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2 definitions found
 for Uzbekistan
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Uzbekistan
      n 1: a landlocked republic in west central Asia; formerly an
           Asian soviet [syn: Uzbekistan, Republic of Uzbekistan,
           Uzbek]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Uzbekistan
  
     Introduction Uzbekistan
     -----------------------
                              Background: Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the
                                          late 19th century. Stiff resistance
                                          to the Red Army after World War I
                                          was eventually suppressed and a
                                          socialist republic set up in 1924.
                                          During the Soviet era, intensive
                                          production of "white gold" (cotton)
                                          and grain led to overuse of
                                          agrochemicals and the depletion of
                                          water supplies, which have left the
                                          land poisoned and the Aral Sea and
                                          certain rivers half dry. Independent
                                          since 1991, the country seeks to
                                          gradually lessen its dependence on
                                          agriculture while developing its
                                          mineral and petroleum reserves.
                                          Current concerns include insurgency
                                          by Islamic militants based in
                                          Tajikistan and Afghanistan, a
                                          nonconvertible currency, and the
                                          curtailment of human rights and
                                          democratization.
    
     Geography Uzbekistan
     --------------------
                                Location: Central Asia, north of Afghanistan
                  Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 64 00 E
                          Map references: Asia
                                    Area: total: 447,400 sq km
                                          water: 22,000 sq km
                                          land: 425,400 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly larger than California
                         Land boundaries: total: 6,221 km
                                          border countries: Afghanistan 137
                                          km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan
                                          1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km,
                                          Turkmenistan 1,621 km
                               Coastline: 0 km (doubly landlocked); note -
                                          Uzbekistan includes the southern
                                          portion of the Aral Sea with a 420
                                          km shoreline
                         Maritime claims: none (doubly landlocked)
                                 Climate: mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot
                                          summers, mild winters; semiarid
                                          grassland in east
                                 Terrain: mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert
                                          with dunes; broad, flat intensely
                                          irrigated river valleys along course
                                          of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo),
                                          and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in
                                          east surrounded by mountainous
                                          Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking
                                          Aral Sea in west
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m
    
                                          highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301
                                          m
                       Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold,
                                          uranium, silver, copper, lead and
                                          zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
                                Land use: arable land: 10.8%
                                          permanent crops: 0.91%
                                          other: 88.29% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 42,810 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: NA
            Environment - current issues: shrinkage of the Aral Sea is
                                          resulting in growing concentrations
                                          of chemical pesticides and natural
                                          salts; these substances are then
                                          blown from the increasingly exposed
                                          lake bed and contribute to
                                          desertification; water pollution
                                          from industrial wastes and the heavy
                                          use of fertilizers and pesticides is
                                          the cause of many human health
                                          disorders; increasing soil
                                          salination; soil contamination from
                                          buried nuclear processing and
                                          agricultural chemicals, including
                                          DDT
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
                                          Protocol, Desertification,
                                          Endangered Species, Environmental
                                          Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
                                          Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: none of
                                          the selected agreements
                        Geography - note: along with Liechtenstein, one of the
                                          only two doubly landlocked countries
                                          in the world
    
     People Uzbekistan
     -----------------
                              Population: 25,563,441 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 35.5% (male 4,617,110;
                                          female 4,457,065)
                                          15-64 years: 59.8% (male 7,567,510;
                                          female 7,726,753)
                                          65 years and over: 4.7% (male
                                          482,137; female 712,866) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 1.62% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 26.09 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 7.98 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: -1.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 0.98 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 71.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.9 years
                                          female: 67.6 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 60.38 years
                    Total fertility rate: 3.03 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ less than 100 (1999 est.)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Uzbekistani(s)
                                          adjective: Uzbekistani
                           Ethnic groups: Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%,
                                          Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar
                                          1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
                               Religions: Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern
                                          Orthodox 9%, other 3%
                               Languages: Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik
                                          4.4%, other 7.1%
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 99%
                                          male: 99%
                                          female: 99% (yearend 1996)
    
