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4 definitions found
 for Poland
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Poland
      n 1: a republic in central Europe; the invasion of Poland by
           Germany in 1939 started World War II [syn: Poland,
           Republic of Poland, Polska]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Poland
  
     Introduction Poland
     -------------------
                              Background: Poland is an ancient nation that was
                                          conceived around the middle of the
                                          10th century. It's golden age
                                          occurred in the 16th century. During
                                          the following century, the
                                          strengthening of the gentry and
                                          internal disorders weakened the
                                          nation, until an agreement in 1772
                                          between Russia, Prussia, and Austria
                                          partitioned Poland. Poland regained
                                          its independence in 1918 only to be
                                          overrun by Germany and the Soviet
                                          Union in World War II. It became a
                                          Soviet satellite country following
                                          the war, but one that was
                                          comparatively tolerant and
                                          progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980
                                          led to the formation of the
                                          independent trade union "Solidarity"
                                          that over time became a political
                                          force and by 1990 had swept
                                          parliamentary elections and the
                                          presidency. A "shock therapy"
                                          program during the early 1990s
                                          enabled the country to transform its
                                          economy into one of the most robust
                                          in Central Europe, boosting hopes
                                          for acceptance to the EU. Poland
                                          joined the NATO alliance in 1999.
    
     Geography Poland
     ----------------
                                Location: Central Europe, east of Germany
                  Geographic coordinates: 52 00 N, 20 00 E
                          Map references: Europe
                                    Area: total: 312,685 sq km
                                          water: 8,220 sq km
                                          land: 304,465 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Mexico
                         Land boundaries: total: 2,788 km
                                          border countries: Belarus 407 km,
                                          Czech Republic 658 km, Germany 456
                                          km, Lithuania 91 km, Russia
                                          (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km,
                                          Slovakia 444 km, Ukraine 526 km
                               Coastline: 491 km
                         Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: defined by
                                          international treaties
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: temperate with cold, cloudy,
                                          moderately severe winters with
                                          frequent precipitation; mild summers
                                          with frequent showers and
                                          thundershowers
                                 Terrain: mostly flat plain; mountains along
                                          southern border
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Raczki Elblaskie -2 m
                                          highest point: Rysy 2,499 m
                       Natural resources: coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas,
                                          silver, lead, salt, arable land
                                Land use: arable land: 45.81%
                                          permanent crops: 1.23%
                                          other: 52.96% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 1,000 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: flooding
            Environment - current issues: situation has improved since 1989
                                          due to decline in heavy industry and
                                          increased environmental concern by
                                          postcommunist governments; air
                                          pollution nonetheless remains
                                          serious because of sulfur dioxide
                                          emissions from coal-fired power
                                          plants, and the resulting acid rain
                                          has caused forest damage; water
                                          pollution from industrial and
                                          municipal sources is also a problem,
                                          as is disposal of hazardous wastes
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-
                              agreements: Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-
                                          Marine Living Resources, Antarctic
                                          Seals, Antarctic Treaty,
                                          Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                          Desertification, Endangered Species,
                                          Environmental Modification,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
                                          Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
                                          Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                          Pollution, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: Air
                                          Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
                                          Pollution-Persistent Organic
                                          Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur
                                          94, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
                        Geography - note: historically, an area of conflict
                                          because of flat terrain and the lack
                                          of natural barriers on the North
                                          European Plain
    
     People Poland
     -------------
                              Population: 38,625,478 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.9% (male 3,535,701;
                                          female 3,361,515)
                                          15-64 years: 69.5% (male 13,358,128;
                                          female 13,500,443)
                                          65 years and over: 12.6% (male
                                          1,860,274; female 3,009,417) (2002
                                          est.)
                  Population growth rate: -0.02% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 10.29 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 9.97 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: -0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 0.94 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 9.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.66 years
                                          female: 78.05 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 69.52 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.37 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.07% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Pole(s)
                                          adjective: Polish
                           Ethnic groups: Polish 97.6%, German 1.3%, Ukrainian
                                          0.6%, Belarusian 0.5% (1990 est.)
                               Religions: Roman Catholic 95% (about 75%
                                          practicing), Eastern Orthodox,
                                          Protestant, and other 5%
                               Languages: Polish
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 99%
                                          male: 99%
                                          female: 98% (1978 est.)
    
