: republic Capital:
           Islamabad Administrative divisions: 4 provinces, 1
           territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan,
           Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital
           Territory**, North-West Frontier, Punjab, Sindh note:
           the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed
           Jammu and Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir and the
           Northern Areas Independence: 14 August 1947 (from UK)
           National holiday: Pakistan Day, 23 March (1956)
           (proclamation of the republic) Constitution: 10 April
           1973, suspended 5 July 1977, restored with amendments
           30 December 1985 Legal system: based on English common
           law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's stature
           as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ
           jurisdiction, with reservations Suffrage: 21 years of
           age; universal; separate electorates and reserved
           parliamentary seats for non-Muslims Executive branch:
           chief of state: President Sardar Farooq LEGHARI (since
           13 November 1993) was elected for a five-year term by
           Parliament; election last held 13 November 1993 (next
           to be held no later than 14 October 1998); results -
           LEGHARI was elected by Parliament and the four
           provincial assemblies head of government: Prime
           Minister Benazir BHUTTO (since 19 October 1993) was
           elected by the National Assembly cabinet: Cabinet was
           elected by the National Assembly Legislative branch:
           bicameral Parliament (Majlis-e-Shoora) Senate:
           elections last held NA March 1994 (next to be held NA
           March 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA;
           seats - (87 total) PPP 22, PML/N 17; Tribal Area
           Representatives (nonparty) 8, ANP 6, PML/J 5, JWP 5,
           MQM/A 5, JUI/F 2, PKMAP 2, JI 2, NPP 2, BNM/H 1, BNM/M
           1, JUP/NI 1, JUP/NO 1, JAH 1, JUI/S 1, PML/F 1, PNP 1,
           independents 2, vacant 1 National Assembly: elections
           last held 6 October 1993 (next to be held by October
           1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
           (217 total) PPP 92, PML/N 75, PML/J 6, IJM-Islamic
           Democratic Front 4, ANP 3, PKMAP 4, PIF 3, JWP 2, MDM
           2, BNM/H 1, BNM/M 1, NDA 1, NPP 1, PKQP 1, religious
           minorities 10 reserved seats, independents 9, results
           pending 2 Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judicial
           chiefs are appointed by the president; Federal Islamic
           (Shari'at) Court Political parties and leaders:
           government: Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Benazir
           BHUTTO; Pakistan Muslim League, Junejo faction (PML/J),
           Hamid Nasir CHATTHA; National People's Party (NPP),
           Ghulam Mustapha JATOI; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party
           (PKMAP), Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI; Balochistan National
           Movement, Hayee Group (BNM/H), Dr. HAYEE Baluch;
           National Democratic Alliance (NDA); Pakhtun Quami Party
           (PKQP), Mohammed AFZAL Khan opposition: Pakistan Muslim
           League, Nawaz Sharif faction (PML/N), Nawaz SHARIF;
           Awami National Party (ANP), Ajmal Khan KHATTAK;
           Pakistan Islamic Front (PIF); Balochistan National
           Movement, Mengal Group (BNM/M), Sardar Akhtar MENGAL;
           Mohajir Quami Movement, Altaf faction (MQM/A), Altaf
           HUSSAIN; Jamiat-al-Hadith (JAH); Jamhoori Watan Party
           (JWP), Akbar Khan BUGTI frequently shifting: Mutaheda
           Deeni Mahaz (MDM), Maulana Sami-ul-HAQ, the MDM
           includes Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Niazi faction
           (JUP/NI) and Anjuman Sepah-i-Sahaba Pakistan (ASSP);
           Islami-Jamhoori-Mahaz (IJM-Islamic Democratic Front)
           includes Jamiat Ulema-i-Islami, Fazlur Rehman group
           (JUI/F); Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group
           (PML/F), Pir PAGARO; Pakistan National Party (PNP);
           Milli Yakjheti Council (MYC) is an umbrella
           organization which includes Jamaat-i-Islami (JI), Qazi
           Hussain AHMED, Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami-ul-Haq
           faction (JUI/S), Tehrik-I-Jafria Pakistan (TJP), Allama
           Sajid NAQVI, and Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Noorani
           faction (JUP/NO) note: political alliances in Pakistan
           can shift frequently Other political or pressure
           groups: military remains important political force;
           ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small
           merchants also influential International organization
           participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-19,
