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1 definition found
 for Selected International Environmental Agreements
From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Selected International Environmental Agreements
  
                                                                       
        Air Pollution                   see Convention on Long-Range    
                                        Transboundary Air Pollution     
        Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides   see Protocol to the 1979        
                                        Convention on Long-Range        
                                        Transboundary Air Pollution     
                                        Concerning the Control of       
                                        Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or 
                                        Their Transboundary Fluxes      
        Air Pollution-Persistent        see Protocol to the 1979        
        Organic Pollutants              Convention on Long-Range        
                                        Transboundary Air Pollution on  
                                        Persistent Organic Pollutants   
        Air Pollution-Sulphur 85        see Protocol to the 1979        
                                        Convention on Long-Range        
                                        Transboundary Air Pollution on  
                                        the Reduction of Sulphur        
                                        Emissions or Their Transboundary
                                        Fluxes by at least 30%          
        Air Pollution-Sulphur 94        see Protocol to the 1979        
                                        Convention on Long-Range        
                                        Transboundary Air Pollution on  
                                        Further Reduction of Sulphur    
                                        Emissions                       
        Air Pollution-Volatile Organic  see Protocol to the 1979        
        Compounds                       Convention on Long-Range        
                                        Transboundary Air Pollution     
                                        Concerning the Control of       
                                        Emissions of Volatile Organic   
                                        Compounds or Their Transboundary
                                        Fluxes                          
        Antarctic-Environmental         see Protocol on Environmental   
        Protocol                        Protection to the Antarctic     
                                        Treaty                          
        Antarctic Treaty                opened for signature - 1        
                                        December 1959                   
                                        entered into force - 23 June    
                                        1961                            
                                        objective - to ensure that      
                                        Antarctica is used for peaceful 
                                        purposes only (such as          
                                        international cooperation in    
                                        scientific research); to defer  
                                        the question of territorial     
                                        claims asserted by some nations 
                                        and not recognized by others; to
                                        provide an international forum  
                                        for management of the region;   
                                        applies to land and ice shelves 
                                        south of 60 degrees South       
                                        latitude                        
                                        parties - (44) Argentina,       
                                        Australia, Austria, Belgium,    
                                        Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile,
                                        China, Colombia, Cuba, Czech    
                                        Republic, Denmark, Ecuador,     
                                        Finland, France, Germany,       
                                        Greece, Guatemala, Hungary,     
                                        India, Italy, Japan, North      
                                        Korea, South Korea, Netherlands,
                                        NZ, Norway, Papua New Guinea,   
                                        Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia,  
                                        Slovakia, South Africa, Spain,  
                                        Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey,    
                                        Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay,       
                                        Venezuela                       
        Basel Convention on the Control note - abbreviated as Hazardous 
        of Transboundary Movements of   Wastes                          
        Hazardous Wastes and Their      opened for signature - 22 March 
        Disposal                        1989                            
                                        entered into force - 5 May 1992 
                                        objective - to reduce           
                                        transboundary movements of      
                                        wastes subject to the Convention
                                        to a minimum consistent with the
                                        environmentally sound and       
                                        efficient management of such    
                                        wastes; to minimize the amount  
                                        and toxicity of wastes generated
                                        and ensure their environmentally
                                        sound management as closely as  
                                        possible to the source of       
                                        generation; and to assist LDCs  
                                        in environmentally sound        
                                        management of the hazardous and 
                                        other wastes they generate      
                                        parties - (143) Albania,        
                                        Algeria, Andorra, Antigua and   
                                        Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia,    
                                        Australia, Austria, The Bahamas,
                                        Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,  
                                        Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin,
                                        Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil,      
                                        Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi,
                                        Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde,   
                                        Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros,
                                        Democratic Republic of the      
                                        Congo, Costa Rica, Cote         
                                        d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,
                                        Czech Republic, Denmark,        
                                        Dominica, Dominican Republic,   
                                        Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,    
                                        Estonia, Ethiopia, EU, Finland, 
                                        France, The Gambia, Georgia,    
                                        Germany, Greece, Guatemala,     
                                        Guinea, Honduras, Hungary,      
                                        Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,
                                        Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan,  
                                        Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, South  
                                        Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan,      
                                        Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho,       
                                        Liechtenstein, Lithuania,       
                                        Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav 
                                        Republic of Macedonia,          
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,   
                                        Maldives, Mali, Malta,          
                                        Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,  
                                        Federated States of Micronesia, 
                                        Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia,      
                                        Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,   
                                        Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,         
                                        Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria,      
                                        Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, 
                                        Papua New Guinea, Paraguay,     
                                        Peru, Philippines, Poland,      
                                        Portugal, Qatar, Romania,       
                                        Russia, Saint Kitts and Nevis,  
                                        Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and  
                                        the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia,   
                                        Senegal, Seychelles, Singapore, 
                                        Slovakia, Slovenia, South       
                                        Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka,       
                                        Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,     
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad and
                                        Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,        
                                        Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine,  
                                        UAE, UK, Uruguay, Uzbekistan,   
                                        Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,      
                                        Yugoslavia, Zambia              
                                        countries that have signed, but 
                                        not yet ratified - (3)          
                                        Afghanistan, Haiti, US          
        Biodiversity                    see Convention on Biological    
                                        Diversity                       
        Convention for the Conservation note - abbreviated as Antarctic 
        of Antarctic Seals              Seals                           
                                        opened for signature - NA       
                                        entered into force - NA         
                                        objective - NA                  
                                        parties - (16) Argentina,       
                                        Australia, Belgium, Brazil,     
                                        Canada, Chile, France, Germany, 
                                        Italy, Japan, Norway, Poland,   
                                        Russia, South Africa, UK, US    
                                        countries that have signed, but 
                                        not yet ratified - (1) NZ       
        Convention on Biological        note - abbreviated as           
        Diversity                       Biodiversity                    
                                        opened for signature - 5 June   
                                        1992                            
                                        entered into force - 29 December
                                        1993                            
                                        objective - to develop national 
                                        strategies for the conservation 
                                        and sustainable use of          
