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2 definitions found
 for Ukraine
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Ukraine
      n 1: a republic in southeastern Europe; formerly a European
           soviet; the center of the original Russian state which came
           into existence in the ninth century [syn: Ukraine,
           Ukrayina]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Ukraine
  
     Introduction Ukraine
     --------------------
                              Background: Richly endowed in natural resources,
                                          Ukraine has been fought over and
                                          subjugated for centuries; its 20th-
                                          century struggle for liberty is not
                                          yet complete. A short-lived
                                          independence from Russia (1917-1920)
                                          was followed by brutal Soviet rule
                                          that engineered two artificial
                                          famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in
                                          which over 8 million died, and World
                                          War II, in which German and Soviet
                                          armies were responsible for some 7
                                          million more deaths. Although
                                          independence was attained in 1991
                                          with the dissolution of the USSR,
                                          true freedom remains elusive as many
                                          of the former Soviet elite remain
                                          entrenched, stalling efforts at
                                          economic reform, privatization, and
                                          civil liberties.
    
     Geography Ukraine
     -----------------
                                Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Black
                                          Sea, between Poland and Russia
                  Geographic coordinates: 49 00 N, 32 00 E
                          Map references: Asia, Europe
                                    Area: total: 603,700 sq km
                                          water: 0 sq km
                                          land: 603,700 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas
                         Land boundaries: total: 4,663 km
                                          border countries: Belarus 891 km,
                                          Hungary 103 km, Moldova 939 km,
                                          Poland 526 km, Romania (south) 169
                                          km, Romania (west) 362 km, Russia
                                          1,576 km, Slovakia 97 km
                               Coastline: 2,782 km
                         Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m or to the
                                          depth of exploitation
                                          exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: temperate continental; Mediterranean
                                          only on the southern Crimean coast;
                                          precipitation disproportionately
                                          distributed, highest in west and
                                          north, lesser in east and southeast;
                                          winters vary from cool along the
                                          Black Sea to cold farther inland;
                                          summers are warm across the greater
                                          part of the country, hot in the
                                          south
                                 Terrain: most of Ukraine consists of fertile
                                          plains (steppes) and plateaus,
                                          mountains being found only in the
                                          west (the Carpathians), and in the
                                          Crimean Peninsula in the extreme
                                          south
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
                                          highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m
                       Natural resources: iron ore, coal, manganese, natural
                                          gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite,
                                          titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel,
                                          mercury, timber, arable land
                                Land use: arable land: 57.1%
                                          permanent crops: 1.73%
                                          other: 41.17% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 24,540 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: NA
            Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable
                                          water; air and water pollution;
                                          deforestation; radiation
                                          contamination in the northeast from
                                          1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear
                                          Power Plant
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Air
                              agreements: Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
                                          Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-
                                          Marine Living Resources, Antarctic
                                          Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
                                          Change, Endangered Species,
                                          Environmental Modification,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
                                          Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
                                          Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    
                                          signed, but not ratified: Air
                                          Pollution-Persistent Organic
                                          Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur
                                          94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic
                                          Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
                                          Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto
                                          Protocol
                        Geography - note: strategic position at the crossroads
                                          between Europe and Asia; second-
                                          largest country in Europe
    
     People Ukraine
     --------------
                              Population: 48,396,470 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.8% (male 4,147,344;
                                          female 3,970,343)
                                          15-64 years: 68.7% (male 15,881,821;
                                          female 17,366,172)
                                          65 years and over: 14.5% (male
                                          2,341,885; female 4,688,905) (2002
                                          est.)
                  Population growth rate: -0.72% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 9.59 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 16.4 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: -0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 0.86 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 21.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 66.33 years
                                          female: 72.06 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 60.86 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.32 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.96% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 240,000 (1999 est.)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,000 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Ukrainian(s)
                                          adjective: Ukrainian
                           Ethnic groups: Ukrainian 73%, Russian 22%, Jewish
                                          1%, other 4%
                               Religions: Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow
                                          Patriarchate, Ukrainian Orthodox -
                                          Kiev Patriarchate, Ukrainian
                                          Autocephalous Orthodox, Ukrainian
                                          Catholic (Uniate), Protestant,
                                          Jewish
                               Languages: Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian,
                                          Polish, Hungarian
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 98%
                                          male: 100%
                                          female: 97% (1989 est.)
    
