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3 definitions found
 for Sudan
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Sudan
      n 1: a republic in northeastern Africa on the Red Sea; achieved
           independence from Egypt and the United Kingdom in 1956
           [syn: Sudan, Republic of the Sudan, Soudan]
      2: a region of northern Africa to the south of the Sahara and
         Libyan deserts; extends from the Atlantic to the Red Sea
         [syn: Sudan, Soudan]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Sudan
  
     Introduction Sudan
     ------------------
                              Background: Military dictatorships favoring an
                                          Islamic-oriented government have
                                          dominated national politics since
                                          independence from the UK in 1956.
                                          Sudan has been embroiled in a civil
                                          war for all but 10 years of this
                                          period (1972-82). Since 1983, the
                                          war and war- and famine-related
                                          effects have led to more than 2
                                          million deaths and over 4 million
                                          people displaced. The war pits the
                                          Arab/Muslim majority in Khartoum
                                          against the non-Muslim African
                                          rebels in the south. Since 1989,
                                          traditional northern Muslim parties
                                          have made common cause with the
                                          southern rebels and entered the war
                                          as a part of an anti-government
                                          alliance.
    
     Geography Sudan
     ---------------
                                Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Red
                                          Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
                  Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 30 00 E
                          Map references: Africa
                                    Area: total: 2,505,810 sq km
                                          water: 129,810 sq km
                                          land: 2.376 million sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly more than one-quarter the
                                          size of the US
                         Land boundaries: total: 7,687 km
                                          border countries: Central African
                                          Republic 1,165 km, Chad 1,360 km,
                                          Democratic Republic of the Congo 628
                                          km, Egypt 1,273 km, Eritrea 605 km,
                                          Ethiopia 1,606 km, Kenya 232 km,
                                          Libya 383 km, Uganda 435 km
                               Coastline: 853 km
                         Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 18 NM
                                          continental shelf: 200-m depth or to
                                          the depth of exploitation
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: tropical in south; arid desert in
                                          north; rainy season (April to
                                          October)
                                 Terrain: generally flat, featureless plain;
                                          mountains in east and west
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Red Sea 0 m
                                          highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m
                       Natural resources: petroleum; small reserves of iron
                                          ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc,
                                          tungsten, mica, silver, gold,
                                          hydropower
                                Land use: arable land: 7.03%
                                          permanent crops: 0.08%
                                          other: 92.89% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 19,500 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: dust storms and periodic persistent
                                          droughts
            Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable
                                          water; wildlife populations
                                          threatened by excessive hunting;
                                          soil erosion; desertification;
                                          periodic drought
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
                                          Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
                                          signed, but not ratified: none of
                                          the selected agreements
                        Geography - note: largest country in Africa; dominated
                                          by the Nile and its tributaries
    
     People Sudan
     ------------
                              Population: 37,090,298 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.2% (male 8,385,554;
                                          female 8,023,847)
                                          15-64 years: 53.6% (male 9,945,683;
                                          female 9,933,383)
                                          65 years and over: 2.2% (male
                                          447,214; female 354,617) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 2.73% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 37.21 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 9.81 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: -0.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 1.26 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 1.03 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 67.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 57.33 years
                                          female: 58.5 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 56.22 years
                    Total fertility rate: 5.22 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.99% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 186,000 (1998)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
                             Nationality: noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
    
                                          adjective: Sudanese
                           Ethnic groups: black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%,
                                          foreigners 2%, other 1%
                               Religions: Sunni Muslim 70% (in north),
                                          indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian 5%
                                          (mostly in south and Khartoum)
                               Languages: Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta
                                          Bedawie, diverse dialects of
                                          Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic
                                          languages, English
                                          note: program of "Arabization" in
                                          process
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 46.1%
                                          male: 57.7%
                                          female: 34.6% (1995 est.)
    