                                        biological diversity            
                                        parties - (180) Albania,        
                                        Algeria, Angola, Antigua and    
                                        Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia,    
                                        Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, 
                                        The Bahamas, Bahrain,           
                                        Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,  
                                        Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, 
                                        Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil,      
                                        Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma,  
                                        Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,    
                                        Canada, Cape Verde, Central     
                                        African Republic, Chad, Chile,  
                                        China, Colombia, Comoros,       
                                        Democratic Republic of the      
                                        Congo, Republic of the Congo,   
                                        Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote  
                                        d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,
                                        Czech Republic, Denmark,        
                                        Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican   
                                        Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El    
                                        Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,    
                                        Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, EU, 
                                        Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon,   
                                        The Gambia, Georgia, Germany,   
                                        Ghana, Greece, Grenada,         
                                        Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-      
                                        Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras,
                                        Hungary, Iceland, India,        
                                        Indonesia, Iran, Ireland,       
                                        Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,  
                                        Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,      
                                        Kiribati, North Korea, South    
                                        Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia,
                                        Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,      
                                        Liechtenstein, Lithuania,       
                                        Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav 
                                        Republic of Macedonia,          
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,   
                                        Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall 
                                        Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, 
                                        Mexico, Federated States of     
                                        Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco,    
                                        Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique,  
                                        Namibia, Nauru, Nepal,          
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,     
                                        Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norway,   
                                        Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama,  
                                        Papua New Guinea, Paraguay,     
                                        Peru, Philippines, Poland,      
                                        Portugal, Qatar, Romania,       
                                        Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and 
                                        Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint       
                                        Vincent and the Grenadines,     
                                        Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and 
                                        Principe, Senegal, Seychelles,  
                                        Sierra Leone, Singapore,        
                                        Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon     
                                        Islands, South Africa, Spain,   
                                        Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,     
                                        Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, 
                                        Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania,    
                                        Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and       
                                        Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,        
                                        Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine,  
                                        UAE, UK, Uruguay, Uzbekistan,   
                                        Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam,    
                                        Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe         
                                        countries that have signed, but 
                                        not yet ratified - (7)          
                                        Afghanistan, Kuwait, Libya,     
                                        Thailand, Tuvalu, US, Yugoslavia
        Climate Change                  see United Nations Framework    
                                        Convention on Climate Change    
        Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol   see Kyoto Protocol to the United
                                        Nations Framework Convention on 
                                        Climate Change                  
        Convention on Fishing and       note - abbreviated as Marine    
        Conservation of Living          Life Conservation               
        Resources of the High Seas      opened for signature - 29 April 
                                        1958                            
                                        entered into force - 20 March   
                                        1966                            
                                        objective - to solve through    
                                        international cooperation the   
                                        problems involved in the        
                                        conservation of living resources
                                        of the high seas, considering   
                                        that because of the development 
                                        of modern technology some of    
                                        these resources are in danger of
                                        being overexploited             
                                        parties - (38) Australia,       
                                        Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
                                        Burkina Faso, Cambodia,         
                                        Colombia, Denmark, Dominican    
                                        Republic, Fiji, Finland, France,
                                        Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, 
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,   
                                        Mauritius, Mexico, Netherlands, 
                                        Nigeria, Portugal, Senegal,     
                                        Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands,  
                                        South Africa, Spain,            
                                        Switzerland, Thailand, Tonga,   
                                        Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, UK,
                                        US, Uruguay, Venezuela,         
                                        Yugoslavia                      
                                        countries that have signed, but 
                                        not yet ratified - (21)         
                                        Afghanistan, Argentina, Bolivia,
                                        Canada, China, Costa Rica, Cuba,
                                        Ghana, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran,
                                        Ireland, Israel, Lebanon,       
                                        Liberia, Nepal, NZ, Pakistan,   
                                        Panama, Sri Lanka, Tunisia      
        Convention on Long-Range        note - abbreviated as Air       
        Transboundary Air Pollution     Pollution                       
                                        opened for signature - 13       
                                        November 1979                   
                                        entered into force - 16 March   
                                        1983                            
                                        objective - to protect the human
                                        environment against air         
                                        pollution and to gradually      
                                        reduce and prevent air          
                                        pollution, including long-range 
                                        transboundary air pollution     
                                        parties - (48) Armenia, Austria,
                                        Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and    
                                        Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada,  
                                        Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
                                        Denmark, Estonia, EU, Finland,  
                                        France, Georgia, Germany,       
                                        Greece, Hungary, Iceland,       
                                        Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan,     
                                        Kyrgyzstan, Latvia,             
                                        Liechtenstein, Lithuania,       
                                        Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav 
                                        Republic of Macedonia, Malta,   
                                        Moldova, Monaco, Netherlands,   
                                        Norway, Poland, Portugal,       
                                        Romania, Russia, Slovakia,      
                                        Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,        
                                        Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine,   
                                        UK, US, Yugoslavia              
                                        countries that have signed, but 
                                        not yet ratified - (2) Holy See,
                                        San Marino                      
        Convention on the Conservation  note - abbreviated as Antarctic-
        of Antarctic Marine Living      Marine Living Resources         
        Resources                       opened for signature - NA       
                                        entered into force - NA         
                                        objective - NA                  
                                        parties - (30) Argentina,       
                                        Australia, Belgium, Brazil,     
                                        Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, EU,    
                                        Finland, France, Germany,       
                                        Greece, India, Italy, Japan,    
                                        South Korea, Namibia,           
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Peru,  
                                        Poland, Russia, South Africa,   
                                        Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, UK, US, 
