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2 definitions found
 for Turkmenistan
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Turkmenistan
      n 1: a republic in Asia to the east of the Caspian Sea and to
           the south of Kazakhstan and to the north of Iran; an Asian
           soviet from 1925 to 1991 [syn: Turkmenistan, Turkomen,
           Turkmen, Turkmenia]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Turkmenistan
  
     Introduction Turkmenistan
     -------------------------
                              Background: Annexed by Russia between 1865 and
                                          1885, Turkmenistan became a Soviet
                                          republic in 1925. It achieved its
                                          independence upon the dissolution of
                                          the USSR in 1991. President NIYAZOV
                                          retains absolute control over the
                                          country and opposition is not
                                          tolerated. Extensive hydrocarbon/
                                          natural gas reserves could prove a
                                          boon to this underdeveloped country
                                          if extraction and delivery projects
                                          can be worked out.
    
     Geography Turkmenistan
     ----------------------
                                Location: Central Asia, bordering the Caspian
                                          Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan
                  Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 60 00 E
                          Map references: Asia
                                    Area: total: 488,100 sq km
                                          water: 0 sq km
                                          land: 488,100 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly larger than California
                         Land boundaries: total: 3,736 km
                                          border countries: Afghanistan 744
                                          km, Iran 992 km, Kazakhstan 379 km,
                                          Uzbekistan 1,621 km
                               Coastline: 0 km; note - Turkmenistan borders
                                          the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)
                         Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
                                 Climate: subtropical desert
                                 Terrain: flat-to-rolling sandy desert with
                                          dunes rising to mountains in the
                                          south; low mountains along border
                                          with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in
                                          west
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Vpadina Akchanaya -81
                                          m; note - Sarygamysh Koli is a lake
                                          in northern Turkmenistan with a
                                          water level that fluctuates above
                                          and below the elevation of Vpadina
                                          Akchanaya (the lake has dropped as
                                          low as -110 m)
                                          highest point: Gora Ayribaba 3,139 m
                       Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal,
                                          sulfur, salt
                                Land use: arable land: 3.47%
                                          permanent crops: 0.14%
                                          other: 96.39% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 18,000 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: NA
            Environment - current issues: contamination of soil and
                                          groundwater with agricultural
                                          chemicals, pesticides; salination,
                                          water-logging of soil due to poor
                                          irrigation methods; Caspian Sea
                                          pollution; diversion of a large
                                          share of the flow of the Amu Darya
                                          into irrigation contributes to that
                                          river's inability to replenish the
                                          Aral Sea; desertification
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
                                          Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous
                                          Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
                                          signed, but not ratified: none of
                                          the selected agreements
                        Geography - note: landlocked; the western and central
                                          low-lying, desolate portions of the
                                          country make up the great Garagum
                                          (Kara-Kum) desert, which occupies
                                          over 80% of the country; eastern
                                          part is plateau
    
     People Turkmenistan
     -------------------
                              Population: 4,688,963 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 37.3% (male 895,536;
                                          female 853,301)
                                          15-64 years: 58.6% (male 1,350,142;
                                          female 1,399,879)
                                          65 years and over: 4.1% (male
                                          72,784; female 117,321) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 1.84% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 28.27 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 8.92 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: -0.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 0.98 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 73.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 61.1 years
                                          female: 64.8 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 57.57 years
                    Total fertility rate: 3.54 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.01% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ less than 100 (1999 est.)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Turkmen(s)
                                          adjective: Turkmen
                           Ethnic groups: Turkmen 77%, Uzbek 9.2%, Russian
                                          6.7%, Kazakh 2%, other 5.1% (1995)
                               Religions: Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%,
                                          unknown 2%
                               Languages: Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%,
                                          other 7%
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 98%
                                          male: 99%
                                          female: 97% (1989 est.)
    