           G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
           IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
           Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM,
           OAS (observer), OIC, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM
           III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
           UNITAR, UNMIH, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UPU,
           WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO Diplomatic
           representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador
           Maleeha LODHI chancery: 2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
           Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 939-6200 FAX:
           [1] (202) 387-0484 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
           and New York US diplomatic representation: chief of
           mission: Ambassador Thomas SIMONS, Jr. embassy:
           Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad mailing address:
           P. O. Box 1048, Unit 6220, APO AE 09812-2200 telephone:
           [92] (51) 826161 through 826179 FAX: [92] (51) 214222
           consulate(s) general: Karachi, Lahore consulate(s):
           Peshawar Flag: green with a vertical white band
           (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the
           hoist side; a large white crescent and star are
           centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and
           color green are traditional symbols of Islam Economy
           Economic overview: Pakistan is a poor, highly populated
           Third World country struggling to make the difficult
           transition to the modern world of high technology and
           internationalized markets. Prime Minister Benazir
           BHUTTO has been under pressure from the IMF and other
           donors to continue the economic reforms and austerity
           measures begun by her predecessor, caretaker Prime
           Minister Moeen QURESHI (July-October 1993). The IMF
           suspended a $1.5 billion Enhanced Structural Adjustment
           Facility (ESAF) in mid-1995 because Pakistan slowed the
           pace of economic reform. Islamabad's most recent budget
           -- announced in June 1995 -- reversed some reforms
           agreed to by the IMF earlier that year, including a
           slowing of tariff reform. In mid-December 1995,
           however, the IMF approved a $600 million standby
           arrangement and urged Pakistan to move forward with
           economic liberalization. Islamabad has agreed to new
           economic targets with the IMF, which could lay the
           basis for a return to an ESAF in 1996. Little progress
           was made in the privatization of large state-owned
           units in 1995. The sale of the power plant Kot Addu -
           scheduled for April 1995 - was stalled by opposition
           from labor unions. The sale of a 26% share of United
           Bank Limited and the Pakistan Telecommunications
           Corporation to strategic investors was due to take
           place in 1995 but has been pushed back to 1996. On the
           plus side real GDP grew 4.7% in 1995, up from 3.9% in
           1994: GDP should grow even faster in 1996 as a result
           of an above average cotton crop. Secondly, Islamabad
           reduced the budget deficit to 5.6% of GDP at the end of
           FY94/95, down from 8% two years earlier. Thirdly,
           Pakistan attracted $1.6 billion in foreign direct and
           portfolio investment in FY94/95, more than double
           inflows of $650 million in the previous fiscal year;
           financial agreements were reached on five power
           projects in 1995, including the 1,300-MW $1.8 billion
           Hab River project. Despite these improvements, the
           economy remains vulnerable to crisis. Foreign exchange
           reserves fell dramatically in 1995, reaching a low of
           about $1 billion in early December 1995 -- only five
           weeks of import cover -- before rising to $1.5 billion
           by yearend. The trade deficit rose to $2 billion for
           the first six months of FY94/95, triple the deficit of
           $600 million during the same period in FY93/94. The
           government responded to this situation with a package
           of stabilization reforms on 28 October 1995 which
           included a 7% devaluation of the rupee, supplementary
           duties of 10% on many imports, and higher petroleum
           prices. Islamabad hopes these moves will help make its
           exports more competitive. For the long run, Pakistan
           must deal with serious problems of deteriorating
           infrastructure, low literacy levels, and persistent law
           and order problems in Karachi. GDP: purchasing power
           parity - $274.2 billion (1995 est.) GDP real growth
           rate: 4.7% (1995 est.) GDP per capita: $2,100 (1995
