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2 definitions found
 for Venezuela
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Venezuela
      n 1: a republic in northern South America on the Caribbean;
           achieved independence from Spain in 1811; rich in oil [syn:
           Venezuela, Republic of Venezuela]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Venezuela
  
     Introduction Venezuela
     ----------------------
                              Background: Venezuela was one of the three
                                          countries that emerged from the
                                          collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830
                                          (the others being Colombia and
                                          Ecuador). For most of the first half
                                          of the 20th century, Venezuela was
                                          ruled by generally benevolent
                                          military strongmen, who promoted the
                                          oil industry and allowed for some
                                          social reforms. Democratically-
                                          elected governments have held sway
                                          since 1959. Current concerns
                                          include: an embattled president who
                                          is losing his once solid support
                                          among Venezuelans, a divided
                                          military, drug-related conflicts
                                          along the Colombian border,
                                          increasing internal drug
                                          consumption, overdependence on the
                                          petroleum industry with its price
                                          fluctuations, and irresponsible
                                          mining operations that are
                                          endangering the rain forest and
                                          indigenous peoples.
    
     Geography Venezuela
     -------------------
                                Location: Northern South America, bordering
                                          the Caribbean Sea and the North
                                          Atlantic Ocean, between Colombia and
                                          Guyana
                  Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 66 00 W
                          Map references: South America
                                    Area: total: 912,050 sq km
                                          land: 882,050 sq km
                                          water: 30,000 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of
                                          California
                         Land boundaries: total: 4,993 km
                                          border countries: Brazil 2,200 km,
                                          Colombia 2,050 km, Guyana 743 km
                               Coastline: 2,800 km
                         Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 15 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                          continental shelf: 200-m depth or to
                                          the depth of exploitation
                                          exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                 Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate
                                          in highlands
                                 Terrain: Andes Mountains and Maracaibo
                                          Lowlands in northwest; central
                                          plains (llanos); Guiana Highlands in
                                          southeast
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
                                          highest point: Pico Bolivar (La
                                          Columna) 5,007 m
                       Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore,
                                          gold, bauxite, other minerals,
                                          hydropower, diamonds
                                Land use: arable land: 2.99%
                                          permanent crops: 0.96%
                                          other: 96.04% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 540 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: subject to floods, rockslides,
                                          mudslides; periodic droughts
            Environment - current issues: sewage pollution of Lago de
                                          Valencia; oil and urban pollution of
                                          Lago de Maracaibo; deforestation;
                                          soil degradation; urban and
                                          industrial pollution, especially
                                          along the Caribbean coast; threat to
                                          the rainforest ecosystem from
                                          irresponsible mining operations
              Environment - international party to: Antarctic Treaty,
                              agreements: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                          Desertification, Endangered Species,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life
                                          Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
                                          Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                          Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
                                          Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: Marine
                                          Dumping
                        Geography - note: on major sea and air routes linking
                                          North and South America; Angel Falls
                                          in the Guiana Highlands is the
                                          world's highest waterfall
    
     People Venezuela
     ----------------
                              Population: 24,287,670 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 31.6% (male 3,955,132;
                                          female 3,710,159)
                                          15-64 years: 63.6% (male 7,756,362;
                                          female 7,695,738)
                                          65 years and over: 4.8% (male
                                          533,559; female 636,720) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 1.52% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 20.22 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 4.91 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: -0.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 1.02 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 24.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.56 years
                                          female: 76.81 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 70.53 years
                    Total fertility rate: 2.41 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.49% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 62,000 (1999 est.)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,000 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Venezuelan(s)
                                          adjective: Venezuelan
                           Ethnic groups: Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Arab,
                                          German, African, indigenous people
                               Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 96%,
                                          Protestant 2%, other 2%
                               Languages: Spanish (official), numerous
                                          indigenous dialects
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 91.1%
                                          male: 91.8%
                                          female: 90.3% (1995 est.)
    
