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2 definitions found
 for Tunisia
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Tunisia
      n 1: a republic in northwestern Africa on the Mediterranean
           coast; achieved independence from France in 1956; "southern
           Tunisia is mostly desert" [syn: Tunisia, Republic of
           Tunisia]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Tunisia
  
     Introduction Tunisia
     --------------------
                              Background: Following independence from France
                                          in 1956, President Habib BOURGUIBA
                                          established a strict one-party
                                          state. He dominated the country for
                                          31 years, repressing Islamic
                                          fundamentalism and establishing
                                          rights for women unmatched by any
                                          other Arab nation. In recent years,
                                          Tunisia has taken a moderate, non-
                                          aligned stance in its foreign
                                          relations. Domestically, it has
                                          sought to diffuse rising pressure
                                          for a more open political society.
    
     Geography Tunisia
     -----------------
                                Location: Northern Africa, bordering the
                                          Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria
                                          and Libya
                  Geographic coordinates: 34 00 N, 9 00 E
                          Map references: Africa
                                    Area: total: 163,610 sq km
                                          water: 8,250 sq km
                                          land: 155,360 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly larger than Georgia
                         Land boundaries: total: 1,424 km
                                          border countries: Algeria 965 km,
                                          Libya 459 km
                               Coastline: 1,148 km
                         Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: temperate in north with mild, rainy
                                          winters and hot, dry summers; desert
                                          in south
                                 Terrain: mountains in north; hot, dry central
                                          plain; semiarid south merges into
                                          the Sahara
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Shatt al Gharsah -17 m
    
                                          highest point: Jebel ech Chambi
                                          1,544 m
                       Natural resources: petroleum, phosphates, iron ore,
                                          lead, zinc, salt
                                Land use: arable land: 18.67%
                                          permanent crops: 12.87%
                                          other: 68.46% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 3,800 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: NA
            Environment - current issues: toxic and hazardous waste disposal
                                          is ineffective and poses health
                                          risks; water pollution from raw
                                          sewage; limited natural fresh water
                                          resources; deforestation;
                                          overgrazing; soil erosion;
                                          desertification
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Environmental Modification,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
                                          Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
                                          Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                          Pollution, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: Marine
                                          Life Conservation
                        Geography - note: strategic location in central
                                          Mediterranean; Malta and Tunisia are
                                          discussing the commercial
                                          exploitation of the continental
                                          shelf between their countries,
                                          particularly for oil exploration
    
     People Tunisia
     --------------
                              Population: 9,815,644 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 27.8% (male 1,412,625;
                                          female 1,320,729)
                                          15-64 years: 65.9% (male 3,234,770;
                                          female 3,233,149)
                                          65 years and over: 6.3% (male
                                          303,093; female 311,278) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 1.12% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 16.83 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: -0.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 1.02 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 27.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.16 years
                                          female: 75.89 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 72.56 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.94 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.04% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
                             Nationality: noun: Tunisian(s)
                                          adjective: Tunisian
                           Ethnic groups: Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and
                                          other 1%
                               Religions: Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish and
                                          other 1%
                               Languages: Arabic (official and one of the
                                          languages of commerce), French
                                          (commerce)
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 66.7%
                                          male: 78.6%
                                          female: 54.6% (1995 est.)
    
