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3 definitions found
 for Taiwan
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Formosa \Formosa\ prop. n.
     An island off the coast of China, also called Taiwan. It
     was occupied by Japan from 1895 to 1945, when it was returned
     to Chinese sovereignty. After the Communist revolution which
     took over the Chinese mainland in 1949, the Nationalist
     Chinese under Chang Kai-Shek retreated to the island of
     Formosa and established that island as the base of their
     government, being recognized for several years as the de jure
     possessor of the China seat in the United Nations. The
     capital is Taipei. As of 1998, both the Taiwan government and
     the mainland China government recognized Taiwan as properly a
     part of China, but the island is currently ruled as a de
     facto independent nation, though it does not possess a seat
     in the United Nations. The question of when and under what
     circumstances the island will be reunited with the mainland
     government is still unresolved.
  
     Syn: Taiwan.
          [PJC]

From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Taiwan
      n 1: a government on the island of Taiwan established in 1949 by
           Chiang Kai-shek after the conquest of mainland China by the
           Communists led by Mao Zedong [syn: Taiwan, China,
           Nationalist China, Republic of China]
      2: an island in southeastern Asia 100 miles off the coast of
         mainland China in the South China Sea [syn: Taiwan,
         Formosa]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Taiwan
  
     Introduction Taiwan
     -------------------
                              Background: In 1895, military defeat forced
                                          China to cede Taiwan to Japan,
                                          however it reverted to Chinese
                                          control after World War II.
                                          Following the Communist victory on
                                          the mainland in 1949, 2 million
                                          Nationalists fled to Taiwan and
                                          established a government using the
                                          1947 constitution drawn up for all
                                          of China. Over the next five
                                          decades, the ruling authorities
                                          gradually democratized and
                                          incorporated the native population
                                          within its governing structure. This
                                          culminated in 2000, when Taiwan
                                          underwent its first peaceful
                                          transfer of power from the
                                          Nationalist to the Democratic
                                          Progressive Party. Throughout this
                                          period, the island has prospered to
                                          become one of East Asia's economic
                                          "Tigers." The dominant political
                                          issues continue to be the
                                          relationship between Taiwan and
                                          China - specifically the question of
                                          eventual unification - as well as
                                          domestic political and economic
                                          reform.
    
     Geography Taiwan
     ----------------
                                Location: Eastern Asia, islands bordering the
                                          East China Sea, Philippine Sea,
                                          South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait,
                                          north of the Philippines, off the
                                          southeastern coast of China
                  Geographic coordinates: 23 30 N, 121 00 E
                          Map references: Southeast Asia
                                    Area: total: 35,980 sq km
                                          note: includes the Pescadores,
                                          Matsu, and Quemoy
                                          water: 3,720 sq km
                                          land: 32,260 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland and
                                          Delaware combined
                         Land boundaries: 0 km
                               Coastline: 1,566.3 km
                         Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: tropical; marine; rainy season
                                          during southwest monsoon (June to
                                          August); cloudiness is persistent
                                          and extensive all year
                                 Terrain: eastern two-thirds mostly rugged
                                          mountains; flat to gently rolling
                                          plains in west
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
                                          highest point: Yu Shan 3,997 m
                       Natural resources: small deposits of coal, natural gas,
                                          limestone, marble, and asbestos
                                Land use: arable land: 24%
                                          permanent crops: 1%
                                          other: 75%
                          Irrigated land: NA sq km
                         Natural hazards: earthquakes and typhoons
            Environment - current issues: air pollution; water pollution from
                                          industrial emissions, raw sewage;
                                          contamination of drinking water
                                          supplies; trade in endangered
                                          species; low-level radioactive waste
                                          disposal
              Environment - international party to: none of the selected
                              agreements: agreements because of Taiwan's
                                          international status
                                          signed, but not ratified: none of
                                          the selected agreements because of
                                          Taiwan's international status
                        Geography - note: strategic location adjacent to both
                                          the Taiwan Strait and the Luzon
                                          Strait
    
     People Taiwan
     -------------
                              Population: 22,548,009 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 21% (male 2,464,290;
                                          female 2,268,627)
                                          15-64 years: 70% (male 8,010,014;
                                          female 7,774,296)
                                          65 years and over: 9% (male
                                          1,053,975; female 976,807) (2002
                                          est.)
                  Population growth rate: 0.78% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 14.21 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 6.08 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: -0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 1.08 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 1.05 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.74 years
                                          female: 79.71 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 73.99 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.76 children born/woman (2002 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
                             Nationality: noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
                                          adjective: Chinese
                           Ethnic groups: Taiwanese (including Hakka) 84%,
                                          mainland Chinese 14%, aborigine 2%
                               Religions: mixture of Buddhist, Confucian, and
                                          Taoist 93%, Christian 4.5%, other
                                          2.5%
                               Languages: Mandarin Chinese (official),
                                          Taiwanese (Min), Hakka dialects
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 86% (1980 est.)
                                          male: 93% (1980 est.)
                                          female: 79% (1980 est.)
                                          note: literacy for the total
                                          population has reportedly increased
                                          to 94% (1998 est.)
    