                                        Uruguay                         
        Convention on the International note - abbreviated as Endangered
        Trade in Endangered Species of  Species                         
        Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)    opened for signature - 3 March  
                                        1973                            
                                        entered into force - 1 July 1975
                                        objective - to protect certain  
                                        endangered species from         
                                        overexploitation by means of a  
                                        system of import/export permits 
                                        parties - (152) Afghanistan,    
                                        Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda,   
                                        Argentina, Australia, Austria,  
                                        Azerbaijan, The Bahamas,        
                                        Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,  
                                        Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia,
                                        Botswana, Brazil, Brunei,       
                                        Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma,  
                                        Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,    
                                        Canada, Central African         
                                        Republic, Chad, Chile, China,   
                                        Colombia, Comoros, Democratic   
                                        Republic of the Congo, Republic 
                                        of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote  
                                        d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,
                                        Czech Republic, Denmark,        
                                        Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican   
                                        Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El    
                                        Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,    
                                        Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia,     
                                        Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon,   
                                        The Gambia, Georgia, Germany,   
                                        Ghana, Greece, Grenada,         
                                        Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-      
                                        Bissau, Guyana, Honduras,       
                                        Hungary, Iceland, India,        
                                        Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Italy, 
                                        Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,         
                                        Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, 
                                        Latvia, Liberia, Liechtenstein, 
                                        Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav 
                                        Republic of Macedonia,          
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,   
                                        Mali, Malta, Mauritania,        
                                        Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco,      
                                        Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique,  
                                        Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
                                        Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria,      
                                        Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua 
                                        New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,     
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,  
                                        Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint  
                                        Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,   
                                        Saint Vincent and the           
                                        Grenadines, Saudi Arabia,       
                                        Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra     
                                        Leone, Singapore, Slovakia,     
                                        Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa,
                                        Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,        
                                        Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,    
                                        Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand,
                                        Togo, Trinidad and Tobago,      
                                        Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda,        
                                        Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,  
                                        Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, 
                                        Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
                                        countries that have signed, but 
                                        not yet ratified - (3) Ireland, 
                                        Kuwait, Lesotho                 
        Convention on the Prevention of note - abbreviated as Marine    
        Marine Pollution by Dumping     Dumping                         
        Wastes and Other Matter (London opened for signature - 29       
        Convention)                     December 1972                   
                                        entered into force - 30 August  
                                        1975                            
                                        objective - to control pollution
                                        of the sea by dumping and to    
                                        encourage regional agreements   
                                        supplementary to the Convention 
                                        parties - (78) Afghanistan,     
                                        Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, 
                                        Australia, Azerbaijan, Barbados,
                                        Belarus, Belgium, Brazil,       
                                        Canada, Cape Verde, Chile,      
                                        China, Democratic Republic of   
                                        the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote     
                                        d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,
                                        Denmark, Dominican Republic,    
                                        Egypt, Finland, France, Gabon,  
                                        Germany, Greece, Guatemala,     
                                        Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong      
                                        (associate member), Hungary,    
                                        Iceland, Iran, Ireland, Italy,  
                                        Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya,  
                                        Kiribati, South Korea, Libya,   
                                        Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico,      
                                        Monaco, Morocco, Nauru,         
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria,       
                                        Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, 
                                        Papua New Guinea, Philippines,  
                                        Poland, Portugal, Russia, Saint 
                                        Lucia, Seychelles, Slovenia,    
                                        Solomon Islands, South Africa,  
                                        Spain, Suriname, Sweden,        
                                        Switzerland, Tonga, Tunisia,    
                                        Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Vanuatu,  
                                        Yugoslavia                      
        Convention on the Prohibition   note - abbreviated as           
        of Military or Any Other        Environmental Modification      
        Hostile Use of Environmental    opened for signature - 10       
        Modification Techniques         December 1976                   
                                        entered into force - 5 October  
                                        1978                            
                                        objective - to prohibit the     
                                        military or other hostile use of
                                        environmental modification      
                                        techniques in order to further  
                                        world peace and trust among     
                                        nations                         
                                        parties - (68) Afghanistan,     
                                        Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda,   
                                        Argentina, Australia, Austria,  
                                        Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium,   
                                        Benin, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada,
                                        Cape Verde, Chile, Costa Rica,  
                                        Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic,   
                                        Denmark, Dominica, Egypt,       
                                        Finland, Germany, Ghana, Greece,
                                        Guatemala, Hungary, Iceland,    
                                        India, Ireland, Italy, Japan,   
                                        North Korea, South Korea,       
                                        Kuwait, Laos, Malawi, Mauritius,
                                        Mongolia, Netherlands, NZ,      
                                        Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Papua  
                                        New Guinea, Poland, Romania,    
                                        Russia, Saint Lucia, Saint      
                                        Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao 
                                        Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone,
                                        Slovakia, Solomon Islands,      
                                        Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden,       
                                        Switzerland, Tajikistan,        
                                        Tunisia, Ukraine, UK, US,       
                                        Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vietnam,   
                                        Yemen                           
                                        countries that have signed, but 
                                        not yet ratified - (15) Bolivia,
                                        Democratic Republic of the      
                                        Congo, Ethiopia, Holy See, Iran,
                                        Iraq, Lebanon, Liberia,         
                                        Luxembourg, Morocco, Nicaragua, 
                                        Portugal, Syria, Turkey, Uganda 
        Convention on Wetlands of       note - abbreviated as Wetlands  
        International Importance        opened for signature - 2        
        Especially as Waterfowl Habitat February 1971                   
        (Ramsar)                        entered into force - 21 December
                                        1975                            
                                        objective - to stem the         
                                        progressive encroachment on and 
                                        loss of wetlands now and in the 
                                        future, recognizing the         
                                        fundamental ecological functions