           est.) GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 24%
           industry: 27% services: 49% (1995 est.) Inflation rate
           (consumer prices): 13% (1995 est.) Labor force: 36
           million by occupation: agriculture 46%, mining and
           manufacturing 18%, services 17%, other 19% note:
           extensive export of labor Unemployment rate: NA%
           Budget: revenues: $11.9 billion expenditures: $12.4
           billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
           (FY94/95) Industries: textiles, food processing,
           beverages, construction materials, clothing, paper
           products, shrimp Industrial production growth rate: 5%
           (1995 est.) Electricity: capacity: 12,530,000 kW (1995)
           production: 43.3 billion kWh (1995) consumption per
           capita: 389 kWh (1993) Agriculture: cotton, wheat,
           rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef,
           mutton, eggs Illicit drugs: major illicit producer of
           opium and hashish for the international drug trade;
           remains world's fourth largest opium producer (155
           metric tons in 1995); major center for processing
           Afghan heroin and key transit area for Southwest Asian
           heroin moving to Western market Exports: $8.7 billion
           (1995 est.) commodities: cotton, textiles, clothing,
           rice, leather, carpets partners: US, Japan, Hong Kong,
           Germany, UK, UAE, France Imports: $10.7 billion (1995
           est.) commodities: petroleum, petroleum products,
           machinery, transportation equipment, vegetable oils,
           animal fats, chemicals partners: Japan, US, Germany,
           UK, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, South Korea External debt:
           $26 billion (1995 est.) Economic aid: recipient: ODA,
           $697 million (1993) note: $2.5 billion (includes
           bilateral and multilateral aid but no US commitments)
           (FY93/94); $3 billion (includes bilateral and
           multilateral aid but no US commitments) (FY94/95)
           Currency: 1 Pakistani rupee (PRe) = 100 paisa Exchange
           rates: Pakistani rupees (PRs) per US$1 - 34.339
           (January 1996), 31.643 (1995), 30.567 (1994), 28.107
           (1993), 25.083 (1992), 23.801 (1991) Fiscal year: 1
           July - 30 June Transportation: Railways: total: 8,163
           km broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km
           electrified; 1,037 km double track) narrow gauge: 445
           km 1.000-m gauge; 661 km less than 1.000-m gauge (1995
           est.) Highways: total: 205,304 km paved: 104,735 km
           unpaved: 100,569 km (1995 est.) Pipelines: crude oil
           250 km; petroleum products 885 km; natural gas 4,044 km
           (1987) Ports: Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim Merchant
           marine: total: 24 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
           345,606 GRT/560,641 DWT ships by type: bulk 3, cargo
           19, oil tanker 1, passenger-cargo 1 (1995 est.)
           Airports: total: 100 with paved runways over 3,047 m:
           12 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 19 with paved
           runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 25 with paved runways 914 to
           1,523 m: 11 with paved runways under 914 m: 18 with
           unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 with unpaved
           runways 914 to 1,523 m: 8 (1995 est.) Heliports: 6
           (1995 est.) Communications: Telephones: 1.572 million
           (1993 est.) Telephone system: the domestic system is
           mediocre, but adequate for government and business use,
           in part because major businesses have established their
           own private systems; since 1988, the government has
           promoted investment in the national telecommunications
           system on a priority basis; despite major improvements
           in trunk and urban systems, telecommunication services
           are still not readily available to the major portion of
           the population domestic: microwave radio relay
           international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1
           Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); microwave radio
           relay to neighboring countries Radio broadcast
           stations: AM 26, FM 8, shortwave 11 Radios: 11.3
           million (1992 est.) Television broadcast stations: 29
           Televisions: 2.08 million (1993 est.) Defense:
           Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Civil Armed Forces,
           National Guard Manpower availability: males age 15-49:
           30,519,339 males fit for military service: 18,720,175
           males reach military age (17) annually: 1,437,208 (1996
           est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion -
           $3.1 billion, 5.3% of GDP (FY95/96)