     Government Taiwan
     -----------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: none
                                          conventional short form: Taiwan
                                          local short form: T'ai-wan
                                          local long form: none
                                          former: Formosa
                         Government type: multiparty democratic regime headed
                                          by popularly elected president and
                                          unicameral legislature
                                 Capital: Taipei
                Administrative divisions: the central administrative divisions
                                          include the provinces of Fu-chien
                                          (some 20 offshore islands of Fujian
                                          Province including Quemoy and Matsu)
                                          and Taiwan (the island of Taiwan and
                                          the Pescadores islands); Taiwan is
                                          further subdivided into 16 counties
                                          (hsien, singular and plural), 5
                                          municipalities* (shih, singular and
                                          plural), and 2 special
                                          municipalities** (chuan-shih,
                                          singular and plural); Chang-hua,
                                          Chia-i, Chia-i*, Chi-lung*, Hsin-
                                          chu, Hsin-chu*, Hua-lien, I-lan,
                                          Kao-hsiung, Kao-hsiung**, Miao-li,
                                          Nan-t'ou, P'eng-hu, P'ing-tung,
                                          T'ai-chung, T'ai-chung*, T'ai-nan,
                                          T'ai-nan*, T'ai-pei, T'ai-pei**,
                                          T'ai-tung, T'ao-yuan, and Yun-lin;
                                          the provincial capital is at Chung-
                                          hsing-hsin-ts'un
                                          note: Taiwan uses the Wade-Giles
                                          system for romanization
                        National holiday: Republic Day (Anniversary of the
                                          Chinese Revolution), 10 October
                                          (1911)
                            Constitution: 1 January 1947, amended in 1992,
                                          1994, 1997, and 1999
                            Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts
                                          compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
                                          reservations
                                Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Shui-bian
                                          CHEN (since 20 May 2000) and Vice
                                          President Annette Hsiu-lien LU
                                          (since 20 May 2000)
                                          election results: Shui-bian CHEN
                                          elected president; percent of vote -
                                          Shui-bian CHEN (DPP) 39.3%, James
                                          SOONG (independent) 36.84%, LIEN
                                          Chan (KMT) 23.1%, HSU Hsin-liang
                                          (independent) 0.63%, LEE Ao (CNP)
                                          0.13%
                                          elections: president and vice
                                          president elected on the same ticket
                                          by popular vote for four-year terms;
                                          election last held 18 March 2000
                                          (next to be held NA March 2004);
                                          premier appointed by the president;
                                          vice premiers appointed by the
                                          president on the recommendation of
                                          the premier
                                          head of government: Premier
                                          (President of the Executive Yuan)
                                          Shyi-kun YU (since 1 February 2002)
                                          and Vice Premier (Vice President of
                                          the Executive Yuan) Hsin-yi LIN
                                          (since 1 February 2002)
                                          cabinet: Executive Yuan appointed by
                                          the president
                      Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Yuan (225
                                          seats - 168 elected by popular vote,
                                          41 elected on the basis of the
                                          proportion of islandwide votes
                                          received by participating political
                                          parties, eight elected from overseas
                                          Chinese constituencies on the basis
                                          of the proportion of islandwide
                                          votes received by participating
                                          political parties, eight elected by
                                          popular vote among the aboriginal
                                          populations; members serve three-
                                          year terms) and unicameral National
                                          Assembly (300 seat nonstanding body;
                                          delegates nominated by parties and
                                          elected by proportional
                                          representation within three months
                                          of a Legislative Yuan call to amend
                                          the Constitution, impeach the
                                          president, or change national
                                          borders)
                                          elections: Legislative Yuan - last
                                          held 8 December 2001 (next to be
                                          held NA December 2004); note - the
                                          National Assembly is a nonstanding
                                          body and is called into session
                                          election results: Legislative Yuan -
                                          percent of vote by party - DPP 39%,
                                          KMT 30%, PFP 20%, TSU 6%,
                                          independents and other parties 5%;
                                          seats by party - DPP 87, KMT 68, PFP
                                          46, TSU 13, independents and other
                                          parties 11
                         Judicial branch: Judicial Yuan (justices appointed by
                                          the president with consent of the
                                          National Assembly; note - beginning
                                          in 2003, justices will be appointed
                                          by the president with consent of the
                                          Legislative Yuan)
           Political parties and leaders: Democratic Progressive Party or DPP
                                          [Frank Chang-ting HSIEH, chairman];
                                          Kuomintang or KMT (Nationalist
                                          Party) [LIEN Chan, chairman]; People
                                          First Party or PFP [James Chu-yu
                                          SOONG, chairman]; Taiwan Solidarity
                                          Union or TSU [Chu-wen HUANG,
                                          chairman]; other minor parties
            Political pressure groups and Taiwan independence movement,
                                 leaders: various business and environmental
                                          groups
                                          note: debate on Taiwan independence
                                          has become acceptable within the
                                          mainstream of domestic politics on
                                          Taiwan; political liberalization and
                                          the increased representation of
                                          opposition parties in Taiwan's
                                          legislature have opened public
                                          debate on the island's national
                                          identity; a broad popular consensus
                                          has developed that Taiwan currently
                                          enjoys de facto independence and -
                                          whatever the ultimate outcome
                                          regarding reunification or
                                          independence - that Taiwan's people
                                          must have the deciding voice;
                                          advocates of Taiwan independence
                                          oppose the stand that the island
                                          will eventually unify with mainland
                                          China; goals of the Taiwan
                                          independence movement include
                                          establishing a sovereign nation on
                                          Taiwan and entering the UN; other
                                          organizations supporting Taiwan
                                          independence include the World
                                          United Formosans for Independence
                                          and the Organization for Taiwan
                                          Nation Building
               International organization APEC, AsDB, BCIE, ICC, ICFTU, IFRCS,
                           participation: IOC, WCL, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: none; unofficial commercial and
                                          cultural relations with the people
                                          of the US are maintained through an
                                          unofficial instrumentality, the
                                          Taipei Economic and Cultural
                                          Representative Office (TECRO) in the
                                          US with headquarters in Taipei and
                                          field offices in Washington and 12
                                          other US cities
       Diplomatic representation from the none; unofficial commercial and
                                      US: cultural relations with the people
                                          on Taiwan are maintained through an
                                          unofficial instrumentality - the
                                          American Institute in Taiwan (AIT) -
                                          which has offices in the US and
                                          Taiwan; US office located at 1700 N.
                                          Moore St., Suite 1700, Arlington, VA
                                          22209-1996, telephone: [1] (703)
                                          525-8474, FAX: [1] (703) 841-1385);
                                          Taiwan offices located at #7 Lane
                                          134, Hsin Yi Road, Section 3,
                                          Taipei, Taiwan, telephone: [886] (2)
                                          2709-2000, FAX: [886] (2) 2702-7675;
                                          #2 Chung Cheng 3rd Road, 5th Floor,
                                          Kaohsiung, Taiwan, telephone: [886]
                                          (7) 224-0154 through 0157, FAX:
                                          [886] (7) 223-8237; and the American
                                          Trade Center, Room 3208
                                          International Trade Building, Taipei
                                          World Trade Center, 333 Keelung Road
                                          Section 1, Taipei, Taiwan 10548,
                                          telephone: [886] (2) 2720-1550, FAX:
                                          [886] (2) 2757-7162
                        Flag description: red with a dark blue rectangle in
                                          the upper hoist-side corner bearing
                                          a white sun with 12 triangular rays
    