     Government Poland
     -----------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          Poland
                                          conventional short form: Poland
                                          local short form: Polska
                                          local long form: Rzeczpospolita
                                          Polska
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Warsaw
                Administrative divisions: 16 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular
                                          - wojewodztwo); Dolnoslaskie,
                                          Kujawsko-Pomorskie, Lodzkie,
                                          Lubelskie, Lubuskie, Malopolskie,
                                          Mazowieckie, Opolskie, Podkarpackie,
                                          Podlaskie, Pomorskie, Slaskie,
                                          Swietokrzyskie, Warminsko-Mazurskie,
                                          Wielkopolskie, Zachodniopomorskie
                            Independence: 11 November 1918 (independent
                                          republic proclaimed)
                        National holiday: Constitution Day, 3 May (1791)
                            Constitution: 16 October 1997; adopted by the
                                          National Assembly 2 April 1997;
                                          passed by national referendum 23 May
                                          1997
                            Legal system: mixture of Continental (Napoleonic)
                                          civil law and holdover Communist
                                          legal theory; changes being
                                          gradually introduced as part of
                                          broader democratization process;
                                          limited judicial review of
                                          legislative acts although under the
                                          new constitution, the Constitutional
                                          Tribunal ruling will become final as
                                          of October 1999; court decisions can
                                          be appealed to the European Court of
                                          Justice in Strasbourg
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Aleksander
                                          KWASNIEWSKI (since 23 December 1995)
    
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a five-year term;
                                          election last held 8 October 2000
                                          (next to be held NA October 2005);
                                          prime minister and deputy prime
                                          ministers appointed by the president
                                          and confirmed by the Sejm
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Leszek MILLER (SLD) (since 19
                                          October 2001), Deputy Prime
                                          Ministers Marek POL (since 19
                                          October 2001), Jaroslaw KALINOWSKI
                                          (since 19 October 2001), Grzegorz
                                          KOLODKO (since 8 July 2002)
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          responsible to the prime minister
                                          and the Sejm; the prime minister
                                          proposes, the president appoints,
                                          and the Sejm approves the Council of
                                          Ministers
                                          election results: Aleksander
                                          KWASNIEWSKI reelected president;
                                          percent of popular vote - Aleksander
                                          KWASNIEWSKI 53.9%, Andrzj OLECHOWSKI
                                          17.3%, Marian KRZAKLEWSKI 15.6%,
                                          Lech WALESA 1%
                      Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly or
                                          Zgromadzenie Narodowe consists of
                                          the Sejm (460 seats; members are
                                          elected under a complex system of
                                          proportional representation to serve
                                          four-year terms) and the Senate or
                                          Senat (100 seats; members are
                                          elected by a majority vote on a
                                          provincial basis to serve four-year
                                          terms)
                                          elections: Sejm elections last held
                                          23 September 2001 (next to be held
                                          by September 2005); Senate - last
                                          held 23 September 2001 (next to be
                                          held by September 2005)
                                          election results: Sejm - percent of
                                          vote by party - SLD-UP 41%, PO
                                          12.7%, Samoobrona 10.2%, PiS 9.5%,
                                          PSL 9%, LPR 7.9%, AWSP 5.6% UW 3.1%,
                                          other 1%; seats by party - SLD-UP
                                          216, PO 65, Samoobrona 53, PiS 44,
                                          PSL 42, LPR 38, German minorities 2;
                                          note - SLD-UP has split: SLD has 200
                                          deputies and UP has 16; Senate -
                                          percent of vote by party - NA%;
                                          seats by party - SLD-UP 75, AWSP (an
                                          electoral alliance of some 36
                                          parties) 15, PSL 4, Samoobrona 2,
                                          LPR 2, independents 2
                                          note: two seats are assigned to
                                          ethnic minority parties
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed
                                          by the president on the
                                          recommendation of the National
                                          Council of the Judiciary for an
                                          indefinite period); Constitutional
                                          Tribunal (judges are chosen by the
                                          Sejm for nine-year terms)
           Political parties and leaders: Citizens Platform or PO [Maciej
                                          PLAZYNSKI]; Democratic Left Alliance
                                          or SLD (Social Democracy of Poland)
                                          [Leszek MILLER]; Freedom Union or UW
                                          [Wladyslaw FRASYNIUK]; German
                                          Minority of Lower Silesia or MNSO
                                          [Henryk KROLL]; Law and Justice or
                                          PiS [Lech KACZYNSKI]; League of
                                          Polish Families or LPR [Marek
                                          KOTLINOWSKI]; Polish Accord or PP
                                          [Jan LOPUSZANSKI]; Polish Peasant
                                          Party or PSL [Jaroslaw KALINOWSKI];
                                          Samoobrona [Andrzej LEPPER];
                                          Solidarity Electoral Action of the
                                          Right or AWSP [Marian KRZAKLEWSKI];
                                          Social Movement-Solidarity Electoral
                                          Action or RS-AWS [Jerzy BUZEK];
                                          Union of Labor or UP [Marek POL]
            Political pressure groups and All Poland Trade Union Alliance or
                                 leaders: OPZZ (trade union); Roman Catholic
                                          Church; Solidarity (trade union)
               International organization ACCT (observer), Australia Group,
                           participation: BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CCC, CE,
                                          CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU
                                          (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
                                          ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA
                                          (observer), IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
                                          IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
                                          ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (guest),
                                          NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD,
                                          OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
                                          UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL,
                                          UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP,
                                          UNMOT, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WEU
                                          (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
                                          WToO, WTrO, ZC
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador
                                          Przemyslaw GRUDZINSKI
                                          chancery: 2640 16th Street NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20009
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 328-6271
                                          consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los
                                          Angeles, and New York
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 234-3800
                                          through 3802
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador
                                      US: Christopher R. HILL
                                          embassy: Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31 00-
                                          540, Warsaw P1
                                          mailing address: American Embassy
                                          Warsaw, US Department of State,
                                          Washington, DC 20521-5010 (pouch)
                                          telephone: [48] (22) 628-30-41
                                          FAX: [48] (22) 628-82-98
                                          consulate(s) general: Krakow
                        Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white
                                          (top) and red; similar to the flags
                                          of Indonesia and Monaco which are
                                          red (top) and white
    