     Government Ukraine
     ------------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: none
                                          conventional short form: Ukraine
                                          local long form: none
                                          former: Ukrainian National Republic,
                                          Ukrainian State, Ukrainian Soviet
                                          Socialist Republic
                                          local short form: Ukrayina
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Kiev (Kyyiv)
                Administrative divisions: 24 oblasti (singular - oblast'), 1
                                          autonomous republic* (avtomnaya
                                          respublika), and 2 municipalities
                                          (mista, singular - misto) with
                                          oblast status**; Cherkas'ka
                                          (Cherkasy), Chernihivs'ka
                                          (Chernihiv), Chernivets'ka
                                          (Chernivtsi), Dnipropetrovs'ka
                                          (Dnipropetrovs'k), Donets'ka
                                          (Donets'k), Ivano-Frankivs'ka
                                          (Ivano-Frankivs'k), Kharkivs'ka
                                          (Kharkiv), Khersons'ka (Kherson),
                                          Khmel'nyts'ka (Khmel'nyts'kyy),
                                          Kirovohrads'ka (Kirovohrad),
                                          Kyyiv**, Kyyivs'ka (Kiev), Luhans'ka
                                          (Luhans'k), L'vivs'ka (L'viv),
                                          Mykolayivs'ka (Mykolayiv), Odes'ka
                                          (Odesa), Poltavs'ka (Poltava),
                                          Avtonomna Respublika Krym*
                                          (Simferopol'), Rivnens'ka (Rivne),
                                          Sevastopol'**, Sums'ka (Sumy),
                                          Ternopil's'ka (Ternopil'),
                                          Vinnyts'ka (Vinnytsya), Volyns'ka
                                          (Luts'k), Zakarpats'ka (Uzhhorod),
                                          Zaporiz'ka (Zaporizhzhya),
                                          Zhytomyrs'ka (Zhytomyr); note - when
                                          using a place name with an
                                          adjectival ending 's'ka' or 'z'ka,'
                                          the word Oblast' should be added to
                                          the place name
                                          note: oblasts have the
                                          administrative center name following
                                          in parentheses
                            Independence: 24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 24 August (1991)
                            Constitution: adopted 28 June 1996
                            Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial
                                          review of legislative acts
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Leonid D.
                                          KUCHMA (since 19 July 1994)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Anatoliy KINAKH (since 29 May 2001),
                                          First Deputy Prime Minister Oleh
                                          DUBYNA (since 29 May 2001)
                                          cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
                                          appointed by the president and
                                          approved by the Supreme Council
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a five-year term;
                                          election last held 31 October and 14
                                          November 1999 (next to be held NA
                                          2004); prime minister and deputy
                                          prime ministers appointed by the
                                          president and approved by the
                                          Supreme Council
                                          election results: Leonid D. KUCHMA
                                          elected president; percent of vote -
                                          Leonid KUCHMA 57.7%, Petro SYMONENKO
                                          38.8%
                                          note: there is also a National
                                          Security and Defense Council or NSDC
                                          originally created in 1992 as the
                                          National Security Council, but
                                          significantly revamped and
                                          strengthened under President KUCHMA;
                                          the NSDC staff is tasked with
                                          developing national security policy
                                          on domestic and international
                                          matters and advising the president;
                                          a Presidential Administration that
                                          helps draft presidential edicts and
                                          provides policy support to the
                                          president; and a Council of Regions
                                          that serves as an advisory body
                                          created by President KUCHMA in
                                          September 1994 that includes
                                          chairmen of the Kyyiv (Kiev) and
                                          Sevastopol' municipalities and
                                          chairmen of the oblasti
                      Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Council or
                                          Verkhovna Rada (450 seats; under
                                          Ukraine's new election law, 225 of
                                          the Supreme Council's seats are
                                          allocated on a proportional basis to
                                          those parties that gain 4% or more
                                          of the national electoral vote; the
                                          other 225 members are elected by
                                          popular vote in single-mandate
                                          constituencies; all serve four-year
                                          terms)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - Our Ukraine 24%, For One
                                          Ukraine 12%, CPU 20%, Social-
                                          Democratic Party of Ukraine 6%, SPU
                                          7%, Juliya Tymochenko Election Bloc
                                          7%, other 24%; seats by party - Our
                                          Ukraine 112, For One Ukraine 101,
                                          CPU 67, Social-Democratic Party of
                                          Ukraine 24, SPU 23, Juliya
                                          Tymochenko Election Bloc 21,
                                          Democratic Party of Ukraine 4, Unity
                                          3, others 95
                                          elections: last held 31 March 2002
                                          (next to be held NA 2006)
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court
           Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party [Mykhaylo HLADIY];
                                          Communist Party of Ukraine or CPU
                                          [Petro SYMONENKO]; Democratic Union
                                          [Oleksandr OMELCHENKO]; Fatherland
                                          (Motherland) All Ukrainian Party
                                          [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO, chairperson];
                                          For One Ukraine [leader NA]; Green
                                          Party of Ukraine or PZU [Vitaliy
                                          KONONOV, chairman]; Juliya
                                          Tymochenko Election Bloc [leader
                                          NA]; Liberal Party [Volodymyr
                                          SHCHERBAN]; Our Ukraine [leader NA];
                                          Party of Industrialists and
                                          Entrepreneurs [Anatoliy KINAKH];
                                          Party of Regions [Volodymyr
                                          SEMYNOZHENKO]; Party of Ukrainian
                                          Unity [Ivan BILAS]; Peasant Party of
                                          Ukraine or SelPU [Serhiy DOVHAN];
                                          People's Democratic Party or PDP
                                          [Valeriy PUSTOVOYTENKO, chairman];
                                          People's Movement of Ukraine or Rukh
                                          U [Hennadiy UDOVENKO, chairman];
                                          Progressive Socialist Party
                                          [Nataliya VITRENKO]; Reforms
                                          Congress [Viktor PYNZENYK]; Social-
                                          Democratic Party of Ukraine (United)
                                          [Viktor MEDVEDCHUK]; Socialist Party
                                          of Ukraine or SPU [Oleksandr MOROZ,
                                          chairman]; Solidarity [Petro
                                          POROSHENKO]; Trudova Ukrayina/
                                          Working Ukraine [Viktor PINCHUK,
                                          chairman]; Ukrainian Popular
                                          Movement or Rukh K [Yuriy KOSTENKO,
                                          chairman]; Unity [Oleksandr
                                          OMELCHENKO]; Working Ukraine/Labort
                                          Ukraine [Serhiy TYHYPKO]; Yabluko
                                          [BRODSKY]
                                          note: and numerous smaller parties
            Political pressure groups and NA
                                 leaders:
               International organization BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD,
                           participation: ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC,
                                          IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
                                          IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM
                                          (observer), NSG, OAS (observer),
                                          OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAMSIL,
                                          UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL,
                                          UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT,
                                          UNMOVIC, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
                                          WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer), ZC
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador
                                          Konstantin Ivanovych HRYSHCHENKO
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 333-0817
                                          consulate(s) general: Chicago and
                                          New York
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 333-0606
                                          chancery: 3350 M Street NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20007
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos
                                      US: PASCUAL
                                          embassy: 10 Yurii Kotsiubynskyi
                                          Street, Kiev 01901
                                          mailing address: use embassy street
                                          address
                                          telephone: [380] (44) 490-4000
                                          FAX: [380] (44) 244-7350
                        Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of azure
                                          (top) and golden yellow represent
                                          grainfields under a blue sky
    