From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Pakistan
      n 1: a Muslim republic that occupies the heartland of ancient
           south Asian civilization in the Indus River valley;
           formerly part of India; achieved independence from the
           United Kingdom in 1947 [syn: Pakistan, Islamic Republic
           of Pakistan, West Pakistan]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Pakistan
  
     Introduction Pakistan
     ---------------------
                              Background: The separation in 1947 of British
                                          India into the Muslim state of
                                          Pakistan (with two sections West and
                                          East) and largely Hindu India was
                                          never satisfactorily resolved. A
                                          third war between these countries in
                                          1971 resulted in East Pakistan
                                          seceding and becoming the separate
                                          nation of Bangladesh. A dispute over
                                          the state of Kashmir is ongoing. In
                                          response to Indian nuclear weapons
                                          testing, Pakistan conducted its own
                                          tests in 1998.
    
     Geography Pakistan
     ------------------
                                Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian
                                          Sea, between India on the east and
                                          Iran and Afghanistan on the west and
                                          China in the north
                  Geographic coordinates: 30 00 N, 70 00 E
                          Map references: Asia
                                    Area: total: 803,940 sq km
                                          land: 778,720 sq km
                                          water: 25,220 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of
                                          California
                         Land boundaries: total: 6,774 km
                                          border countries: Afghanistan 2,430
                                          km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km,
                                          Iran 909 km
                               Coastline: 1,046 km
                         Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                          continental shelf: 200 NM or to the
                                          edge of the continental margin
                                          exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                 Climate: mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in
                                          northwest; arctic in north
                                 Terrain: flat Indus plain in east; mountains
                                          in north and northwest; Balochistan
                                          plateau in west
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
                                          highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-
                                          Austen) 8,611 m
                       Natural resources: land, extensive natural gas
                                          reserves, limited petroleum, poor
                                          quality coal, iron ore, copper,
                                          salt, limestone
                                Land use: arable land: 27.81%
                                          permanent crops: 0.79%
                                          other: 71.4% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 180,000 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, occasionally
                                          severe especially in north and west;
                                          flooding along the Indus after heavy
                                          rains (July and August)
            Environment - current issues: water pollution from raw sewage,
                                          industrial wastes, and agricultural
                                          runoff; limited natural fresh water
                                          resources; a majority of the
                                          population does not have access to
                                          potable water; deforestation; soil
                                          erosion; desertification
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Environmental Modification,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
                                          Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
                                          Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    
                                          signed, but not ratified: Marine
                                          Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban
                        Geography - note: controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass,
                                          traditional invasion routes between
                                          Central Asia and the Indian
                                          Subcontinent
    
     People Pakistan
     ---------------
                              Population: 147,663,429 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 39.9% (male 30,321,217;
                                          female 28,581,334)
                                          15-64 years: 56% (male 42,254,996;
                                          female 40,392,092)
                                          65 years and over: 4.1% (male
                                          2,984,391; female 3,129,399) (2002
                                          est.)
                  Population growth rate: 2.06% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 30.4 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 9.02 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: -0.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 1.05 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 78.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 61.82 years
                                          female: 62.73 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 60.96 years
                    Total fertility rate: 4.25 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 74,000 (1999 est.)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 6,500 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Pakistani(s)
                                          adjective: Pakistani
                           Ethnic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan),
                                          Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from
                                          India at the time of partition and
                                          their descendants)
                               Religions: Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%),
                                          Christian, Hindu, and other 3%
                               Languages: Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a
                                          Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%,
                                          Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%,
                                          Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English
                                          (official and lingua franca of
                                          Pakistani elite and most government
                                          ministries), Burushaski, and other
                                          8%
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 42.7%
                                          male: 55.3%
                                          female: 29% (1998)
    
     Government Pakistan
     -------------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: Islamic
                                          Republic of Pakistan
                                          conventional short form: Pakistan
                                          former: West Pakistan
                         Government type: federal republic
                                 Capital: Islamabad
                Administrative divisions: 4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1
                                          capital territory**; Balochistan,
                                          Federally Administered Tribal
                                          Areas*, Islamabad Capital
                                          Territory**, North-West Frontier
                                          Province, Punjab, Sindh
                                          note: the Pakistani-administered
                                          portion of the disputed Jammu and
                                          Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir
                                          and the Northern Areas
                            Independence: 14 August 1947 (from UK)
                        National holiday: Republic Day, 23 March (1956)
                            Constitution: 10 April 1973, suspended 5 July
                                          1977, restored with amendments 30
                                          December 1985; suspended 15 October
                                          1999
                            Legal system: based on English common law with
                                          provisions to accommodate Pakistan's
                                          status as an Islamic state; accepts
                                          compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
                                          reservations
                                Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal; separate
                                          electorates and reserved
                                          parliamentary seats for non-Muslims
                        Executive branch: note: following a military takeover
                                          on 12 October 1999, Chief of Army
                                          Staff and Chairman of the Joint
                                          Chiefs of Staff Committee, General
                                          Pervez MUSHARRAF, suspended
                                          Pakistan's constitution and assumed
                                          the additional title of Chief
                                          Executive; exercising the powers of
                                          the head of the government, he
                                          appointed an eight-member National
                                          Security Council to function as
                                          Pakistan's supreme governing body;
                                          on 12 May 2000, Pakistan's Supreme
                                          Court unanimously validated the
                                          October 1999 coup and granted
                                          MUSHARRAF executive and legislative
                                          authority for three years from the
                                          coup date; on 20 June 2001,
                                          MUSHARRAF named himself and was
                                          sworn in as president, replacing
                                          Mohammad Rafiq TARAR; in a
                                          referendum held on 30 April 2002,
                                          MUSHARRAF won an overwhelming
                                          majority of votes, extending his
                                          rule for five more years
                                          chief of state: President Pervez
                                          MUSHARRAF (since 20 June 2001)
                                          cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the
                                          chief executive
                                          head of government: Chief Executive
                                          Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 12 May 2000)
    