                                        of wetlands and their economic, 
                                        cultural, scientific, and       
                                        recreational value              
                                        parties - (123) Albania,        
                                        Algeria, Argentina, Armenia,    
                                        Australia, Austria, The Bahamas,
                                        Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus,   
                                        Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia,
                                        Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria,     
                                        Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Canada, 
                                        Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,   
                                        Comoros, Democratic Republic of 
                                        the Congo, Republic of the      
                                        Congo, Costa Rica, Cote         
                                        d’Ivoire, Croatia, Czech        
                                        Republic, Denmark, Ecuador,     
                                        Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia,    
                                        Finland, France, Gabon, The     
                                        Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,
                                        Greece, Guatemala, Guinea,      
                                        Guinea-Bissau, Honduras,        
                                        Hungary, Iceland, India,        
                                        Indonesia, Iran, Ireland,       
                                        Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,  
                                        Jordan, Kenya, South Korea,     
                                        Latvia, Lebanon, Libya,         
                                        Liechtenstein, Lithuania,       
                                        Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav 
                                        Republic of Macedonia,          
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,   
                                        Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mexico,
                                        Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia,      
                                        Morocco, Namibia, Nepal,        
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,     
                                        Niger, Nigeria, Norway,         
                                        Pakistan, Panama, Papua New     
                                        Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,         
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,  
                                        Romania, Russia, Senegal, Sierra
                                        Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, South
                                        Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka,       
                                        Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland,  
                                        Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo,
                                        Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,   
                                        Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UK, US,
                                        Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam,    
                                        Yugoslavia, Zambia              
        Desertification                 see United Nations Convention to
                                        Combat Desertification in those 
                                        Countries Experiencing Serious  
                                        Drought and/or Desertification, 
                                        Particularly in Africa          
        Endangered Species              see Convention on the           
                                        International Trade in          
                                        Endangered Species of Wild Flora
                                        and Fauna (CITES)               
        Environmental Modification      see Convention on the           
                                        Prohibition of Military or Any  
                                        Other Hostile Use of            
                                        Environmental Modification      
                                        Techniques                      
        Hazardous Wastes                see Basel Convention on the     
                                        Control of Transboundary        
                                        Movements of Hazardous Wastes   
                                        and Their Disposal              
        International Convention for    note - abbreviated as Whaling   
        the Regulation of Whaling       opened for signature - 2        
                                        December 1946                   
                                        entered into force - 10 November
                                        1948                            
                                        objective - to protect all      
                                        species of whales from          
                                        overhunting; to establish a     
                                        system of international         
                                        regulation for the whale        
                                        fisheries to ensure proper      
                                        conservation and development of 
                                        whale stocks; and to safeguard  
                                        for future generations the great
                                        natural resources represented by
                                        whale stocks                    
                                        parties - (41) Antigua and      
                                        Barbuda, Argentina, Australia,  
                                        Austria, Brazil, Chile, China,  
                                        Costa Rica, Denmark, Dominica,  
                                        Finland, France, Germany,       
                                        Grenada, Guinea, India, Ireland,
                                        Italy, Japan, Kenya, South      
                                        Korea, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, 
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Oman,  
                                        Peru, Russia, Saint Kitts and   
                                        Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint       
                                        Vincent and the Grenadines,     
                                        Senegal, Solomon Islands, South 
                                        Africa, Spain, Sweden,          
                                        Switzerland, UK, US             
        International Tropical Timber   note - abbreviated as Tropical  
        Agreement, 1983                 Timber 83                       
                                        opened for signature - 18       
                                        November 1983                   
                                        entered into force - 1 April    
                                        1985; this agreement expired    
                                        when the International Tropical 
                                        Timber Agreement, 1994, went    
                                        into force                      
                                        objective - to provide an       
                                        effective framework for         
                                        cooperation between tropical    
                                        timber producers and consumers  
                                        and to encourage the development
                                        of national policies aimed at   
                                        sustainable utilization and     
                                        conservation of tropical forests
                                        and their genetic resources     
                                        parties - (54) Australia,       
                                        Austria, Belgium, Bolivia,      
                                        Brazil, Burma, Cameroon, Canada,
                                        China, Colombia, Democratic     
                                        Republic of the Congo, Republic 
                                        of the Congo, Cote d’Ivoire,    
                                        Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, EU,    
                                        Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon,   
                                        Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guyana, 
                                        Honduras, India, Indonesia,     
                                        Ireland, Italy, Japan, South    
                                        Korea, Liberia, Luxembourg,     
                                        Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands,   
                                        NZ, Norway, Panama, Papua New   
                                        Guinea, Peru, Philippines,      
                                        Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden,
                                        Switzerland, Thailand, Togo,    
                                        Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US,    
                                        Venezuela                       
        International Tropical Timber   note - abbreviated as Tropical  
        Agreement, 1994                 Timber 94                       
                                        opened for signature - 26       
                                        January 1994                    
                                        entered into force - 1 January  
                                        1997                            
                                        objective - to ensure that by   
                                        the year 2000 exports of        
                                        tropical timber originate from  
                                        sustainably managed sources; to 
                                        establish a fund to assist      
                                        tropical timber producers in    
                                        obtaining the resources         
                                        necessary to reach this         
                                        objective                       
                                        parties - (58) Australia,       
                                        Austria, Belgium, Bolivia,      
                                        Brazil, Burma, Cambodia,        
                                        Cameroon, Canada, Central       
                                        African Republic, China,        
                                        Colombia, Democratic Republic of
                                        the Congo, Republic of the      
                                        Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Denmark,  
                                        Ecuador, Egypt, EU, Fiji,       
                                        Finland, France, Gabon, Germany,
                                        Ghana, Greece, Guyana, Honduras,
                                        India, Indonesia, Ireland,      
                                        Italy, Japan, South Korea,      
                                        Liberia, Luxembourg, Malaysia,  
                                        Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, 
                                        Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, 
                                        Philippines, Portugal, Spain,   
                                        Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland,  
                                        Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and    
                                        Tobago, UK, US, Uruguay,        
                                        Vanuatu, Venezuela              
                                        countries that have signed, but 