     Economy Ukraine
     ---------------
                      Economy - overview: After Russia, the Ukrainian republic
                                          was far and away the most important
                                          economic component of the former
                                          Soviet Union, producing about four
                                          times the output of the next-ranking
                                          republic. Its fertile black soil
                                          generated more than one-fourth of
                                          Soviet agricultural output, and its
                                          farms provided substantial
                                          quantities of meat, milk, grain, and
                                          vegetables to other republics.
                                          Likewise, its diversified heavy
                                          industry supplied the unique
                                          equipment (for example, large
                                          diameter pipes) and raw materials to
                                          industrial and mining sites
                                          (vertical drilling apparatus) in
                                          other regions of the former USSR.
                                          Ukraine depends on imports of
                                          energy, especially natural gas, to
                                          meet some 85% of its annual energy
                                          requirements. Shortly after
                                          independence in late 1991, the
                                          Ukrainian Government liberalized
                                          most prices and erected a legal
                                          framework for privatization, but
                                          widespread resistance to reform
                                          within the government and the
                                          legislature soon stalled reform
                                          efforts and led to some
                                          backtracking. Output by 1999 had
                                          fallen to less than 40% the 1991
                                          level. Loose monetary policies
                                          pushed inflation to
                                          hyperinflationary levels in late
                                          1993. Ukraine's dependence on Russia
                                          for energy supplies and the lack of
                                          significant structural reform have
                                          made the Ukrainian economy
                                          vulnerable to external shocks. Now
                                          in his second term, President KUCHMA
                                          has pledged to reduce the number of
                                          government agencies, streamline the
                                          regulatory process, create a legal
                                          environment to encourage
                                          entrepreneurs, and enact a
                                          comprehensive tax overhaul. Reforms
                                          in the more politically sensitive
                                          areas of structural reform and land
                                          privatization are still lagging.
                                          Outside institutions - particularly
                                          the IMF - have encouraged Ukraine to
                                          quicken the pace and scope of
                                          reforms and have threatened to
                                          withdraw financial support. GDP in
                                          2000 showed strong export-based
                                          growth of 6% - the first growth
                                          since independence - and industrial
                                          production grew 12.9%. The economy
                                          continued to expand in 2001 as real
                                          GDP rose 9% and industrial output
                                          grew by over 14%. Growth was
                                          undergirded by strong domestic
                                          demand and growing consumer and
                                          investor confidence.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $205
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 9% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,200
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 13%
                                          industry: 40%
                                          services: 47% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 29% (2001 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 3.7%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 23.2% (1999)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 30 (1999)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 22.8 million (yearend 1997)
             Labor force - by occupation: industry 32%, agriculture 24%,
                                          services 44% (1996)
                       Unemployment rate: 3.6% officially registered; large
                                          number of unregistered or
                                          underemployed workers (November
                                          2001)
                                  Budget: revenues: $10.2 billion
                                          expenditures: $11.1 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2002 est.)
                              Industries: coal, electric power, ferrous and
                                          nonferrous metals, machinery and
                                          transport equipment, chemicals, food
                                          processing (especially sugar)
       Industrial production growth rate: 14.2% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 163.57 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 49.54%
                                          hydro: 7.02%
                                          other: 0.01% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 43.44%
               Electricity - consumption: 151.72 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 400 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds,
                                          vegetables; beef, milk
                                 Exports: $17.3 billion (2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: ferrous and nonferrous metals, fuel
                                          and petroleum products, machinery
                                          and transport equipment, food
                                          products
                      Exports - partners: Russia 22.6%, Turkey 6.2%, Italy
                                          5.1%, Germany (2001 est.)
                                 Imports: $17.1 billion (2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: energy, machinery and parts,
                                          transportation equipment, chemicals
                      Imports - partners: Russia 36.9%, Turkmenistan 10.5%,
                                          Germany 8.7%, US (2001 est.)
                         Debt - external: $11.8 billion (2001)
                Economic aid - recipient: $637.7 million (1995); IMF Extended
                                          Funds Facility $2.2 billion (1998)
                                Currency: hryvnia (UAH)
                           Currency code: UAH
                          Exchange rates: hryvnia per US dollar - 5.3126
                                          (January 2002), 5.3722 (2001),
                                          5.4402 (2000), 4.1304 (1999), 2.4495
                                          (1998), 1.8617 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
    