     Government Venezuela
     --------------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: Bolivarian
                                          Republic of Venezuela
                                          conventional short form: Venezuela
                                          local short form: Venezuela
                                          local long form: Republica
                                          Bolivariana de Venezuela
                         Government type: federal republic
                                 Capital: Caracas
                Administrative divisions: 23 states (estados, singular -
                                          estado), 1 federal district*
                                          (distrito federal), and 1 federal
                                          dependency** (dependencia federal);
                                          Amazonas, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua,
                                          Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes,
                                          Delta Amacuro, Dependencias
                                          Federales**, Distrito Federal*,
                                          Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida,
                                          Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta,
                                          Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira,
                                          Trujillo, Vargas, Yaracuy, Zulia
                                          note: the federal dependency
                                          consists of 11 federally controlled
                                          island groups with a total of 72
                                          individual islands
                            Independence: 5 July 1811 (from Spain)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1811)
                            Constitution: 30 December 1999
                            Legal system: based on organic laws as of July
                                          1999; open, adversarial court
                                          system; has not accepted compulsory
                                          ICJ jurisdiction
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Hugo
                                          CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 February
                                          1999); Vice President Jose Vicente
                                          RANGEL (since 28 April 2002); note -
                                          the president is both the chief of
                                          state and head of government
                                          head of government: President Hugo
                                          CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 February
                                          1999); Vice President Jose Vicente
                                          RANGEL (since 28 April 2002); note -
                                          the president is both the chief of
                                          state and head of government
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          appointed by the president
                                          election results: Hugo CHAVEZ Frias
                                          reelected president; percent of vote
                                          - 60%
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a six-year term;
                                          election last held 30 July 2000
                                          (next to be held NA 2006)
                      Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or
                                          Asamblea Nacional (165 seats;
                                          members elected by popular vote to
                                          serve five-year terms; three seats
                                          reserved for the indigenous peoples
                                          of Venezuela)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - NA%; seats by party - pro-
                                          government 108 (MVR 92, MAS 6,
                                          indigenous 3, other 7), opposition
                                          57 (AD 33, COPEI 6, Justice First 5,
                                          other 13)
                                          elections: last held 30 July 2000
                                          (next to be held NA 2005)
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice or
                                          Tribuna Suprema de Justicia
                                          (magistrates are elected by the
                                          National Assembly for a single 12-
                                          year term)
           Political parties and leaders: Democratic Action or AD [Claudio
                                          FERMIN]; Fifth Republic Movement or
                                          MVR [Garcia PONCE]; Homeland for All
                                          or PPT [Jose ALBORNIZ]; Justice
                                          First [Julio BORGES]; Movement
                                          Toward Socialism or MAS [Hector
                                          MUJICA]; National Convergence or
                                          Convergencia [Juan Jose CALDERA];
                                          Radical Cause or La Causa R [Antonio
                                          HERRERA]; Social Christian Party or
                                          COPEI [Oswaldo ALVAREZ Paz];
                                          Venezuela Project or PV [Henrique
                                          SALAS Romer]
            Political pressure groups and FEDECAMARAS, a conservative business
                                 leaders: group; VECINOS groups; Venezuelan
                                          Confederation of Workers or CTV
                                          (labor organization dominated by the
                                          Democratic Action)
               International organization CAN, Caricom (observer), CCC, CDB,
                           participation: ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-15, G-19, G-24,
                                          G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
                                          ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
                                          ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
                                          ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS,
                                          OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, RG, UN,
                                          UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
                                          UNIKOM, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
                                          WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador
                                          Designate Roy CHADERTON Matos
                                          chancery: 1099 30th Street NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20007
                                          consulate(s) general: Boston,
                                          Chicago, Houston, Miami, New
                                          Orleans, New York, San Francisco,
                                          and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 342-6820
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 342-2214
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Charles
                                      US: SHAPIRO
                                          embassy: Calle F con Calle Suapure,
                                          Urbanizacion Colinas de Valle
                                          Arriba, Caracas 1080
                                          mailing address: P. O. Box 62291,
                                          Caracas 1060-A; APO AA 34037
                                          telephone: [58] (0212) 975-9234,
                                          975-6411
                                          FAX: [58] (0212) 975-8991
                        Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of
                                          yellow (top), blue, and red with the
                                          coat of arms on the hoist side of
                                          the yellow band and an arc of seven
                                          white five-pointed stars centered in
                                          the blue band
    
     Economy Venezuela
     -----------------
                      Economy - overview: The petroleum sector dominates the
                                          economy, accounting for roughly a
                                          third of GDP, around 80% of export
                                          earnings, and more than half of
                                          government operating revenues.
                                          Venezuelan officials estimate that
                                          GDP grew by 2.7% in 2001. A strong
                                          rebound in international oil prices
                                          fueled the recovery from the steep
                                          recession in 1999. Nevertheless, a
                                          weak nonoil sector and capital
                                          flight - and a temporary fall in oil
                                          prices - undercut the recovery. In
                                          early 2002, President CHAVEZ changed
                                          the exchange rate regime from a
                                          crawling peg to a free floating
                                          exchange rate, causing the bolivar
                                          to depreciate significantly.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $146.2
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 2.7% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,100
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 5%
                                          industry: 40%
                                          services: 55% (2001 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 67% (1997 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 1.6%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 37.6% (1997)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 48.8 (1997)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.3% (2001)
                             Labor force: 9.9 million (1999)
             Labor force - by occupation: services 64%, industry 23%,
                                          agriculture 13% (1997 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 14.1% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $21.5 billion
                                          expenditures: $27 billion, including
                                          capital expenditures of $NA (2000
                                          est.)
                              Industries: petroleum, iron ore mining,
                                          construction materials, food
                                          processing, textiles, steel,
                                          aluminum, motor vehicle assembly
       Industrial production growth rate: NA%
                Electricity - production: 80.754 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 22.87%
                                          hydro: 77.13%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 75.101 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: corn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice,
                                          bananas, vegetables, coffee; beef,
                                          pork, milk, eggs; fish
                                 Exports: $29.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Exports - commodities: petroleum, bauxite and aluminum,
                                          steel, chemicals, agricultural
                                          products, basic manufactures
                      Exports - partners: US 60%, Brazil 5.5%, Colombia 3.5%,
                                          Italy 3.5%, Spain 3.4% (2000)
                                 Imports: $18.4 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Imports - commodities: raw materials, machinery and
                                          equipment, transport equipment,
                                          construction materials
                      Imports - partners: US 35.8%, Colombia 6.8%, Brazil
                                          4.5%, Germany 3.9%, Italy 3.9%
                                          (2000)
                         Debt - external: $34.5 billion (2000)
                Economic aid - recipient: $35 million with more assistance
                                          likely as a result of flooding
                                          (1999)
                                Currency: bolivar (VEB)
                           Currency code: VEB
                          Exchange rates: bolivares per US dollar - 761.225
                                          (January 2002), 723.666 (2001),
                                          679.960 (2000), 605.717 (1999),
                                          547.556 (1998), 488.635 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
    