                                        not yet ratified - (1) Ireland  
        Kyoto Protocol to the United    note - abbreviated as Climate   
        Nations Framework Convention on Change-Kyoto Protocol           
        Climate Change                  opened for signature - 16 March 
                                        1998, but not yet in force      
                                        objective - to further reduce   
                                        greenhouse gas emissions by     
                                        enhancing the national programs 
                                        of developed countries aimed at 
                                        this goal and by establishing   
                                        percentage reduction targets for
                                        the developed countries         
                                        parties - (32) Antigua and      
                                        Barbuda, Azerbaijan, The        
                                        Bahamas, Barbados, Bolivia,     
                                        Cyprus, Ecuador, El Salvador,   
                                        Equatorial Guinea, Fiji,        
                                        Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea,     
                                        Honduras, Jamaica, Kiribati,    
                                        Lesotho, Maldives, Mexico,      
                                        Federated States of Micronesia, 
                                        Mongolia, Nicaragua, Niue,      
                                        Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Samoa, 
                                        Trinidad and Tobago,            
                                        Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uruguay,  
                                        Uzbekistan                      
                                        countries that have signed, but 
                                        not yet ratified - (64)         
                                        Argentina, Australia, Austria,  
                                        Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria,      
                                        Canada, Chile, China, Cook      
                                        Islands, Costa Rica, Croatia,   
                                        Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark,  
                                        Egypt, Estonia, EU, Finland,    
                                        France, Germany, Greece,        
                                        Indonesia, Ireland, Israel,     
                                        Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, South 
                                        Korea, Latvia, Liechtenstein,   
                                        Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malaysia,
                                        Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands,  
                                        Monaco, Netherlands, NZ, Niger, 
                                        Norway, Papua New Guinea, Peru, 
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,  
                                        Romania, Russia, Saint Lucia,   
                                        Saint Vincent and the           
                                        Grenadines, Seychelles,         
                                        Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon     
                                        Islands, Spain, Sweden,         
                                        Switzerland, Thailand, Ukraine, 
                                        UK, US, Vietnam, Zambia         
        Law of the Sea                  see United Nations Convention on
                                        the Law of the Sea (LOS)        
        Marine Dumping                  see Convention on the Prevention
                                        of Marine Pollution by Dumping  
                                        Wastes and Other Matter (London 
                                        Convention)                     
        Marine Life Conservation        see Convention on Fishing and   
                                        Conservation of Living Resources
                                        of the High Seas                
        Montreal Protocol on Substances note - abbreviated as Ozone     
        That Deplete the Ozone Layer    Layer Protection                
                                        opened for signature - 16       
                                        September 1987                  
                                        entered into force - 1 January  
                                        1989                            
                                        objective - to protect the ozone
                                        layer by controlling emissions  
                                        of substances that deplete it   
                                        parties - (175) Albania,        
                                        Algeria, Angola, Antigua and    
                                        Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia,    
                                        Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, 
                                        The Bahamas, Bahrain,           
                                        Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,  
                                        Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia,
                                        Bosnia and Herzegovina,         
                                        Botswana, Brazil, Brunei,       
                                        Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma,  
                                        Burundi, Cameroon, Canada,      
                                        Central African Republic, Chad, 
                                        Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros,
                                        Democratic Republic of the      
                                        Congo, Republic of the Congo,   
                                        Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire,      
                                        Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech    
                                        Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,    
                                        Dominica, Dominican Republic,   
                                        Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,    
                                        Estonia, Ethiopia, EU, Fiji,    
                                        Finland, France, Gabon, The     
                                        Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,
                                        Greece, Grenada, Guatemala,     
                                        Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras,
                                        Hungary, Iceland, India,        
                                        Indonesia, Iran, Ireland,       
                                        Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,  
                                        Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,      
                                        Kiribati, North Korea, South    
                                        Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,
                                        Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho,       
                                        Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein,  
                                        Lithuania, Luxembourg, The      
                                        Former Yugoslav Republic of     
                                        Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi,  
                                        Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,
                                        Marshall Islands, Mauritania,   
                                        Mauritius, Mexico, Federated    
                                        States of Micronesia, Moldova,  
                                        Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco,      
                                        Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal,     
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,     
                                        Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman,   
                                        Pakistan, Panama, Papua New     
                                        Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,         
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,  
                                        Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saint   
                                        Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,   
                                        Saint Vincent and the           
                                        Grenadines, Samoa, Saudi Arabia,
                                        Senegal, Seychelles, Singapore, 
                                        Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon     
                                        Islands, South Africa, Spain,   
                                        Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,     
                                        Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, 
                                        Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania,    
                                        Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad 
                                        and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,    
                                        Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda,   
                                        Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,  
                                        Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, 
                                        Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia,     
                                        Zambia, Zimbabwe                
        Nuclear Test Ban                see Treaty Banning Nuclear      
                                        Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere,
                                        in Outer Space, and Under Water 
        Ozone Layer Protection          see Montreal Protocol on        
                                        Substances That Deplete the     
                                        Ozone Layer                     
        Protocol of 1978 Relating to    note - abbreviated as Ship      
        the International Convention    Pollution                       
        for the Prevention of Pollution opened for signature - 17       
        From Ships, 1973 (MARPOL)       February 1978                   
                                        entered into force - 2 October  
                                        1983                            
                                        objective - to preserve the     
                                        marine environment through the  
                                        complete elimination of         
                                        pollution by oil and other      
                                        harmful substances and the      
                                        minimization of accidental      
                                        discharge of such substances    
                                        parties - (115) Algeria, Antigua
                                        and Barbuda, Argentina,         
                                        Australia, Austria, The Bahamas,
                                        Barbados, Belarus, Belgium,     
                                        Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, 
                                        Brunei, Bulgaria, Burma,        
                                        Cambodia, Canada, Chile, China, 
                                        Colombia, Comoros, Cote         
                                        d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,
                                        Czech Republic, Denmark,        
                                        Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican   
                                        Republic, Ecuador, Egypt,       