     Government Uzbekistan
     ---------------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          Uzbekistan
                                          conventional short form: Uzbekistan
                                          local short form: none
                                          former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist
                                          Republic
                                          local long form: Uzbekiston
                                          Respublikasi
                         Government type: republic; authoritarian presidential
                                          rule, with little power outside the
                                          executive branch
                                 Capital: Tashkent (Toshkent)
                Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular -
                                          viloyat), 1 autonomous republic*
                                          (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar);
                                          Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati,
                                          Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati,
                                          Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati,
                                          Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi),
                                          Qaraqalpog'iston Respublikasi*
                                          (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati,
                                          Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston),
                                          Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz),
                                          Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent
                                          Viloyati, Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
                                          note: administrative divisions have
                                          the same names as their
                                          administrative centers (exceptions
                                          have the administrative center name
                                          following in parentheses)
                            Independence: 1 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
                            Constitution: new constitution adopted 8 December
                                          1992
                            Legal system: evolution of Soviet civil law; still
                                          lacks independent judicial system
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Islom
                                          KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when
                                          he was elected president by the then
                                          Supreme Soviet)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Otkir SULTONOV (since 21 December
                                          1995)
                                          cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
                                          appointed by the president with
                                          approval of the Supreme Assembly
                                          election results: Islom KARIMOV
                                          reelected president; percent of vote
                                          - Islom KARIMOV 91.9%, Abdulkhafiz
                                          JALALOV 4.2%
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a seven-year term;
                                          election last held 9 January 2000
                                          (next to be held NA 2007);
                                          (previously was a five-year term,
                                          extended by national referendum on
                                          27 January 2002) prime minister and
                                          deputy ministers appointed by the
                                          president
                      Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy
                                          Majlis (250 seats; members elected
                                          by popular vote to serve five-year
                                          terms); note - on 27 January 2002, a
                                          referendum was held that will make
                                          the Assembly bicameral on the 2004
                                          elections
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - NA%; seats by party - NDP
                                          48, Self-Sacrificers Party 34,
                                          Fatherland Progress Party 20, Adolat
                                          Social Democratic Party 11, MTP 10,
                                          citizens' groups 16, local
                                          government 110, vacant 1
                                          note: not all seats in the last
                                          Supreme Assembly election were
                                          contested; all parties in the
                                          Supreme Assembly support President
                                          KARIMOV
                                          elections: last held 5 December and
                                          19 December 1999 (next to be held NA
                                          December 2004)
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are nominated
                                          by the president and confirmed by
                                          the Supreme Assembly)
           Political parties and leaders: Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic
                                          Party [Anwar JURABAYEV, first
                                          secretary]; Democratic National
                                          Rebirth Party (Milly Tiklanish) or
                                          MTP [Aziz KAYUMOV, chairman];
                                          People's Democratic Party or NDP
                                          (formerly Communist Party)
                                          [Abdulkhafiz JALOLOV, first
                                          secretary]; Self-Sacrificers Party
                                          or Fidokorlar National Democratic
                                          Party [Ahtam TURSUNOV, first
                                          secretary]; note - Fatherland
                                          Progress Party merged with Self-
                                          Sacrificers Party
            Political pressure groups and Birlik (Unity) Movement [Abdurakhim
                                 leaders: POLAT, chairman]; Erk (Freedom)
                                          Democratic Party [Muhammad SOLIH,
                                          chairman] was banned 9 December
                                          1992; Human Rights Society of
                                          Uzbekistan [Abdumannob POLAT,
                                          chairman]; Independent Human Rights
                                          Society of Uzbekistan [Mikhail
                                          ARDZINOV, chairman]
               International organization AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
                           participation: ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
                                          ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
                                          Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC,
                                          OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
                                          UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
                                          WToO, WTrO (observer)
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Shavkat
                                          HAMRAKULOV
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
                                          consulate(s) general: New York
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
                                          chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20036
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador John
                                      US: Edward HERBST
                                          embassy: 82 Chilanzarskaya, Tashkent
                                          700115
                                          mailing address: use embassy street
                                          address; US Embassy Tashkent,
                                          Department of State, Washington, DC
                                          20521-7110
                                          telephone: [998] (71) 120-5444
                                          FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
                        Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue
                                          (top), white, and green separated by
                                          red fimbriations with a white
                                          crescent moon and 12 white stars in
                                          the upper hoist-side quadrant
    