                                          elections: prior to the military
                                          takeover, Pakistan had an elected
                                          president and prime minister; the
                                          president was elected by Parliament
                                          for a five-year term; election last
                                          held 31 December 1997 (next election
                                          to be held NA); following
                                          legislative elections, the leader of
                                          the majority party or majority
                                          coalition was usually elected prime
                                          minister by the National Assembly;
                                          election last held 3 February 1997
                                          (next to be held NA)
                                          election results: results are for
                                          the last elections for prime
                                          minister and president prior to the
                                          military takeover - Mohammad Nawaz
                                          SHARIF elected prime minister;
                                          percent of National Assembly vote -
                                          NA%; Rafiq TARAR elected president;
                                          percent of Parliament vote - NA%
                      Legislative branch: note - Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF
                                          dissolved Parliament following the
                                          military takeover of 12 October
                                          1999; bicameral Parliament or
                                          Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the
                                          Senate (87 seats; members indirectly
                                          elected by provincial assemblies to
                                          serve six-year terms; one-third of
                                          the members up for election every
                                          two years) and the National Assembly
                                          (217 seats - 10 represent non-
                                          Muslims; members elected by popular
                                          vote to serve five-year terms)
                                          elections: Senate - last held 12
                                          March 1997 (next to be held by
                                          October 2002); National Assembly -
                                          last held 3 February 1997 (next to
                                          be held by October 2002)
                                          election results: results are for
                                          the last elections prior to the
                                          military takeover; Senate - percent
                                          of vote by party - NA%; seats by
                                          party - PML/N 30, PPP 17, ANP 7,
                                          MQM/A 6, JWP 5, BNP 4, JUI/F 2, PML/
                                          J 2, BNM/H 1, PKMAP 1, TJP 1,
                                          independents 6, vacant 5; National
                                          Assembly - percent of vote by party
                                          - NA%; seats by party - PML/N 137,
                                          PPP 18, MQM/A 12, ANP 10, BNP 3, JWP
                                          2, JUI/F 2, PPP/SB 1, NPP 1,
                                          independents 21, minorities 10; note
                                          - Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF dismissed
                                          Parliament 15 October 1999
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court (justices appointed by
                                          the president); Federal Islamic or
                                          Shari'a Court
           Political parties and leaders: note: Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF
                                          dissolved Parliament following the
                                          military takeover of 12 October
                                          1999, however, political parties
                                          have been allowed to operate within
                                          limits; Awami National Party or ANP
                                          [Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National
                                          Movement/Hayee Group or BNM/H [Dr.
                                          HAYEE Baluch]; Baluch National Party
                                          or BNP [Sardar Akhtar MENGAL];
                                          Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP [Akbar
                                          Khan BUGTI]; Jamiat-al-Hadith or JAH
                                          [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam,
                                          Fazlur Rehman faction or JUI/F
                                          [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i-
                                          Pakistan, Niazi faction or JUP/NI
                                          [Abdul Sattar Khan NIAZI]; Millat
                                          Party [Farooq LEGHARI]; Milli
                                          Yakjheti Council or MYC is an
                                          umbrella organization which includes
                                          Jamaat-i-Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain
                                          AHMED], Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami-
                                          ul-Haq faction or JUI/S [Sami ul-
                                          HAQ], Tehrik-I-Jafria Pakistan or
                                          TJP [Allama Sajid NAQVI], and Jamiat
                                          Ulema-i-Pakistan, Noorani faction or
                                          JUP/NO [Shah Ahmad NOORANI];
                                          Mutahida Qaumi Movement, Altaf
                                          faction or MQM/A [Altaf HUSSAIN];
                                          National People's Party or NPP
                                          [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI]; Pakhtun
                                          Khwa Milli Awami Party or PKMAP
                                          [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakhtun
                                          Quami Party or PQP [Mohammed AFZAL
                                          Khan]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT
                                          [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim
                                          League, Functional Group or PML/F
                                          [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim
                                          League, Junejo faction or PML/J
                                          [Hamid Nasir CHATTHA]; Pakistan
                                          Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction
                                          or PML/N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan
                                          Muslim League, Quaid-l-Azam faction
                                          [Mian AZHAR]; Pakistan National
                                          Party or PNP [Hasil BIZENJO];
                                          Pakistan People's Party or PPP
                                          [Benazir BHUTTO]; Pakistan People's
                                          Party/Shaheed Bhutto or PPP/SB
                                          [Ghinva BHUTTO]; Pakistan Tehrik-e-
                                          Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]
                                          note: political alliances in
                                          Pakistan can shift frequently
            Political pressure groups and military remains most important
                                 leaders: political force; ulema (clergy),
                                          landowners, industrialists, and
                                          small merchants also influential
               International organization AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), C
                           participation: (suspended), CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP,
                                          FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
                                          ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
                                          IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
                                          IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
                                          MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer),
                                          OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNAMSIL,
                                          UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
                                          UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP,
                                          UNOMIG, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
                                          WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ashraf
                                          Jehangir QAZI
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 387-0484
                                          consulate(s) general: Los Angeles,
                                          New York, and Sunnyvale (California)
    