                                        Equatorial Guinea, Estonia,     
                                        Finland, France, Gabon, The     
                                        Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,
                                        Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Hong 
                                        Kong (associate member),        
                                        Hungary, Iceland, India,        
                                        Indonesia, Ireland, Israel,     
                                        Italy, Jamaica, Japan,          
                                        Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, 
                                        South Korea, Latvia, Lebanon,   
                                        Liberia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, 
                                        Malaysia, Malta, Marshall       
                                        Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, 
                                        Mexico, Monaco, Morocco,        
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,     
                                        Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, 
                                        Papua New Guinea, Peru, Poland, 
                                        Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saint
                                        Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,   
                                        Saint Vincent and the           
                                        Grenadines, Sao Tome and        
                                        Principe, Senegal, Seychelles,  
                                        Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,  
                                        South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, 
                                        Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland,  
                                        Syria, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and
                                        Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Tuvalu,
                                        Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay,       
                                        Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam,    
                                        Yugoslavia                      
        Protocol on Environmental       note - abbreviated as Antarctic-
        Protection to the Antarctic     Environmental Protocol          
        Treaty                          opened for signature - 4 October
                                        1991                            
                                        entered into force - 14 January 
                                        1998                            
                                        objective - to provide for      
                                        comprehensive protection of the 
                                        Antarctic environment and       
                                        dependent and associated        
                                        ecosystems; applies to the area 
                                        covered by the Antarctic Treaty 
                                        parties - (27) Argentina,       
                                        Australia, Belgium, Brazil,     
                                        Bulgaria, Chile, China, Ecuador,
                                        Finland, France, Germany, India,
                                        Italy, Japan, South Korea,      
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Peru,  
                                        Poland, Russia, South Africa,   
                                        Spain, Sweden, UK, US, Uruguay  
                                        countries that have signed, but 
                                        not yet ratified - (16) Austria,
                                        Canada, Colombia, Cuba, Czech   
                                        Republic, Denmark, Greece,      
                                        Guatemala, Hungary, North Korea,
                                        Papua New Guinea, Romania,      
                                        Slovakia, Switzerland, Turkey,  
                                        Ukraine                         
        Protocol to the 1979 Convention note - abbreviated as Air       
        on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides       
        Pollution Concerning the        opened for signature - 31       
        Control of Emissions of         October 1988                    
        Nitrogen Oxides or Their        entered into force - 14 February
        Transboundary Fluxes            1991                            
                                        objective - to provide for the  
                                        control or reduction of nitrogen
                                        oxides and their transboundary  
                                        fluxes                          
                                        parties - (28) Austria, Belarus,
                                        Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech
                                        Republic, Denmark, Estonia, EU, 
                                        Finland, France, Germany,       
                                        Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy,
                                        Liechtenstein, Luxembourg,      
                                        Netherlands, Norway, Russia,    
                                        Slovakia, Spain, Sweden,        
                                        Switzerland, Ukraine, UK, US    
                                        countries that have signed, but 
                                        not yet ratified - (1) Poland   
        Protocol to the 1979 Convention note - abbreviated as Air       
        on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution-Volatile Organic      
        Pollution Concerning the        Compounds                       
        Control of Emissions of         opened for signature - 18       
        Volatile Organic Compounds or   November 1991                   
        Their Transboundary Fluxes      entered into force - 29         
                                        September 1997                  
                                        objective - to provide for the  
                                        control and reduction of        
                                        emissions of volatile organic   
                                        compounds in order to reduce    
                                        their transboundary fluxes so as
                                        to protect human health and the 
                                        environment from adverse effects
                                        parties - (20) Austria, Belgium,
                                        Bulgaria, Czech Republic,       
                                        Denmark, Estonia, Finland,      
                                        France, Germany, Hungary, Italy,
                                        Liechtenstein, Luxembourg,      
                                        Netherlands, Norway, Slovakia,  
                                        Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK  
                                        countries that have signed, but 
                                        not yet ratified - (7) Canada,  
                                        EU, Greece, Norway, Portugal,   
                                        Ukraine, US                     
        Protocol to the 1979 Convention note - abbreviated as Air       
        on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution-Sulphur 94            
        Pollution on Further Reduction  opened for signature - 14 June  
        of Sulphur Emissions            1994                            
                                        entered into force - 5 August   
                                        1998                            
                                        objective - to provide for a    
                                        further reduction in sulfur     
                                        emissions or transboundary      
                                        fluxes                          
                                        parties - (23) Austria, Belgium,
                                        Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic,
                                        Denmark, EU, Finland, France,   
                                        Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy,
                                        Liechtenstein, Luxembourg,      
                                        Netherlands, Norway, Slovakia,  
                                        Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,        
                                        Switzerland, UK                 
                                        countries that have signed, but 
                                        not yet ratified - (5) Bulgaria,
                                        Hungary, Poland, Russia, Ukraine
        Protocol to the 1979 Convention note - abbreviated as Air       
        on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution-Persistent Organic    
        Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants                      
        Pollutants                      opened for signature - 24 June  
                                        1998, but not yet in force      
                                        objective - to provide for the  
                                        control and reduction of        
                                        emissions of persistent organic 
                                        pollutants in order to reduce   
                                        their transboundary fluxes so as
                                        to protect human health and the 
                                        environment from adverse effects
                                        parties - (6) Canada,           
                                        Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway,
                                        Sweden, Switzerland             
                                        countries that have signed, but 
                                        not yet ratified - (30) Armenia,
                                        Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,     
                                        Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
                                        Denmark, EU, Finland, France,   
                                        Germany, Greece, Hungary,       
                                        Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,
                                        Liechtenstein, Lithuania,       
                                        Moldova, Poland, Portugal,      
                                        Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,    
                                        Spain, Ukraine, UK, US          
        Protocol to the 1979 Convention note - abbreviated as Air       
        on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution-Sulphur 85            
        Pollution on the Reduction of   opened for signature - 8 July   
        Sulphur Emissions or Their      1985                            
        Transboundary Fluxes by at      entered into force - 2 September
        Least 30%                       1987                            
                                        objective - to provide for a 30%
                                        reduction in sulfur emissions or
                                        transboundary fluxes by 1993    
                                        parties - (22) Austria, Belarus,
                                        Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech
                                        Republic, Denmark, Estonia,     
                                        Finland, France, Germany,       
                                        Hungary, Italy, Liechtenstein,  
                                        Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway,
                                        Russia, Slovakia, Sweden,       
                                        Switzerland, Ukraine            
        Ship Pollution                  see Protocol of 1978 Relating to
                                        the International Convention for