     Communications Ukraine
     ----------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 9.45 million (April 1999)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 236,000 (1998)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: Ukraine's
                                          telecommunication development plan,
                                          running through 2005, emphasizes
                                          improving domestic trunk lines,
                                          international connections, and the
                                          mobile cellular system
                                          domestic: at independence in
                                          December 1991, Ukraine inherited a
                                          telephone system that was
                                          antiquated, inefficient, and in
                                          disrepair; more than 3.5 million
                                          applications for telephones could
                                          not be satisfied; telephone density
                                          is now rising slowly and the
                                          domestic trunk system is being
                                          improved; the mobile cellular
                                          telephone system is expanding at a
                                          high rate
                                          international: two new domestic
                                          trunk lines are a part of the fiber-
                                          optic Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) system
                                          and three Ukrainian links have been
                                          installed in the fiber-optic Trans-
                                          European Lines (TEL) project which
                                          connects 18 countries; additional
                                          international service is provided by
                                          the Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia
                                          (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable
                                          and by earth stations in the
                                          Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik
                                          satellite systems
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 134, FM 289, shortwave 4 (1998)
                                  Radios: 45.05 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: at least 33 (plus 21 repeaters that
                                          relay broadcasts from Russia) (1997)
                             Televisions: 18.05 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .ua
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 260 (2001)
                          Internet users: 750,000 (2001)
    