     Government Sudan
     ----------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          the Sudan
                                          conventional short form: Sudan
                                          local short form: As-Sudan
                                          local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
    
                                          former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
                         Government type: authoritarian regime - ruling
                                          military junta took power in 1989;
                                          government is run by an alliance of
                                          the military and the National
                                          Congress Party (NCP), formerly the
                                          National Islamic Front (NIF), which
                                          espouses an Islamist platform
                                 Capital: Khartoum
                Administrative divisions: 26 states (wilayat, singular -
                                          wilayah); A'ali an Nil, Al Bahr al
                                          Ahmar, Al Buhayrat, Al Jazirah, Al
                                          Khartum, Al Qadarif, Al Wahdah, An
                                          Nil al Abyad, An Nil al Azraq, Ash
                                          Shamaliyah, Bahr al Jabal, Gharb al
                                          Istiwa'iyah, Gharb Bahr al Ghazal,
                                          Gharb Darfur, Gharb Kurdufan, Janub
                                          Darfur, Janub Kurdufan, Junqali,
                                          Kassala, Nahr an Nil, Shamal Bahr al
                                          Ghazal, Shamal Darfur, Shamal
                                          Kurdufan, Sharq al Istiwa'iyah,
                                          Sinnar, Warab
                            Independence: 1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1956)
                            Constitution: 12 April 1973, suspended following
                                          coup of 6 April 1985; interim
                                          constitution of 10 October 1985
                                          suspended following coup of 30 June
                                          1989; new constitution implemented
                                          on 30 June 1998 partially suspended
                                          12 December 1999 by President BASHIR
                            Legal system: based on English common law and
                                          Islamic law; as of 20 January 1991,
                                          the now defunct Revolutionary
                                          Command Council imposed Islamic law
                                          in the northern states; Islamic law
                                          applies to all residents of the
                                          northern states regardless of their
                                          religion; some separate religious
                                          courts; accepts compulsory ICJ
                                          jurisdiction, with reservations
                                Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal, but
                                          noncompulsory
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Lt. Gen.
                                          Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16
                                          October 1993); First Vice President
                                          Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (since 17
                                          February 1998), Second Vice
                                          President Moses MACHAR (since 12
                                          February 2001); note - the president
                                          is both the chief of state and head
                                          of government
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a five-year term;
                                          election last held 13-23 December
                                          2000 (next to be held NA 2005)
                                          note: BASHIR assumed supreme
                                          executive power in 1989 and retained
                                          it through several transitional
                                          governments in the early and mid-90s
                                          before being popularly elected for
                                          the first time in March 1996
                                          election results: Umar Hasan Ahmad
                                          al-BASHIR reelected president;
                                          percent of vote - Umar Hasan Ahmad
                                          al-BASHIR 86.5%, Ja'afar Muhammed
                                          NUMAYRI 9.6%, three other candidates
                                          received less than a combined 4% of
                                          the vote; election widely viewed as
                                          rigged; all popular opposition
                                          parties boycotted elections because
                                          of a lack of guarantees for a free
                                          and fair poll
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          appointed by the president; note -
                                          the National Congress Party or NCP
                                          (formerly the National Islamic Front
                                          or NIF) dominates BASHIR's cabinet
                                          head of government: President Lt.
                                          Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR
                                          (since 16 October 1993); First Vice
                                          President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA
                                          (since 17 February 1998), Second
                                          Vice President Moses MACHAR (since
                                          12 February 2001); note - the
                                          president is both the chief of state
                                          and head of government
                      Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (360
                                          seats; 270 popularly elected, 90
                                          elected by supra assembly of
                                          interest groups known as National
                                          Congress; members serve four-year
                                          terms)
                                          elections: last held 13-22 December
                                          2000 (next to be held NA December
                                          2004)
                                          note: on 12 December 1999, BASHIR
                                          dismissed the National Assembly
                                          during an internal power struggle
                                          between the president and the
                                          speaker of the National Assembly
                                          Hassan al-TURABI
                                          election results: NCP 355, others 5
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Special Revolutionary
                                          Courts
           Political parties and leaders: the government allows political
                                          "associations" under a 1998 law
                                          revised in 2000; to obtain
                                          government approval parties must
                                          accept the constitution and refrain
                                          from advocating or using violence
                                          against the regime; approved parties
                                          include the National Congress Party
                                          or NCP [Ibrahim Ahmed UMAR], Popular
                                          National Congress or PNC [Hassan al-
                                          TURABI], and over 20 minor, pro-
                                          government parties
            Political pressure groups and National Congress Party [Ibrahim
                                 leaders: Ahmed UMAR]; Popular National
                                          Congress [Hassan al-TURABI]; Umma
                                          [Sadiq al-MAHDI]; Democratic
                                          Unionist Party [Muhammed Uthman AL-
                                          MIRGHANI]; National Democratic
                                          Alliance [Muhammed Uthman AL-
                                          MIRGHANI, chairman]; Sudan People's
                                          Liberation Movement/Army [Dr. John
                                          GARANG]
               International organization ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
                           participation: CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA,
                                          IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
                                          IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO,
                                          Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO
                                          (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC,
                                          OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
                                          UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
                                          WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador
                                          (vacant); Charge D'Affairs, Ad
                                          Interim Khidir Haroun AHMED (since
                                          April 2001)
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
                                          chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20008
       Diplomatic representation from the For security reasons, US officials
                                      US: at the US Embassy in Khartoum were
                                          relocated in February 1996 to the US
                                          Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and
                                          Cairo, Egypt, from where they make
                                          regular visits to Khartoum; the US
                                          Embassy in Khartoum is located on
                                          Sharia Abdul Latif Avenue; mailing
                                          address - P. O. Box 699, Khartoum;
                                          APO AE 09829; telephone - [249] (11)
                                          774611 or 774700; FAX - [249] (11)
                                          774137; the US Embassy in Nairobi,
                                          Kenya is located in the Interim
                                          Office Building on Mombasa Road,
                                          Nairobi; mailing address - P. O. Box
                                          30137, Box 21A, Unit 64100, APO AE
                                          09831; telephone - [254] (2) 751613;
                                          FAX - [254] (2) 743204; the US
                                          Embassy in Cairo, Egypt is located
                                          at (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din
                                          Salah Street, Garden City, Cairo;
                                          mailing address - Unit 64900, APO AE
                                          09839-4900; telephone - [20] (2)
                                          3557371; FAX - [20] (2) 3573200
                        Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red
                                          (top), white, and black with a green
                                          isosceles triangle based on the
                                          hoist side
    