     Government Turkmenistan
     -----------------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: none
                                          conventional short form:
                                          Turkmenistan
                                          local long form: none
                                          former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist
                                          Republic
                                          local short form: Turkmenistan
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Ashgabat
                Administrative divisions: 5 provinces (welayatlar, singular -
                                          welayat): Ahal Welayaty (Ashgabat),
                                          Balkan Welayaty (Balkanabat),
                                          Dasoguz Welayaty, Labap Welayaty
                                          (Turkmenabat), Mary Welayaty
                                          note: administrative divisions have
                                          the same names as their
                                          administrative centers (exceptions
                                          have the administrative center name
                                          following in parentheses)
                            Independence: 27 October 1991 (from the Soviet
                                          Union)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 27 October (1991)
                            Constitution: adopted 18 May 1992
                            Legal system: based on civil law system
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President and
                                          Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers
                                          Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October
                                          1990, when the first direct
                                          presidential election occurred);
                                          note - the president is both the
                                          chief of state and head of
                                          government
                                          head of government: President and
                                          Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers
                                          Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October
                                          1990, when the first direct
                                          presidential election occurred);
                                          note - the president is both the
                                          chief of state and head of
                                          government
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          appointed by the president
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a five-year term;
                                          election last held 21 June 1992
                                          (next to be held NA); note -
                                          President NIYAZOV was unanimously
                                          approved as president for life by
                                          the Assembly on 28 December 1999);
                                          deputy chairmen of the cabinet of
                                          ministers are appointed by the
                                          president
                                          election results: Saparmurat NIYAZOV
                                          elected president without
                                          opposition; percent of vote -
                                          Saparmurat NIYAZOV 99.5%
                                          note: NIYAZOV's term in office was
                                          extended indefinitely on 28 December
                                          1999 by the Assembly (Majlis) during
                                          a session of the People's Council
                                          (Halk Maslahaty)
                      Legislative branch: under the 1992 constitution, there
                                          are two parliamentary bodies, a
                                          unicameral People's Council or Halk
                                          Maslahaty (more than 100 seats, some
                                          of which are elected by popular vote
                                          and some of which are appointed;
                                          meets infrequently) and a unicameral
                                          Assembly or Majlis (50 seats;
                                          members are elected by popular vote
                                          to serve five-year terms)
                                          election results: Assembly - percent
                                          of vote by party - NA%; seats by
                                          party - NA; note - all 50 elected
                                          officials preapproved by President
                                          NIYAZOV; most are from the DPT
                                          elections: People's Council - NA;
                                          Assembly - last held 12 December
                                          1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed
                                          by the president)
           Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or
                                          DPT [Saparmurat NIYAZOV]
                                          note: formal opposition parties are
                                          outlawed; unofficial, small
                                          opposition movements exist
                                          underground or in foreign countries
            Political pressure groups and NA
                                 leaders:
               International organization AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
                           participation: ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM,
                                          IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOC,
                                          IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent),
                                          ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN,
                                          UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
                                          WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
                                          (observer)
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mered
                                          Bairamovich ORAZOV
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 588-0697
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 588-1500
                                          chancery: 2207 Massachusetts Avenue
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20008
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Laura
                                      US: E. KENNEDY
                                          embassy: 9 Pushkin Street, Ashgabat,
                                          Turkmenistan 774000
                                          mailing address: use embassy street
                                          address
                                          telephone: [9] (9312) 35-00-45
                                          FAX: [9] (9312) 51-13-05
                        Flag description: green field with a vertical red
                                          stripe near the hoist side,
                                          containing five carpet guls (designs
                                          used in producing rugs) stacked
                                          above two crossed olive branches
                                          similar to the olive branches on the
                                          UN flag; a white crescent moon and
                                          five white stars appear in the upper
                                          corner of the field just to the fly
                                          side of the red stripe
    
     Economy Turkmenistan
     --------------------
                      Economy - overview: Turkmenistan is largely desert
                                          country with intensive agriculture
                                          in irrigated oases and huge gas
                                          (fifth largest reserves in the
                                          world) and oil resources. One-half
                                          of its irrigated land is planted in
                                          cotton, making it the world's tenth
                                          largest producer. Until the end of
                                          1993, Turkmenistan had experienced
                                          less economic disruption than other
                                          former Soviet states because its
                                          economy received a boost from higher
                                          prices for oil and gas and a sharp
                                          increase in hard currency earnings.
                                          In 1994, Russia's refusal to export
                                          Turkmen gas to hard currency markets
                                          and mounting debts of its major
                                          customers in the former USSR for gas
                                          deliveries contributed to a sharp
                                          fall in industrial production and
                                          caused the budget to shift from a
                                          surplus to a slight deficit. With an
                                          authoritarian ex-Communist regime in
                                          power and a tribally based social
                                          structure, Turkmenistan has taken a
                                          cautious approach to economic
                                          reform, hoping to use gas and cotton
                                          sales to sustain its inefficient
                                          economy. Privatization goals remain
                                          limited. In 1998-2001, Turkmenistan
                                          has suffered from the continued lack
                                          of adequate export routes for
                                          natural gas and from obligations on
                                          extensive short-term external debt.
                                          At the same time, however, total
                                          exports have risen sharply because
                                          of higher international oil and gas
                                          prices. Prospects in the near future
                                          are discouraging because of
                                          widespread internal poverty, the
                                          burden of foreign debt, and the
                                          unwillingness of the government to
                                          adopt market-oriented reforms.
                                          However, Turkmenistan's cooperation
                                          with the international community in
                                          transporting humanitarian aid to
                                          Afghanistan may foreshadow a change
                                          in the atmosphere for foreign
                                          investment, aid, and technological
                                          support. Turkmenistan's economic
                                          statistics are state secrets, and
                                          GDP and other figures are subject to
                                          wide margins of error.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $21.5
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 10% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,700
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 27%
                                          industry: 45%
                                          services: 28% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 34.4% (2001 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.6%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 31.7% (1998)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 40.8 (1998)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 2.34 million (1996)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 48%, industry 15%,
                                          services 37% (1998 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: NA%
                                  Budget: revenues: $588.6 million
                                          expenditures: $658.2 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (1999 est.)
                              Industries: natural gas, oil, petroleum
                                          products, textiles, food processing
       Industrial production growth rate: NA%
                Electricity - production: 9.256 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99.94%
                                          hydro: 0.06%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 7.708 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 900 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: cotton, grain; livestock
                                 Exports: $2.7 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: gas 33%, oil 30%, cotton fiber 18%,
                                          textiles 8% (1999)
                      Exports - partners: Ukraine 27%, Iran 14%, Turkey 11%,
                                          Italy 9%, Switzerland 5% (1999)
                                 Imports: $2.3 billion (c.i.f., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment 60%,
                                          foodstuffs 15% (1999)
                      Imports - partners: Turkey 17%, Ukraine 12%, Russia 11%,
                                          UAE 8%, France 6% (1999)
                         Debt - external: $2.3 billion to $5 billion (2001
                                          est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $16 million from the US (2001)
                                Currency: Turkmen manat (TMM)
                           Currency code: TMM
                          Exchange rates: Turkmen manats per US dollar - 5,200
                                          (January 2002-January 2000), 5,350
                                          (January 1999), 4,070 (January 1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
    