     Economy Poland
     --------------
                      Economy - overview: Poland has steadfastly pursued a
                                          policy of liberalizing the economy
                                          and today stands out as one of the
                                          most successful and open transition
                                          economies. GDP growth had been
                                          strong and steady in 1993-2000 but
                                          fell back in 2001 with slowdowns in
                                          domestic investment and consumption
                                          and the weakening in the global
                                          economy. The privatization of small
                                          and medium state-owned companies and
                                          a liberal law on establishing new
                                          firms have allowed for the rapid
                                          development of a vibrant private
                                          sector. In contrast, Poland's large
                                          agricultural sector remains
                                          handicapped by structural problems,
                                          surplus labor, inefficient small
                                          farms, and lack of investment.
                                          Restructuring and privatization of
                                          "sensitive sectors" (e.g., coal,
                                          steel, railroads, and energy) has
                                          begun. Structural reforms in health
                                          care, education, the pension system,
                                          and state administration have
                                          resulted in larger than expected
                                          fiscal pressures. Further progress
                                          in public finance depends mainly on
                                          privatization of Poland's remaining
                                          state sector. The government's
                                          determination to enter the EU as
                                          soon as possible affects most
                                          aspects of its economic policies.
                                          Improving Poland's outsized current
                                          account deficit and reining in
                                          inflation are priorities. Warsaw
                                          leads the region in foreign
                                          investment and needs a continued
                                          large inflow.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $339.6
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,800
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4%
                                          industry: 32%
                                          services: 64% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 18.4% (2000 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 3.2%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 24.7% (1998)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 32.7 (1998)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.3% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 17.6 million (2000 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: industry 22.1%, agriculture 27.5%,
                                          services 50.4% (1999)
                       Unemployment rate: 16.7% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $49.6 billion
                                          expenditures: $52.3 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (1999)
                              Industries: machine building, iron and steel,
                                          coal mining, chemicals,
                                          shipbuilding, food processing,
                                          glass, beverages, textiles
       Industrial production growth rate: 4.3% (1999)
                Electricity - production: 135.161 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 98.1%
                                          hydro: 1.54%
                                          other: 0.36% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 119.327 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 9.663 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 3.29 billion kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: potatoes, fruits, vegetables, wheat;
                                          poultry, eggs, pork
                                 Exports: $30.8 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Exports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment
                                          30.2%, intermediate manufactured
                                          goods 25.5%, miscellaneous
                                          manufactured goods 20.9%, food and
                                          live animals 8.5% (1999)
                      Exports - partners: Germany 34.9%, Italy 6.3%, France
                                          5.2%, Netherlands 5.1%, UK 4.5%,
                                          Czech Republic 3.8% (2000)
                                 Imports: $41.7 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment
                                          38.2%, intermediate manufactured
                                          goods 20.8%, chemicals 14.3%,
                                          miscellaneous manufactured goods
                                          9.5% (1999)
                      Imports - partners: Germany 23.9%, Russia 9.4%, Italy
                                          8.3%, France 6.4%, UK 4.5%, US 4.4%
                                          (2000)
                         Debt - external: $57 billion (2000)
                Economic aid - recipient: $NA
                                Currency: zloty (PLN)
                           Currency code: PLN
                          Exchange rates: zlotych per US dollar - 4.0144
                                          (December 2001), 4.0939 (2001),
                                          4.3461 (2000), 3.9671 (1999), 3.4754
                                          (1998), 3.2793 (1997)
                                          note: zlotych is the plural form of
                                          zloty
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
    