     Economy Sudan
     -------------
                      Economy - overview: Sudan has turned around a struggling
                                          economy with sound economic policies
                                          and infrastructure investments, but
                                          it still faces formidable economic
                                          problems. Starting in 1997 Sudan
                                          began implementing IMF macroeconomic
                                          reforms that have successfully
                                          stabilized inflation. In 1999 Sudan
                                          began exporting crude oil and in the
                                          last quarter of 1999 recorded its
                                          first trade surplus, along with
                                          monetary policy, has stabilized the
                                          exchange rate. Current oil
                                          production stands at 220,000 barrels
                                          per day, of which some 70% is
                                          exported and the rest refined mostly
                                          for domestic consumption. Increased
                                          oil production, revived light
                                          industry, and expanded export
                                          processing zones should maintain GDP
                                          growth at 5% in 2002. Agriculture
                                          production remains Sudan's most
                                          important sector, employing 80% of
                                          the work force and contributing 43%
                                          of GDP, but most farms remain rain-
                                          fed and susceptible to drought.
                                          Sudan is also constrained by its
                                          limited access to international
                                          credit; most of Sudan's $24.9
                                          billion debt remains in arrears. The
                                          civil war, chronic instability,
                                          adverse weather, and weak world
                                          agricultural prices ensure that much
                                          of the population will remain at or
                                          below the poverty line for years.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $49.3
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 5.5% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,360
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 43%
                                          industry: 17%
                                          services: 40% (1999 est.)
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 11 million (1996 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry and
                                          commerce 7%, government 13% (1998
                                          est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 18.7% (2002 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $1.6 billion
                                          expenditures: $1.9 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2001 est.)
                              Industries: oil, cotton ginning, textiles,
                                          cement, edible oils, sugar, soap
                                          distilling, shoes, petroleum
                                          refining, pharmaceuticals,
                                          armaments, automobile/light truck
                                          assembly
       Industrial production growth rate: 8.5% (1999 est.)
                Electricity - production: 1.97 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 49.24%
                                          hydro: 50.76%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 1,832.1 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: cotton, groundnuts (peanuts),
                                          sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic,
                                          sugarcane, cassava (tapioca),
                                          mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet
                                          potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock
                                 Exports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: oil and petroleum products, cotton,
                                          sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum
                                          arabic, sugar
                      Exports - partners: Japan 25%, China 19%, Saudi Arabia
                                          14%, Germany 4%, (2000)
                                 Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods,
                                          refinery and transport equipment,
                                          medicines and chemicals, textiles,
                                          wheat
                      Imports - partners: China 12%, Saudi Arabia 10%, UK 10%,
                                          Germany 7% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $24.9 billion (2000 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $187 million (1997)
                                Currency: Sudanese dinar (SDD)
                           Currency code: SDD
                          Exchange rates: Sudanese dinars per US dollar -
                                          261.44 (January 2002), 258.70
                                          (2001), 257.12 (2000), 252.55
                                          (1999), 200.80 (1998), 157.57 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
    