     Government Tunisia
     ------------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          Tunisia
                                          conventional short form: Tunisia
                                          local short form: Tunis
                                          local long form: Al Jumhuriyah at
                                          Tunisiyah
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Tunis
                Administrative divisions: 23 governorates; Ariana (Aryanah),
                                          Beja (Bajah), Ben Arous (Bin 'Arus),
                                          Bizerte (Banzart), El Kef (Al Kaf),
                                          Gabes (Qabis), Gafsa (Qafsah),
                                          Jendouba (Jundubah), Kairouan (Al
                                          Qayrawan), Kasserine (Al Qasrayn),
                                          Kebili (Qibili), Mahdia (Al
                                          Mahdiyah), Medenine (Madanin),
                                          Monastir (Al Munastir), Nabeul
                                          (Nabul), Sfax (Safaqis), Sidi Bou
                                          Zid (Sidi Bu Zayd), Siliana
                                          (Silyanah), Sousse (Susah),
                                          Tataouine (Tatawin), Tozeur
                                          (Tawzar), Tunis, Zaghouan (Zaghwan)
                            Independence: 20 March 1956 (from France)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 20 March (1956)
                            Constitution: 1 June 1959; amended 12 July 1988
                            Legal system: based on French civil law system and
                                          Islamic law; some judicial review of
                                          legislative acts in the Supreme
                                          Court in joint session
                                Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Zine El
                                          Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 November
                                          1987)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Mohamed GHANNOUCHI (since 17
                                          November 1999)
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          appointed by the president
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a five-year term;
                                          election last held 24 October 1999
                                          (next to be held NA 2004); prime
                                          minister appointed by the president
                                          election results: President Zine El
                                          Abidine BEN ALI reelected for a
                                          third term without opposition;
                                          percent of vote - Zine El Abidine
                                          BEN ALI nearly 100%
                      Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or
                                          Majlis al-Nuwaab (182 seats; members
                                          elected by popular vote to serve
                                          five-year terms)
                                          elections: last held 24 October 1999
                                          (next to be held NA 2004)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - RCD 92%; seats by party -
                                          RCD 148, MDS 13, UDU 7, PUP 7, Al-
                                          Tajdid 5, PSL 2; note - reforms
                                          enabled opposition parties to win up
                                          to 20% of seats, increasing the
                                          number of seats they hold from 19 in
                                          the last election to 34 now
                         Judicial branch: Court of Cassation or Cour de
                                          Cassation
           Political parties and leaders: Al-Tajdid Movement [Adel CHAOUCH];
                                          Constitutional Democratic Rally
                                          Party (Rassemblement Constitutionnel
                                          Democratique) or RCD [President Zine
                                          El Abidine BEN ALI (official ruling
                                          party)]; Liberal Social Party or PSL
                                          [Mounir BEJI]; Movement of
                                          Democratic Socialists or MDS [Khamis
                                          CHAMMARI]; Popular Unity Party or
                                          PUP [Mohamed Belhaj AMOR]; Unionist
                                          Democratic Union or UDU
                                          [Abderrahmane TLILI]
            Political pressure groups and the Islamic fundamentalist party, Al
                                 leaders: Nahda (Renaissance), is outlawed
               International organization ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
                           participation: AMU, BSEC (observer), CCC, ECA, FAO,
                                          G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
                                          ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
                                          IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
                                          IOM, ISO, ITU, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM,
                                          OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPCW, OSCE
                                          (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
                                          UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIK, UPU,
                                          WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Hatem
                                          ATALLAH
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 862-1858
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 862-1850
                                          chancery: 1515 Massachusetts Avenue
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20005
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Rust M.
                                      US: DEMING
                                          embassy: 144 Avenue de la Liberte,
                                          1002 Tunis-Belvedere
                                          mailing address: use embassy street
                                          address
                                          telephone: [216] (1) 782-566
                                          FAX: [216] (1) 789-719
                        Flag description: red with a white disk in the center
                                          bearing a red crescent nearly
                                          encircling a red five-pointed star;
                                          the crescent and star are
                                          traditional symbols of Islam
    