     Communications Venezuela
     ------------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 2.6 million (however, 3,500,000 have
                                          been installed) (1998)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 2 million (1998)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: modern and
                                          expanding
                                          domestic: domestic satellite system
                                          with 3 earth stations; recent
                                          substantial improvement in telephone
                                          service in rural areas; substantial
                                          increase in digitalization of
                                          exchanges and trunk lines;
                                          installation of a national
                                          interurban fiber-optic network
                                          capable of digital multimedia
                                          services
                                          international: 3 submarine coaxial
                                          cables; satellite earth stations - 1
                                          Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1
                                          PanAmSat; participating with
                                          Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia
                                          in the construction of an
                                          international fiber-optic network
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 201, FM NA (20 in Caracas),
                                          shortwave 11 (1998)
                                  Radios: 10.75 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 66 (plus 45 repeaters) (1997)
                             Televisions: 4.1 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .ve
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 16 (2000)
                          Internet users: 950,000 (2001)
    
     Transportation Venezuela
     ------------------------
                                Railways: total: 682 km
                                          standard gauge: 682 km 1.435-m gauge
    
                                          note: 248 km of the existing system
                                          are privately owned; passenger
                                          services are nonexistent; however, a
                                          National Railways Plan, intended to
                                          provide a significant railway
                                          system, has been initiated (2001)
                                Highways: total: 96,155 km
                                          paved: 32,308 km
                                          unpaved: 63,847 km (1997 est.)
                               Waterways: 7,100 km
                                          note: Rio Orinoco and Lago de
                                          Maracaibo accept oceangoing vessels
                               Pipelines: crude oil 6,370 km; petroleum
                                          products 480 km; natural gas 4,010
                                          km
                       Ports and harbors: Amuay, Bajo Grande, El Tablazo, La
                                          Guaira, La Salina, Maracaibo,
                                          Matanzas, Palua, Puerto Cabello,
                                          Puerto la Cruz, Puerto Ordaz, Puerto
                                          Sucre, Punta Cardon
                         Merchant marine: total: 45 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 716,361 GRT/1,267,095 DWT
                                          note: includes some foreign-owned
                                          ships registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: Denmark 1, Greece 1,
                                          Italy 1, United Kingdom 1, United
                                          States 2 (2002 est.)
                                          ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 9,
                                          liquefied gas 3, passenger/cargo 1,
                                          petroleum tanker 14, roll on/roll
                                          off 10, short-sea passenger 1
                                Airports: 372 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 124
                                          over 3,047 m: 5
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 59
                                          under 914 m: 17 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 32
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 248
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 97
                                          under 914 m: 140 (2001)
                               Heliports: 1 (2001)
    
     Military Venezuela
     ------------------
                       Military branches: National Armed Forces (Fuerzas
                                          Armadas Nacionales or FAN) includes
                                          Ground Forces or Army (Fuerzas
                                          Terrestres or Ejercito), Naval
                                          Forces (Fuerzas Navales or Armada -
                                          including marines and Coast Guard),
                                          Air Force (Fuerzas Aereas or
                                          Aviacion), Armed Forces of
                                          Cooperation or National Guard
                                          (Fuerzas Armadas de Cooperacion or
                                          Guardia Nacional)
        Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 6,647,718 (2002
                                          est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 4,786,849 (2002
                                 service: est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 246,185 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $934 million (FY99)
                                  figure:
       Military expenditures - percent of 0.9% (FY99)
                                     GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Venezuela
     ------------------------------
                Disputes - international: claims all of Guyana west of the
                                          Essequibo (river); maritime boundary
                                          dispute with Colombia in the Gulf of
                                          Venezuela; several Caribbean states
                                          protest Venezuela's claim to Islas
                                          des Aves (Bird Islands), 565 km from
                                          Venezuelan mainland
                           Illicit drugs: small-scale illicit producer of
                                          opium and coca for the processing of
                                          opiates and coca derivatives;
                                          however, large quantities of
                                          cocaine, heroin, and marijuana
                                          transit the country from Colombia
                                          bound for US and Europe; important
                                          money-laundering center; active
                                          eradication program primarily
                                          targeting opium; increasing signs of
                                          drug-related activities by Colombian
                                          insurgents on border
    
                                         
  
  

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