dict.org

The DICT Development Group


Search for:
Search type:
Database:

Database copyright information
Server information
Wiki: Resources, links, and other information


2 definitions found
 for Svalbard
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Svalbard
      n 1: a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Svalbard
  
     Introduction Svalbard
     ---------------------
                              Background: First discovered by the Norwegians
                                          in the 12th century, the islands
                                          served as an international whaling
                                          base during the 17th and 18th
                                          centuries. Norway's sovereignty was
                                          recognized in 1920; five years later
                                          it officially took over the
                                          territory.
    
     Geography Svalbard
     ------------------
                                Location: Northern Europe, islands between the
                                          Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Greenland
                                          Sea, and Norwegian Sea, north of
                                          Norway
                  Geographic coordinates: 78 00 N, 20 00 E
                          Map references: Arctic Region
                                    Area: total: 62,049 sq km
                                          note: includes Spitsbergen and
                                          Bjornoya (Bear Island)
                                          water: 0 sq km
                                          land: 62,049 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia
                         Land boundaries: 0 km
                               Coastline: 3,587 km
                         Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
                                          unilaterally claimed by Norway but
                                          not recognized by Russia
                                          territorial sea: 4 NM
                                 Climate: arctic, tempered by warm North
                                          Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold
                                          winters; North Atlantic Current
                                          flows along west and north coasts of
                                          Spitsbergen, keeping water open and
                                          navigable most of the year
                                 Terrain: wild, rugged mountains; much of high
                                          land ice covered; west coast clear
                                          of ice about one-half of the year;
                                          fjords along west and north coasts
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Arctic Ocean 0 m
                                          highest point: Newtontoppen 1,717 m
                       Natural resources: coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate,
                                          zinc, wildlife, fish
                                Land use: arable land: 0%
                                          permanent crops: 0%
                                          other: 100% (no trees, and the only
                                          bushes are crowberry and cloudberry)
                                          (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: NA sq km
                         Natural hazards: ice floes often block the entrance
                                          to Bellsund (a transit point for
                                          coal export) on the west coast and
                                          occasionally make parts of the
                                          northeastern coast inaccessible to
                                          maritime traffic
            Environment - current issues: NA
                        Geography - note: northernmost part of the Kingdom of
                                          Norway; consists of nine main
                                          islands; glaciers and snowfields
                                          cover 60% of the total area
    
     People Svalbard
     ---------------
                               Population: 2,868 (July 2002 est.)
                            Age structure: 0-14 years: NA%
                                           15-64 years: NA%
                                           65 years and over: NA%
                   Population growth rate: -1.99% (2002 est.)
                               Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population
                               Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population
                       Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                Sex ratio: NA
                    Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births
                 Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA years
                                           male: NA years
                                           female: NA years
                     Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman
         HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0% (2001)
        HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 0 (2001)
                                     AIDS:
                        HIV/AIDS - deaths: 0 (2001)
                            Ethnic groups: Norwegian 55.4%, Russian and
                                           Ukrainian 44.3%, other 0.3% (1998)
                                Languages: Russian, Norwegian
                                 Literacy: NA
    
     Government Svalbard
     -------------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: none
                                          conventional short form: Svalbard
                                          (sometimes referred to as
                                          Spitzbergen)
                       Dependency status: territory of Norway; administered by
                                          the Polar Department of the Ministry
                                          of Justice, through a governor
                                          (sysselmann) residing in
                                          Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen; by treaty
                                          (9 February 1920) sovereignty was
                                          awarded to Norway
                         Government type: NA
                                 Capital: Longyearbyen
                            Independence: none (territory of Norway)
                        National holiday: NA
                            Legal system: NA
                        Executive branch: chief of state: King HARALD V of
                                          Norway (since 17 January 1991)
                                          head of government: Governor Morten
                                          RUUD (since NA November 1998) and
                                          Assistant Governor Odd Redar
                                          HUMLEGAARD (since NA)
                                          elections: none; the monarch is
                                          hereditary; governor and assistant
                                          governor responsible to the Polar
                                          Department of the Ministry of
                                          Justice
               International organization none
                           participation:
                        Flag description: the flag of Norway is used
    
     Economy Svalbard
     ----------------
                      Economy - overview: Coal mining is the major economic
                                          activity on Svalbard. The treaty of
                                          9 February 1920 gives the 41
                                          signatories equal rights to exploit
                                          mineral deposits, subject to
                                          Norwegian regulation. Although US,
                                          UK, Dutch, and Swedish coal
                                          companies have mined in the past,
                                          the only companies still mining are
                                          Norwegian and Russian. The
                                          settlements on Svalbard are
                                          essentially company towns. The
                                          Norwegian state-owned coal company
                                          employs nearly 60% of the Norwegian
                                          population on the island, runs many
                                          of the local services, and provides
                                          most of the local infrastructure.
                                          There is also some trapping of seal,
                                          polar bear, fox, and walrus.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA
                  GDP - real growth rate: NA%
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%
                             Labor force: NA
                                  Budget: revenues: $11.5 million
                                          expenditures: $11.5 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (1998 est.)
       Industrial production growth rate: NA%
                Electricity - production: NA kWh
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA%
                                          other: NA%
                                          hydro: NA%
                                          nuclear: NA%
               Electricity - consumption: NA kWh
                                 Exports: $NA
                                 Imports: $NA
                Economic aid - recipient: $8.2 million from Norway (1998)
                                Currency: Norwegian krone (NOK)
                           Currency code: NOK
                          Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner per US dollar -
                                          8.9684 (January 2002), 8.9917
                                          (2001), 8.8018 (2000), 7.7992
                                          (1999), 7.5451 (1998), 7.0734 (1997)
    
     Communications Svalbard
     -----------------------
           Telephones - main lines in use: NA
             Telephones - mobile cellular: NA
                         Telephone system: general assessment: probably
                                           adequate
                                           domestic: local telephone service
                                           international: satellite earth
                                           station - 1 of unknown type (for
                                           communication with Norwegian
                                           mainland only)
                 Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1 (plus 2 repeaters),
                                           shortwave 0 (1998)
                                   Radios: NA
            Television broadcast stations: NA
                              Televisions: NA
                    Internet country code: .sj
        Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 13 (Svalbard and Jan Mayen) (2000)
                           Internet users: NA
    
     Transportation Svalbard
     -----------------------
                                   Railways: 0 km
                                   Highways: total: NA km
                                             paved: NA km
                                             unpaved: NA km
                                  Waterways: none
                          Ports and harbors: Barentsburg, Longyearbyen, Ny-
                                             Alesund, Pyramiden
                            Merchant marine: none (2002 est.)
                                   Airports: 4 (2001)
              Airports - with paved runways: total: 1
                                             1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2001)
            Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 3
                                             under 914 m: 3 (2001)
    
     Military Svalbard
     -----------------
                          Military - note: demilitarized by treaty (9 February
                                           1920)
    
     Transnational Issues Svalbard
     -----------------------------
                Disputes - international: despite recent discussions, Russia
                                          and Norway dispute their maritime
                                          limits in the Barents Sea and
                                          Russia's fishing rights beyond
                                          Svalbard's territorial limits within
                                          the Svalbard Treaty zone
    
                                         
  
  

Questions or comments about this site? Contact webmaster@dict.org