                                          chancery: 2315 Massachusetts Avenue
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20008
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 939-6205
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Wendy
                                      US: J. CHAMBERLIN (since Aug. 2001)
                                          embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna
                                          5, Islamabad
                                          mailing address: P. O. Box 1048,
                                          Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200
                                          telephone: [92] (51) 2080-0000
                                          FAX: [92] (51) 2276427
                                          consulate(s) general: Karachi
                                          consulate(s): Lahore, Peshawar
                        Flag description: green with a vertical white band
                                          (symbolizing the role of religious
                                          minorities) on the hoist side; a
                                          large white crescent and star are
                                          centered in the green field; the
                                          crescent, star, and color green are
                                          traditional symbols of Islam
    
     Economy Pakistan
     ----------------
                      Economy - overview: Pakistan, an impoverished and
                                          underdeveloped country, suffers from
                                          internal political disputes, lack of
                                          foreign investment, and a costly
                                          confrontation with neighboring
                                          India. Pakistan's economic
                                          prospects, marred by poor human
                                          development indicators, low levels
                                          of foreign investment, and reliance
                                          on international creditors for hard
                                          currency inflows, were nonetheless
                                          on an upswing through most of 2001.
                                          The MUSHARRAF government made
                                          significant inroads in macroeconomic
                                          reform - it completed an IMF short-
                                          term loan program for the first time
                                          and improved its standing with
                                          international creditors by
                                          increasing revenue collection and
                                          restraining the fiscal deficit in
                                          the 2001/02 budget. While Pakistan
                                          has capitalized on its international
                                          standing after the 11 September
                                          terrorist attacks on the US by
                                          garnering substantial assistance
                                          from abroad - including $1.3 billion
                                          in IMF Poverty Reduction and Growth
                                          Facility aid and $12.5 billion in
                                          Paris Club debt rescheduling - long-
                                          term prospects remain uncertain. GDP
                                          growth will continue to hinge on
                                          crop performance; dependence on
                                          foreign oil leaves the import bill
                                          vulnerable to fluctuating oil
                                          prices; and foreign and domestic
                                          investors remain wary of committing
                                          to projects in Pakistan. Pakistani
                                          trade levels - already in decline
                                          due to the global economic downturn
                                          - worsened in the aftermath of the
                                          September 11 attacks.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $299
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 3.3% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,100
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 26%
                                          industry: 24%
                                          services: 50% (2001 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 35% (2001 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 4.1%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 27.7% (1997)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 31.2 (1996-97)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 40.4 million
                                          note: extensive export of labor,
                                          mostly to the Middle East, and use
                                          of child labor (2000)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 44%, industry 17%,
                                          services 39% (1999 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 6.3% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $8.9 billion
                                          expenditures: $11.6 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (FY00/01 est.)
                              Industries: textiles, food processing,
                                          beverages, construction materials,
                                          clothing, paper products, shrimp
       Industrial production growth rate: 7% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 62.687 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 64.09%
                                          hydro: 35.31%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0.6%
               Electricity - consumption: 58.299 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane,
                                          fruits, vegetables; milk, beef,
                                          mutton, eggs
                                 Exports: $8.8 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Exports - commodities: textiles (garments, cotton cloth,
                                          and yarn), rice, other agricultural
                                          products
                      Exports - partners: US 24.8%, UK 6.5%, UAE 6.2%, Hong
                                          Kong 5.9%, Germany 5.6%, (2000)
                                 Imports: $9.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery, petroleum, petroleum
                                          products, chemicals, transportation
                                          equipment, edible oils, grains,
                                          pulses, flour
                      Imports - partners: Kuwait 11.7%, UAE 10.7%, Saudi
                                          Arabia 10.5%, US 6%, Japan 5.6%
                                          (2000)
                         Debt - external: $31.5 billion (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $2 billion (FY99/00)
                                Currency: Pakistani rupee (PKR)
                           Currency code: PKR
                          Exchange rates: Pakistani rupees per US dollar -
                                          60.719 (January 2002), 61.927
                                          (2001), 53.648 (2000), 49.118
                                          (1999), 44.943 (1998), 40.918 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
    