     Economy Taiwan
     --------------
                      Economy - overview: Taiwan has a dynamic capitalist
                                          economy with gradually decreasing
                                          guidance of investment and foreign
                                          trade by government authorities. In
                                          keeping with this trend, some large
                                          government-owned banks and
                                          industrial firms are being
                                          privatized. Real growth in GDP has
                                          averaged about 8% during the past
                                          three decades. Exports have provided
                                          the primary impetus for
                                          industrialization. The trade surplus
                                          is substantial, and foreign reserves
                                          are the world's third largest.
                                          Agriculture contributes 2% to GDP,
                                          down from 35% in 1952. Traditional
                                          labor-intensive industries are
                                          steadily being moved offshore and
                                          replaced with more capital- and
                                          technology-intensive industries.
                                          Taiwan has become a major investor
                                          in China, Thailand, Indonesia, the
                                          Philippines, Malaysia, and Vietnam;
                                          50,000 Taiwanese businesses are
                                          established in China. Because of its
                                          conservative financial approach and
                                          its entrepreneurial strengths,
                                          Taiwan suffered little compared with
                                          many of its neighbors from the Asian
                                          financial crisis in 1998-99. The
                                          global economic downturn, however,
                                          combined with poor policy
                                          coordination by the new
                                          administration and increasing bad
                                          debts in the banking system, pushed
                                          Taiwan into recession in 2001, the
                                          first whole year of negative growth
                                          since 1947. Unemployment also
                                          reached a level not seen since the
                                          1970s oil crisis.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $386
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: -2.2% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $17,200
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 2%
                                          industry: 32%
                                          services: 66% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 1% (2000 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
     Distribution of family income - Gini 32.6 (2000)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.5% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 9.8 million (2001 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: services 56%, industry 36%,
                                          agriculture 8% (2001 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 4.5% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $36 billion
                                          expenditures: $36.1 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2002 est.)
                              Industries: electronics, petroleum refining,
                                          chemicals, textiles, iron and steel,
                                          machinery, cement, food processing
       Industrial production growth rate: -5% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 149.78 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 69.48%
                                          hydro: 5.82%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 24.7%
               Electricity - consumption: 139.295 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: rice, corn, vegetables, fruit, tea;
                                          pigs, poultry, beef, milk; fish
                                 Exports: $122 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Exports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment
                                          55%, metals, textiles, plastics,
                                          chemicals
                      Exports - partners: US 23.5%, Hong Kong 21.1%, Europe
                                          16%, ASEAN 12.2%, Japan 11.2% (2000)
                                 Imports: $109 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment
                                          50%, minerals, precision instruments
                      Imports - partners: Japan 27.5%, US 17.9%, Europe 13.6%,
                                          South Korea 6.4% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $40 billion (2000)
                                Currency: new Taiwan dollar (TWD)
                           Currency code: TWD
                          Exchange rates: new Taiwan dollars per US dollar -
                                          34.494 (yearend 2001), 33.082
                                          (yearend 2000), 31.395 (yearend
                                          1999), 32.216 (1998), 32.052 (1997),
                                          27.5 (1996)
                             Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June (up to FY98/99); 1
                                          July 1999 - 31 December 2000 for
                                          FY00; calendar year (after FY00)
    