                                        the Prevention of Pollution From
                                        Ships, 1973 (MARPOL)            
        Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon   note - abbreviated as Nuclear   
        Tests in the Atmosphere, in     Test Ban                        
        Outer Space, and Under Water    opened for signature - 5 August 
                                        1963                            
                                        entered into force - 10 October 
                                        1963                            
                                        objective - to obtain an        
                                        agreement on general and        
                                        complete disarmament under      
                                        strict international control in 
                                        accordance with the objectives  
                                        of the United Nations; to put an
                                        end to the armaments race and   
                                        eliminate incentives for the    
                                        production and testing of all   
                                        kinds of weapons, including     
                                        nuclear weapons                 
                                        parties - (113) Afghanistan,    
                                        Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, 
                                        Armenia, Australia, Austria, The
                                        Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belgium,   
                                        Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia  
                                        and Herzegovina, Botswana,      
                                        Brazil, Bulgaria, Burma, Canada,
                                        Central African Republic, Chad, 
                                        China, Colombia, Democratic     
                                        Republic of the Congo, Costa    
                                        Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia,   
                                        Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
                                        Dominican Republic, Ecuador,    
                                        Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji,       
                                        Finland, Gabon, The Gambia,     
                                        Germany, Ghana, Greece,         
                                        Guatemala, Honduras, Hungary,   
                                        Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,
                                        Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy,   
                                        Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya,  
                                        South Korea, Kuwait, Laos,      
                                        Lebanon, Liberia, Luxembourg,   
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,   
                                        Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius,   
                                        Mexico, Morocco, Nepal,         
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,     
                                        Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, 
                                        Papua New Guinea, Peru,         
                                        Philippines, Poland, Romania,   
                                        Russia, Rwanda, Samoa, San      
                                        Marino, Senegal, Seychelles,    
                                        Sierra Leone, Singapore,        
                                        Slovakia, Slovenia, South       
                                        Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
                                        Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,    
                                        Switzerland, Syria, Thailand,   
                                        Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and       
                                        Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda,
                                        UK, US, Venezuela, Yugoslavia,  
                                        Zambia                          
                                        countries that have signed, but 
                                        not yet ratified - (17) Algeria,
                                        Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon,
                                        Chile, Ethiopia, Haiti, Libya,  
                                        Mali, Pakistan, Paraguay,       
                                        Portugal, Somalia, Tanzania,    
                                        Uruguay, Vietnam, Yemen         
        Tropical Timber 83              see International Tropical      
                                        Timber Agreement, 1983          
        Tropical Timber 94              see International Tropical      
                                        Timber Agreement, 1994          
        United Nations Convention on    note - abbreviated as Law of the
        the Law of the Sea (LOS)        Sea                             
                                        opened for signature - 10       
                                        December 1982                   
                                        entered into force - 16 November
                                        1994                            
                                        objective - to set up a         
                                        comprehensive new legal regime  
                                        for the sea and oceans; to      
                                        include rules concerning        
                                        environmental standards as well 
                                        as enforcement provisions       
                                        dealing with pollution of the   
                                        marine environment              
                                        parties - (135) Algeria, Angola,
                                        Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, 
                                        Australia, Austria, The Bahamas,
                                        Bahrain, Barbados, Belgium,     
                                        Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia  
                                        and Herzegovina, Botswana,      
                                        Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burma,
                                        Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chile,    
                                        China, Comoros, Democratic      
                                        Republic of the Congo, Cook     
                                        Islands, Costa Rica, Cote       
                                        d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,
                                        Czech Republic, Djibouti,       
                                        Dominica, Egypt, Equatorial     
                                        Guinea, EU, Fiji, Finland,      
                                        France, Gabon, The Gambia,      
                                        Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece,
                                        Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,     
                                        Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,   
                                        Honduras, Iceland, India,       
                                        Indonesia, Iraq, Ireland, Italy,
                                        Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya,  
                                        South Korea, Kuwait, Laos,      
                                        Lebanon, Luxembourg, The Former 
                                        Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 
                                        Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,
                                        Marshall Islands, Mauritania,   
                                        Mauritius, Mexico, Federated    
                                        States of Micronesia, Monaco,   
                                        Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia,  
                                        Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,  
                                        Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway,     
                                        Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama,  
                                        Papua New Guinea, Paraguay,     
                                        Philippines, Poland, Portugal,  
                                        Romania, Russia, Saint Kitts and
                                        Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint       
                                        Vincent and the Grenadines,     
                                        Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe,   
                                        Saudi Arabia, Senegal,          
                                        Seychelles, Sierra Leone,       
                                        Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,  
                                        Solomon Islands, Somalia, South 
                                        Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
                                        Suriname, Sweden, Tanzania,     
                                        Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and       
                                        Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda,        
                                        Ukraine, UK, Uruguay, Vanuatu,  
                                        Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia,     
                                        Zambia, Zimbabwe                
                                        countries that have signed, but 
                                        not yet ratified - (35)         
                                        Afghanistan, Bangladesh,        
                                        Belarus, Bhutan, Burkina Faso,  
                                        Burundi, Cambodia, Canada,      
                                        Central African Republic, Chad, 
                                        Colombia, Republic of the Congo,
                                        Denmark, Dominican Republic, El 
                                        Salvador, Ethiopia, Hungary,    
                                        Iran, North Korea, Lesotho,     
                                        Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein,  
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Morocco,    
                                        Niger, Niue, Qatar, Rwanda,     
                                        Swaziland, Switzerland,         
                                        Thailand, Tuvalu, UAE           
        United Nations Convention to    note - abbreviated as           
        Combat Desertification in Those Desertification                 
        Countries Experiencing Serious  opened for signature - 14       
        Drought and/or Desertification, October 1994                    
        Particularly in Africa          entered into force - 26 December
                                        1996                            
                                        objective - to combat           
                                        desertification and mitigate the
                                        effects of drought through      
                                        national action programs that   
                                        incorporate long-term strategies
                                        supported by international      
                                        cooperation and partnership     
                                        arrangements                    
                                        parties - (172) Afghanistan,    
                                        Albania, Algeria, Angola,       
                                        Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, 