     Transportation Ukraine
     ----------------------
                                Railways: total: 22,510 km
                                          broad gauge: 21,951 km 1.524-m gauge
                                          (8,927 km electrified)
                                          standard gauge: 49 km 1.435-m gauge
                                          note: these data do not include
                                          railroads dedicated to serving
                                          industry and not in common carrier
                                          service (2001)
                                          narrow gauge: 510 km 0.750-m gauge
                                Highways: total: 273,700 km
                                          paved: 236,400 km (including 1,770
                                          km of expressways and a substantial
                                          amount of all-weather roads with
                                          gravel surfaces)
                                          unpaved: 37,300 km (these roads are
                                          made of unstabilized earth and are
                                          difficult to negotiate in wet
                                          weather) (1990)
                               Waterways: 4,499 km
                                          note: 1,672 km are on the Pryp'yat'
                                          and Dniester (Dnister) (1990)
                               Pipelines: crude oil 4,000 km (1995); petroleum
                                          products 4,500 km (1995); natural
                                          gas 34,400 km (1998)
                       Ports and harbors: Berdyans'k, Feodosiya, Illichivs'k,
                                          Izmayil, Kerch, Kherson, Kiev
                                          (Kyyiv), Kiliya, Mariupol',
                                          Mykolayiv, Odesa, Reni, Sevastopol',
                                          Yalta, Yuzhnyy
                         Merchant marine: total: 138 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 669,303 GRT/707,857 DWT
                                          ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 100,
                                          container 3, liquefied gas 2,
                                          passenger 11, passenger/cargo 1,
                                          petroleum tanker 12, railcar carrier
                                          2
                                          note: includes some foreign-owned
                                          ships registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: Cyprus 1, Greece 1,
                                          Panama 1, Russia 4, Saint Vincent
                                          and the Grenadines 1 (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 718 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 114
                                          over 3,047 m: 14
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 50
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 21
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 3
                                          under 914 m: 26 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 604
                                          over 3,047 m: 13
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 37
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 52
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 45
                                          under 914 m: 457 (2001)
    
     Military Ukraine
     ----------------
                        Military branches: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air
                                           Force, Air Defense Forces, Interior
                                           Troops, Border Troops
         Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
         Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 12,263,178 (2002
                                           est.)
      Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 9,616,864 (2002
                                  service: est.)
     Military manpower - reaching military males: 390,823 (2002 est.)
                             age annually:
            Military expenditures - dollar $500 million (FY99)
                                   figure:
        Military expenditures - percent of 1.4% (FY99)
                                      GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Ukraine
     ----------------------------
                Disputes - international: Ukraine and Romania have yet to
                                          resolve claims over Ukrainian-
                                          administered Zmiyinyy (Snake) Island
                                          and delimitation of Black Sea
                                          maritime boundary, despite 1997
                                          bilateral treaty to find a solution
                                          in two years and numerous talks;
                                          Russia and Ukraine have successfully
                                          delimited land boundary in 2001, but
                                          disagree on delimitation of maritime
                                          boundary in the Sea of Azov and
                                          Black Sea; Moldovan difficulties
                                          with break-away Transnistria region
                                          inhibit establishment of a joint
                                          customs regime with Ukraine to
                                          curtail smuggling, arms transfers,
                                          and other illegal activities
                           Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and
                                          opium poppy, mostly for CIS
                                          consumption; some synthetic drug
                                          production for export to West;
                                          limited government eradication
                                          program; used as transshipment point
                                          for opiates and other illicit drugs
                                          from Africa, Latin America, and
                                          Turkey, and to Europe and Russia;
                                          drug-related money laundering a
                                          minor, but growing, problem
    
                                         
  
  

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