     Communications Turkmenistan
     ---------------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 363,000 (1997)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,300 (1998)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: poorly developed
    
                                          domestic: NA
                                          international: linked by cable and
                                          microwave radio relay to other CIS
                                          republics and to other countries by
                                          leased connections to the Moscow
                                          international gateway switch; a new
                                          telephone link from Ashgabat to Iran
                                          has been established; a new exchange
                                          in Ashgabat switches international
                                          traffic through Turkey via Intelsat;
                                          satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita
                                          and 1 Intelsat
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 8, shortwave 2 (1998)
                                  Radios: 1.225 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 3 (much programming relayed from
                                          Russia and Turkey) (1997)
                             Televisions: 820,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .tm
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA
                          Internet users: 2,000 (2000)
    
     Transportation Turkmenistan
     ---------------------------
                                Railways: total: 2,440 km
                                          broad gauge: 2,440 km 1.520-m gauge
                                          (2001)
                                Highways: total: 22,000 km
                                          paved: 18,000 km (includes some all-
                                          weather gravel-surfaced roads)
                                          unpaved: 4,000 km (these roads are
                                          made of unstabilized earth and are
                                          difficult to negotiate in wet
                                          weather) (1996)
                               Waterways: the Amu Darya is an important inland
                                          waterway for Turkmenistan
                               Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; natural gas 4,400
                                          km
                       Ports and harbors: Turkmenbasy
                         Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 4,600 GRT/5,000 DWT
                                          ships by type: petroleum tanker 1
                                          (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 76 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 13
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 63
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 10
                                          under 914 m: 41 (2001)
    
     Military Turkmenistan
     ---------------------
                       Military branches: Ministry of Defense (Army, Air and
                                          Air Defense, Navy, Border Troops,
                                          and Internal Troops), National Guard
        Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,206,920 (2002
                                          est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 979,282 (2002 est.)
                                 service:
             Military manpower - reaching males: 48,292 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $90 million (FY99)
                                  figure:
       Military expenditures - percent of 3.4% (FY99)
                                     GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Turkmenistan
     ---------------------------------
                Disputes - international: Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan,
                                          Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan wrestle
                                          with sharing limited water resources
                                          and regional environmental
                                          degradation caused by the shrinking
                                          of the Aral Sea; multilaterally-
                                          accepted Caspian Sea seabed and
                                          maritime boundaries have not yet
                                          been established in the Caspian -
                                          Iran insists on division of Caspian
                                          Sea into five equal sectors while
                                          Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and
                                          Turkmenistan have generally agreed
                                          upon equidistant seabed boundaries;
                                          Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan await
                                          ICJ decision to resolve sovereignty
                                          dispute over oil fields in the
                                          Caspian Sea
                           Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivator of opium
                                          poppy, mostly for domestic
                                          consumption; limited government
                                          eradication program; increasingly
                                          used as transshipment point for
                                          illicit drugs from Southwest Asia to
                                          Russia and Western Europe; also a
                                          transshipment point for acetic
                                          anhydride destined for Afghanistan
    
                                         
  
  

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