                                        Armenia, Australia, Austria,    
                                        Azerbaijan, The Bahamas,        
                                        Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,  
                                        Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia,
                                        Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, 
                                        Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,       
                                        Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde,   
                                        Central African Republic, Chad, 
                                        Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros,
                                        Democratic Republic of the      
                                        Congo, Republic of the Congo,   
                                        Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote  
                                        d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,
                                        Czech Republic, Denmark,        
                                        Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican   
                                        Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El    
                                        Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,    
                                        Eritrea, Ethiopia, EU, Fiji,    
                                        Finland, France, Gabon, The     
                                        Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,
                                        Greece, Grenada, Guatemala,     
                                        Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,  
                                        Haiti, Honduras, Hungary,       
                                        Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,
                                        Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,
                                        Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan,      
                                        Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea,   
                                        Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,       
                                        Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,      
                                        Libya, Liechtenstein,           
                                        Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, 
                                        Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Marshall 
                                        Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, 
                                        Mexico, Federated States of     
                                        Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco,    
                                        Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique,  
                                        Namibia, Nauru, Nepal,          
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,     
                                        Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norway,   
                                        Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama,  
                                        Papua New Guinea, Paraguay,     
                                        Peru, Philippines, Portugal,    
                                        Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint   
                                        Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,   
                                        Saint Vincent and the           
                                        Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino,  
                                        Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi    
                                        Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,    
                                        Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon
                                        Islands, South Africa, Spain,   
                                        Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,     
                                        Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, 
                                        Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania,    
                                        Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and       
                                        Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,        
                                        Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda,   
                                        UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,           
                                        Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, 
                                        Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
        United Nations Framework        note - abbreviated as Climate   
        Convention on Climate Change    Change                          
                                        opened for signature - 9 May    
                                        1992                            
                                        entered into force - 21 March   
                                        1994                            
                                        objective - to achieve          
                                        stabilization of greenhouse gas 
                                        concentrations in the atmosphere
                                        at a low enough level to prevent
                                        dangerous anthropogenic         
                                        interference with the climate   
                                        system                          
                                        parties - (186) Albania,        
                                        Algeria, Angola, Antigua and    
                                        Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia,    
                                        Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, 
                                        The Bahamas, Bahrain,           
                                        Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,  
                                        Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, 
                                        Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
                                        Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria,     
                                        Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi,   
                                        Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape
                                        Verde, Central African Republic,
                                        Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,   
                                        Comoros, Democratic Republic of 
                                        the Congo, Republic of the      
                                        Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica,
                                        Cote d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba,   
                                        Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
                                        Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican   
                                        Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El    
                                        Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,    
                                        Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, EU, 
                                        Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon,   
                                        The Gambia, Georgia, Germany,   
                                        Ghana, Greece, Grenada,         
                                        Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-      
                                        Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras,
                                        Hungary, Iceland, India,        
                                        Indonesia, Iran, Ireland,       
                                        Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,  
                                        Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,      
                                        Kiribati, North Korea, South    
                                        Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,
                                        Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya,
                                        Liechtenstein, Lithuania,       
                                        Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav 
                                        Republic of Macedonia,          
                                        Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,   
                                        Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall 
                                        Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, 
                                        Mexico, Federated States of     
                                        Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco,    
                                        Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique,  
                                        Namibia, Nauru, Nepal,          
                                        Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,     
                                        Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norway,   
                                        Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama,  
                                        Papua New Guinea, Paraguay,     
                                        Peru, Philippines, Poland,      
                                        Portugal, Qatar, Romania,       
                                        Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and 
                                        Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint       
                                        Vincent and the Grenadines,     
                                        Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and 
                                        Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
                                        Seychelles, Sierra Leone,       
                                        Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,  
                                        Solomon Islands, South Africa,  
                                        Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,        
                                        Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,    
                                        Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, 
                                        Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,
                                        Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,   
                                        Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda,   
                                        Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,  
                                        Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, 
                                        Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia,     
                                        Zambia, Zimbabwe                
                                        countries that have signed, but 
                                        not yet ratified - (2)          
                                        Afghanistan, Liberia            
        Wetlands                        see Convention on Wetlands of   
                                        International Importance        
                                        Especially As Waterfowl Habitat 
                                        (Ramsar)                        
        Whaling                         see International Convention for
                                        the Regulation of Whaling       
  
  

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