     Communications Taiwan
     ---------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 12.49 million (September 2000)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 16 million (September 2000)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: provides
                                          telecommunications service for every
                                          business and private need
                                          domestic: thoroughly modern;
                                          completely digitalized
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Pacific
                                          Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); submarine
                                          cables to Japan (Okinawa),
                                          Philippines, Guam, Singapore, Hong
                                          Kong, Indonesia, Australia, Middle
                                          East, and Western Europe (1999)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 218, FM 333, shortwave 50 (1999)
                                  Radios: 16 million (1994)
           Television broadcast stations: 29 (plus two repeaters) (1997)
                             Televisions: 8.8 million (1998)
                   Internet country code: .tw
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 8 (2000)
                          Internet users: 11.6 million (2001)
    
     Transportation Taiwan
     ---------------------
                                Railways: total: 1,108 km
                                          narrow gauge: 1,108 km 1.067-m gauge
                                          (519 km electrified)
                                          note: in addition to the above
                                          routes in common carrier service,
                                          there are several thousand
                                          kilometers of 1.067-m gauge routes
                                          that are dedicated to industrial use
                                          (2001)
                                Highways: total: 34,901 km
                                          paved: 31,271 km (including 538 km
                                          of expressways)
                                          unpaved: 3,630 km (1998 est.)
                               Waterways: NA
                               Pipelines: petroleum products 3,400 km; natural
                                          gas 1,800 km (1999)
                       Ports and harbors: Chi-lung (Keelung), Hua-lien, Kao-
                                          hsiung, Su-ao, T'ai-chung
                         Merchant marine: total: 152 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 4,262,451 GRT/6,596,950 DWT
    
                                          note: includes some foreign-owned
                                          ships registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: Hong Kong 3, Japan 1
                                          (2002 est.)
                                          ships by type: bulk 40, cargo 28,
                                          combination bulk 3, container 53,
                                          petroleum tanker 17, refrigerated
                                          cargo 9, roll on/roll off 2
                                Airports: 39 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 36
                                          over 3,047 m: 8
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 8
                                          under 914 m: 3 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 3
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
                                          under 914 m: 2 (2001)
                               Heliports: 3 (2001)
    
     Military Taiwan
     ---------------
                       Military branches: Army, Navy (including Marine Corps),
                                          Air Force, Coast Guard
                                          Administration, Armed Forces Reserve
                                          Command, Combined Service Forces
                                          Command
        Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 6,575,625 (2002
                                          est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 5,018,882 (2002
                                 service: est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 198,766 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $8,041.2 million (FY01)
                                  figure:
       Military expenditures - percent of 2.8% (FY01)
                                     GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Taiwan
     ---------------------------
                Disputes - international: involved in complex dispute over the
                                          Spratly Islands with China,
                                          Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, and
                                          possibly Brunei; Paracel Islands
                                          occupied by China, but claimed by
                                          Taiwan and Vietnam; claims Japanese-
                                          administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku
                                          Islands/Diaoyu Tai), as does China
                           Illicit drugs: regional transit point for heroin
                                          and methamphetamine; major problem
                                          with domestic consumption of
                                          methamphetamine and heroin
    
                                         
  
  

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