     Economy Tunisia
     ---------------
                      Economy - overview: Tunisia has a diverse economy, with
                                          important agricultural, mining,
                                          energy, tourism, and manufacturing
                                          sectors. Governmental control of
                                          economic affairs while still heavy
                                          has gradually lessened over the past
                                          decade with increasing
                                          privatization, simplification of the
                                          tax structure, and a prudent
                                          approach to debt. Real growth
                                          averaged 5.4% in the past five
                                          years, and inflation is slowing.
                                          Growth in tourism and increased
                                          trade have been key elements in this
                                          steady growth, although tourism
                                          revenues have slowed since 11
                                          September 2001 and may take a year
                                          or more to fully recover. Tunisia's
                                          association agreement with the
                                          European Union entered into force on
                                          1 March 1998, the first such accord
                                          between the EU and a Mediterranean
                                          country. Under the agreement Tunisia
                                          will gradually remove barriers to
                                          trade with the EU over the next
                                          decade. Broader privatization,
                                          further liberalization of the
                                          investment code to increase foreign
                                          investment, and improvements in
                                          government efficiency are among the
                                          challenges for the future.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $64.5
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 4.8% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,600
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 13%
                                          industry: 33%
                                          services: 54% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 6% (2000 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.3%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 31.8% (1995)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 41.7 (1995)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.7% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 2.69 million (2001 est.)
                                          note: shortage of skilled labor
             Labor force - by occupation: services 55%, industry 23%,
                                          agriculture 22% (1995 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 15.6% (2000 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $5.7 billion
                                          expenditures: $6.3 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $1.5 billion (2001 est.)
                              Industries: petroleum, mining (particularly
                                          phosphate and iron ore), tourism,
                                          textiles, footwear, agribusiness,
                                          beverages
       Industrial production growth rate: 5.2% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 10.3 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99.03%
                                          hydro: 0.97%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 9.562 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 19 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 2 million kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: olives, olive oil, grain, dairy
                                          products, tomatoes, citrus fruit,
                                          beef, sugar beets, dates, almonds
                                 Exports: $6.6 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: textiles, mechanical goods,
                                          phosphates and chemicals,
                                          agricultural products, hydrocarbons
                      Exports - partners: France 28%, Italy 21%, Germany 14%,
                                          Belgium 6%, Libya (2000)
                                 Imports: $8.9 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment,
                                          hydrocarbons, chemicals, food
                      Imports - partners: France 30%, Italy 21%, Germany 11%,
                                          Spain 4%, Belgium (2000)
                         Debt - external: $11.5 billion (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $933.2 million (1995); note - ODA,
                                          $90 million (1998 est.)
                                Currency: Tunisian dinar (TND)
                           Currency code: TND
                          Exchange rates: Tunisian dinars per US dollar - 1.44
                                          (January 2002), 1.3753 (2001),
                                          1.3707 (2000), 1.1862 (1999), 1.1387
                                          (1998), 1.1059 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
    
     Communications Tunisia
     ----------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 654,000 (1997)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 50,000 (1998)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: above the
                                          African average and continuing to be
                                          upgraded; key centers are Sfax,
                                          Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; Internet
                                          access available
                                          domestic: trunk facilities consist
                                          of open-wire lines, coaxial cable,
                                          and microwave radio relay
                                          international: 5 submarine cables;
                                          satellite earth stations - 1
                                          Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1
                                          Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave
                                          radio relay to Algeria and Libya;
                                          participant in Medarabtel; two
                                          international gateway digital
                                          switches
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 20, shortwave 2 (1998)
                                  Radios: 2.06 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 26 (plus 76 repeaters) (1995)
                             Televisions: 920,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .tn
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)
                          Internet users: 280,000 (2001)
    
     Transportation Tunisia
     ----------------------
                                Railways: total: 2,168 km
                                          standard gauge: 471 km 1.435-m gauge
    
                                          dual gauge: 10 km 1.000-m and 1.435-
                                          m gauges (three rails) (2001)
                                          narrow gauge: 1,687 km 1.000-m gauge
                                Highways: total: 23,100 km
                                          paved: 18,226 km
                                          unpaved: 4,874 km (1996)
                               Waterways: none
                               Pipelines: crude oil 797 km; petroleum products
                                          86 km; natural gas 742 km
                       Ports and harbors: Bizerte, Gabes, La Goulette, Sfax,
                                          Sousse, Tunis, Zarzis
                         Merchant marine: total: 16 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 150,710 GRT/162,616 DWT
                                          ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 4,
                                          chemical tanker 4, liquefied gas 1,
                                          petroleum tanker 1, short-sea
                                          passenger 3, specialized tanker 1
                                          (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 30 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 14
                                          over 3,047 m: 3
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 16
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 7
                                          under 914 m: 7 (2001)
    
     Military Tunisia
     ----------------
                        Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary
                                           forces, National Guard
         Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age (2002 est.)
         Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,806,881 (2002
                                           est.)
      Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 1,597,565 (2002
                                  service: est.)
     Military manpower - reaching military males: 105,146 (2002 est.)
                             age annually:
            Military expenditures - dollar $356 million (FY99)
                                   figure:
        Military expenditures - percent of 1.5% (FY99)
                                      GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Tunisia
     ----------------------------
                                                Disputes - international: none
    
                                         
  
  

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