     Communications Pakistan
     -----------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 2.861 million (March 1999)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 158,000 (1998)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: the domestic
                                          system is mediocre, but improving;
                                          service is adequate for government
                                          and business use, in part because
                                          major businesses have established
                                          their own private systems; since
                                          1988, the government has promoted
                                          investment in the national
                                          telecommunications system on a
                                          priority basis, significantly
                                          increasing network capacity; despite
                                          major improvements in trunk and
                                          urban systems, telecommunication
                                          services are still not readily
                                          available to the majority of the
                                          rural population
                                          domestic: microwave radio relay,
                                          coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable,
                                          cellular, and satellite networks
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
                                          Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3
                                          operational international gateway
                                          exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at
                                          Islamabad); microwave radio relay to
                                          neighboring countries (1999)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 27, FM 1, shortwave 21 (1998)
                                  Radios: 13.5 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 22 (plus seven low-power repeaters)
                                          (1997)
                             Televisions: 3.1 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .pk
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 30 (2000)
                          Internet users: 1.2 million (2000)
    
     Transportation Pakistan
     -----------------------
                                Railways: total: 8,163 km
                                          broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge
                                          (293 km electrified)
                                          narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge
                                          (2001)
                                Highways: total: 247,811 km
                                          paved: 141,252 km (including 339 km
                                          of expressways)
                                          unpaved: 106,559 km (1998)
                               Waterways: none
                               Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; petroleum products
                                          885 km; natural gas 4,044 km (1987)
                       Ports and harbors: Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim
                         Merchant marine: total: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 241,832 GRT/367,093 DWT
                                          ships by type: cargo 13, container
                                          3, petroleum tanker 1 (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 120 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 85
                                          over 3,047 m: 12
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 22
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 17
                                          under 914 m: 3 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 35
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 9
                                          under 914 m: 18 (2001)
                               Heliports: 9 (2001)
    
     Military Pakistan
     -----------------
                         Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Civil Armed
                                            Forces, National Guard
          Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age (2002 est.)
          Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 36,941,592 (2002
                                            est.)
       Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 22,606,576 (2002
                                   service: est.)
      Military manpower - reaching military males: 1,657,724 (2002 est.)
                              age annually:
     Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2,545.5 million (FY01)
         Military expenditures - percent of 4.6% (FY01)
                                       GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Pakistan
     -----------------------------
                Disputes - international: armed stand-off with India over the
                                          status and sovereignty of Kashmir
                                          continues; dispute with India over
                                          the terminus of Rann of Kutch
                                          prevents extension of a maritime
                                          boundary; water-sharing problems
                                          with India persist over the Indus
                                          River (Wular Barrage); close ties
                                          with Pashtuns in Afghanistan make
                                          long border difficult to control
                           Illicit drugs: Poppy cultivation practically
                                          eliminated with only 213 hectares
                                          grown; potential heroin production 5
                                          tons; key transit area for Southwest
                                          Asian heroin moving to Western
                                          markets; narcotics still move from
                                          Afghanistan, transiting Balochistan
                                          Province or Karachi for onward
                                          shipment
    
                                         
  
  

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