     Economy Uzbekistan
     ------------------
                      Economy - overview: Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked
                                          country of which 11% consists of
                                          intensely cultivated, irrigated
                                          river valleys. More than 60% of its
                                          population lives in densely
                                          populated rural communities.
                                          Uzbekistan is now the world's second
                                          largest cotton exporter, a large
                                          producer of gold and oil, and a
                                          regionally significant producer of
                                          chemicals and machinery. Following
                                          independence in December 1991, the
                                          government sought to prop up its
                                          Soviet-style command economy with
                                          subsidies and tight controls on
                                          production and prices. The state
                                          continues to be a dominating
                                          influence in the economy and has so
                                          far failed to bring about much-
                                          needed structural changes. The IMF
                                          suspended Uzbekistan's $185 million
                                          standby arrangement in late 1996
                                          because of governmental steps that
                                          made impossible fulfillment of Fund
                                          conditions. Uzbekistan has responded
                                          to the negative external conditions
                                          generated by the Asian and Russian
                                          financial crises by emphasizing
                                          import substitute industrialization
                                          and by tightening export and
                                          currency controls within its already
                                          largely closed economy. Economic
                                          policies that have repelled foreign
                                          investment are a major factor in the
                                          economy's stagnation. A growing debt
                                          burden, persistent inflation, and a
                                          poor business climate led to
                                          disappointing growth in 2001.
                                          However, in December 2001 the
                                          government voiced a renewed interest
                                          in economic reform, seeking advice
                                          from the IMF and other financial
                                          institutions.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $62
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,500
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 33%
                                          industry: 24%
                                          services: 43% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 3.1%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 25.2% (1993)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 33.3 (1993)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 23% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 11.9 million (1998 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 44%, industry 20%,
                                          services 36% (1995)
                       Unemployment rate: 10% plus another 20% underemployed
                                          (1999 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $4 billion
                                          expenditures: $4.1 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (1999 est.)
                              Industries: textiles, food processing, machine
                                          building, metallurgy, natural gas,
                                          chemicals
       Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (2000 est.)
                Electricity - production: 44.075 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 86.95%
                                          hydro: 13.05%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 41.89 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 4.1 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 5 billion kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain;
                                          livestock
                                 Exports: $2.8 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: cotton 41.5%, gold 9.6%, energy
                                          products 9.6%, mineral fertilizers,
                                          ferrous metals, textiles, food
                                          products, automobiles (1998 est.)
                      Exports - partners: Russia 16.7%, Switzerland 8.3%, UK
                                          7.2%, Ukraine 4.7%, South Korea
                                          3.3%, Kazakhstan 3.1% (2000)
                                 Imports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment 49.8%,
                                          foodstuffs 16.4%, chemicals, metals
                                          (1998 est.)
                      Imports - partners: Russia 15.8%, South Korea 9.8%, US
                                          8.7%, Germany 8.6%, Kazakhstan 7.3%,
                                          Ukraine 6.1% (2002)
                         Debt - external: $5.1 billion (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: approximately $150 million from the
                                          US (2001)
                                Currency: Uzbekistani sum (UZS)
                           Currency code: UZS
                          Exchange rates: Uzbekistani sums per US dollar -
                                          687.0 (January 2002), 325.0 (January
                                          2001), 141.4 (January 2000), 111.9
                                          (February 1999), 110.95 (December
                                          1998), 75.8 (September 1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
    