     Communications Poland
     ---------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 8.07 million (1998)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.78 million (1998)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: underdeveloped
                                          and outmoded system; government
                                          aimed to have 10 million telephones
                                          in service by 2000; the process of
                                          partial privatization of the state-
                                          owned telephone monopoly has begun;
                                          in 1998 there were over 2 million
                                          applicants on the waiting list for
                                          telephone service
                                          domestic: cable, open wire, and
                                          microwave radio relay; 3 cellular
                                          networks; local exchanges 56.6%
                                          digital
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 2 Intelsat, NA Eutelsat,
                                          2 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian
                                          Ocean regions), and 1 Intersputnik
                                          (Atlantic Ocean region)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 777, shortwave 1 (1998)
                                  Radios: 20.2 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 179 (plus 256 repeaters) (September
                                          1995)
                             Televisions: 13.05 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .pl
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 19 (2000)
                          Internet users: 3.5 million (2001)
    
     Transportation Poland
     ---------------------
                                Railways: total: 23,420 km
                                          broad gauge: 646 km 1.524-m gauge
                                          standard gauge: 21,639 km 1.435-
                                          m gauge (11,626 km electrified;
                                          8,978 km double-tracked)
                                          narrow gauge: 1,135 km various
                                          gauges including 1.000-m, 0.785-m,
                                          0.750-m, and 0.600-m (2001)
                                Highways: total: 381,046 km
                                          paved: 249,966 km (including 268 km
                                          of expressways)
                                          unpaved: 131,080 km (1998)
                               Waterways: 3,812 km (navigable rivers and
                                          canals) (1996)
                               Pipelines: crude oil and petroleum products
                                          2,280 km; natural gas 17,000 km
                                          (1996)
                       Ports and harbors: Gdansk, Gdynia, Gliwice, Kolobrzeg,
                                          Szczecin, Swinoujscie, Ustka,
                                          Warsaw, Wroclaw
                         Merchant marine: total: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 382,518 GRT/641,657 DWT
                                          ships by type: bulk 14, cargo 3,
                                          chemical tanker 1, roll on/roll off
                                          1 (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 122 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 83
                                          over 3,047 m: 3
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 29
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 6
                                          under 914 m: 3 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 42
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 39
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
                                          under 914 m: 21 (2001)
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 13
                               Heliports: 3 (2001)
    
     Military Poland
     ---------------
                        Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense
                                           Force
         Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age (2002 est.)
         Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 10,415,598 (2002
                                           est.)
      Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 8,120,098 (2002
                                  service: est.)
              Military manpower - reaching males: 344,781 (2002 est.)
                    military age annually:
            Military expenditures - dollar $3.5 billion (2002)
                                   figure:
        Military expenditures - percent of 1.71% (2002)
                                      GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Poland
     ---------------------------
                Disputes - international: none
                           Illicit drugs: major illicit producer of
                                          amphetamine for the international
                                          market; minor transshipment point
                                          for Asian and Latin American illicit
                                          drugs to Western Europe
    
                                         
  
  

From U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000) :

  Poland, NY -- U.S. village in New York
     Population (2000):    451
     Housing Units (2000): 202
     Land area (2000):     0.535492 sq. miles (1.386917 sq. km)
     Water area (2000):    0.006328 sq. miles (0.016390 sq. km)
     Total area (2000):    0.541820 sq. miles (1.403307 sq. km)
     FIPS code:            58937
     Located within:       New York (NY), FIPS 36
     Location:             43.226178 N, 75.061521 W
     ZIP Codes (1990):     13431
     Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
     Headwords:
      Poland, NY
      Poland
  

From U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000) :

  Poland, OH -- U.S. village in Ohio
     Population (2000):    2866
     Housing Units (2000): 1123
     Land area (2000):     1.244349 sq. miles (3.222848 sq. km)
     Water area (2000):    0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
     Total area (2000):    1.244349 sq. miles (3.222848 sq. km)
     FIPS code:            63954
     Located within:       Ohio (OH), FIPS 39
     Location:             41.024676 N, 80.612287 W
     ZIP Codes (1990):     44514
     Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
     Headwords:
      Poland, OH
      Poland
  

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