     Communications Sudan
     --------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 400,000 (2000)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 20,000 (2000)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: large, well-
                                          equipped system by regional
                                          standards and being upgraded;
                                          cellular communications started in
                                          1996 and have expanded substantially
    
                                          domestic: consists of microwave
                                          radio relay, cable, radiotelephone
                                          communications, tropospheric
                                          scatter, and a domestic satellite
                                          system with 14 earth stations
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic
                                          Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (2000)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)
                                  Radios: 7.55 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 3 (1997)
                             Televisions: 2.38 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .sd
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2002)
                          Internet users: 50,000 (2002)
    
     Transportation Sudan
     --------------------
                                Railways: total: 5,995 km
                                          narrow gauge: 4,595 km 1.067-
                                          m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge
                                          plantation line
                                          note: the 1.067-m line from Khartoum
                                          to Port Sudan carries over two-
                                          thirds of Sudan's rail traffic; the
                                          0.600-m gauge system serves Sudan's
                                          cotton plantations with over 120
                                          collecting stations (2001)
                                Highways: total: 11,900 km
                                          paved: 4,320 km
                                          unpaved: 7,580 km (1996)
                               Waterways: 5,310 km
                               Pipelines: refined products 815 km
                       Ports and harbors: Juba, Khartoum, Kusti, Malakal,
                                          Nimule, Port Sudan, Sawakin
                         Merchant marine: total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 39,545 GRT/51,195 DWT
                                          ships by type: cargo 2, roll on/roll
                                          off 2 (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 65 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 12
                                          over 3,047 m: 1
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 53
                                          under 914 m: 11 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 26
                               Heliports: 1 (2001)
    
     Military Sudan
     --------------
                         Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Popular
                                            Defense Force Militia
          Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
          Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 8,739,982 (2002
                                            est.)
       Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 5,380,917 (2002
                                   service: est.)
      Military manpower - reaching military males: 398,294 (2002 est.)
                              age annually:
             Military expenditures - dollar $581 million (2001 est.)
                                    figure:
         Military expenditures - percent of 2.5% (1999)
                                       GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Sudan
     --------------------------
                Disputes - international: Sudan agrees in 2002 to demarcate
                                          whole boundary with Ethiopia; Egypt
                                          and Sudan each claim to administer
                                          triangular areas which extend north
                                          and south of the 1899 Treaty
                                          boundary along the 22nd Parallel
                                          (the north "Hala'ib Triangle" is the
                                          largest with 20,580 sq km); in 2001,
                                          the two states agreed to discuss an
                                          "area of integration" and withdraw
                                          military forces in the overlapping
                                          areas; since colonial times, Kenya's
                                          administrative boundary has extended
                                          beyond its treaty boundary into
                                          Sudan creating the "Ilemi Triangle"
    
                                         
  
  

From U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000) :

  Sudan, TX -- U.S. city in Texas
     Population (2000):    1039
     Housing Units (2000): 460
     Land area (2000):     0.907197 sq. miles (2.349629 sq. km)
     Water area (2000):    0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
     Total area (2000):    0.907197 sq. miles (2.349629 sq. km)
     FIPS code:            70772
     Located within:       Texas (TX), FIPS 48
     Location:             34.064770 N, 102.524782 W
     ZIP Codes (1990):     79371
     Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
     Headwords:
      Sudan, TX
      Sudan
  

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