     Communications Uzbekistan
     -------------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 1.98 million (1999)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 26,000 (1998)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: antiquated and
                                          inadequate; in serious need of
                                          modernization
                                          domestic: the domestic telephone
                                          system is being expanded and
                                          technologically improved,
                                          particularly in Tashkent and
                                          Samarqand, under contracts with
                                          prominent companies in
                                          industrialized countries; moreover,
                                          by 1998, six cellular networks had
                                          been placed in operation - four of
                                          the GSM type (Global System for
                                          Mobile Communication), one D-AMPS
                                          type (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone
                                          System), and one AMPS type (Advanced
                                          Mobile Phone System)
                                          international: linked by landline or
                                          microwave radio relay with CIS
                                          member states and to other countries
                                          by leased connection via the Moscow
                                          international gateway switch; after
                                          the completion of the Uzbek link to
                                          the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-
                                          optic cable, Uzbekistan will be
                                          independent of Russian facilities
                                          for international communications;
                                          Inmarsat also provides an
                                          international connection, albeit an
                                          expensive one; satellite earth
                                          stations - NA (1998)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 20, FM 7, shortwave 10 (1998)
                                  Radios: 10.8 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 4 (plus two repeaters that relay
                                          Russian, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, and Tajik
                                          programs) (1997)
                             Televisions: 6.4 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .uz
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 42 (2000)
                          Internet users: 7,500 (2000)
    
     Transportation Uzbekistan
     -------------------------
                                Railways: total: 3,656 km
                                          broad gauge: 3,656 km 1.520-m gauge
                                          (618 km electrified) (2000)
                                Highways: total: 81,600 km
                                          paved: 71,237 km (includes some all-
                                          weather gravel-surfaced roads)
                                          unpaved: 10,363 km (these roads are
                                          made of unstabilized earth and are
                                          difficult to negotiate in wet
                                          weather) (1990)
                               Waterways: 1,100 km (1990)
                               Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; petroleum products
                                          40 km; natural gas 810 km (1992)
                       Ports and harbors: Termiz (Amu Darya)
                                Airports: 267 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 10
                                          over 3,047 m: 3
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
                                          under 914 m: 2 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 257
                                          over 3,047 m: 3
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 13
                                          under 914 m: 222 (2001)
    
     Military Uzbekistan
     -------------------
                        Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces,
                                           National Guard, Security Forces
                                           (internal security and border
                                           troops)
         Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
         Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 6,747,221 (2002
                                           est.)
      Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 5,478,766 (2002
                                  service: est.)
              Military manpower - reaching males: 274,602 (2002 est.)
                    military age annually:
            Military expenditures - dollar $200 million (FY97)
                                   figure:
        Military expenditures - percent of 2% (FY97)
                                      GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Uzbekistan
     -------------------------------
                Disputes - international: Uzbekistan border largely delimited
                                          with Kazakhstan, but unresolved
                                          dispute remains over sovereignty of
                                          two border villages, Bagys and
                                          Turkestan, and around the Arnasay
                                          dam; dispute over access to Sokh and
                                          other Uzbek enclaves in Kyrgyzstan
                                          mars progress on international
                                          boundary delimitation; Kazakhstan,
                                          Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and
                                          Uzbekistan wrestle with sharing
                                          limited water resources and the
                                          regional environmental degradation
                                          caused by the shrinking Aral Sea;
                                          the undemarcated northern and
                                          western border with Uzbekistan is
                                          mined in many sections
                           Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivation of
                                          cannabis and very small amounts of
                                          opium poppy, mostly for domestic
                                          consumption, almost entirely
                                          eradicated by an effective
                                          government eradication program;
                                          increasingly used as transshipment
                                          point for illicit drugs from
                                          Afghanistan to Russia and Western
                                          Europe and for acetic anhydride
                                          destined for Afghanistan
    
                                         
  
  

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