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2 definitions found
 for Vietnam
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Vietnam
      n 1: a communist state in Indochina on the South China Sea;
           achieved independence from France in 1945 [syn: Vietnam,
           Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Viet Nam, Annam]
      2: a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of
         North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the
         armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United
         States [syn: Vietnam War, Vietnam]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Vietnam
  
     Introduction Vietnam
     --------------------
                              Background: France occupied all of Vietnam by
                                          1884. Independence was declared
                                          after World War II, but the French
                                          continued to rule until 1954 when
                                          they were defeated by Communist
                                          forces under Ho Chi MINH, who took
                                          control of the north. US economic
                                          and military aid to South Vietnam
                                          grew through the 1960s in an attempt
                                          to bolster the government, but US
                                          armed forces were withdrawn
                                          following a cease-fire agreement in
                                          1973. Two years later North
                                          Vietnamese forces overran the south.
                                          Economic reconstruction of the
                                          reunited country has proven
                                          difficult as aging Communist Party
                                          leaders have only grudgingly
                                          initiated reforms necessary for a
                                          free market.
    
     Geography Vietnam
     -----------------
                                Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the
                                          Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin,
                                          and South China Sea, alongside
                                          China, Laos, and Cambodia
                  Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 106 00 E
                          Map references: Southeast Asia
                                    Area: total: 329,560 sq km
                                          land: 325,360 sq km
                                          water: 4,200 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico
                         Land boundaries: total: 4,639 km
                                          border countries: Cambodia 1,228 km,
                                          China 1,281 km, Laos 2,130 km
                               Coastline: 3,444 km (excludes islands)
                         Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                          continental shelf: 200 NM or to the
                                          edge of the continental margin
                                          exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                 Climate: tropical in south; monsoonal in
                                          north with hot, rainy season (mid-
                                          May to mid-September) and warm, dry
                                          season (mid-October to mid-March)
                                 Terrain: low, flat delta in south and north;
                                          central highlands; hilly,
                                          mountainous in far north and
                                          northwest
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
                                          highest point: Ngoc Linh 3,143 m
                       Natural resources: phosphates, coal, manganese,
                                          bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and
                                          gas deposits, forests, hydropower
                                Land use: arable land: 17.41%
                                          permanent crops: 4.71%
                                          other: 77.87% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 30,000 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: occasional typhoons (May to January)
                                          with extensive flooding, especially
                                          in the Mekong River delta
            Environment - current issues: logging and slash-and-burn
                                          agricultural practices contribute to
                                          deforestation and soil degradation;
                                          water pollution and overfishing
                                          threaten marine life populations;
                                          groundwater contamination limits
                                          potable water supply; growing urban
                                          industrialization and population
                                          migration are rapidly degrading
                                          environment in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh
                                          City
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Environmental Modification,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
                                          Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                          Pollution, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: Climate
                                          Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test
                                          Ban
                        Geography - note: extending 1,650 km north to south,
                                          the country is only 50 km across at
                                          its narrowest point
    
     People Vietnam
     --------------
                              Population: 81,098,416 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 31.6% (male 13,259,152;
                                          female 12,392,089)
                                          15-64 years: 62.9% (male 24,938,098;
                                          female 26,083,681)
                                          65 years and over: 5.5% (male
                                          1,749,531; female 2,675,865) (2002
                                          est.)
                  Population growth rate: 1.43% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 20.89 births/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                              Death rate: 6.14 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                                          est.)
                      Net migration rate: -0.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/
                                          female
                                          total population: 0.97 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 29.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                                          est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.86 years
                                          female: 72.5 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 67.4 years
                    Total fertility rate: 2.44 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.24% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 100,000 (1999 est.)
                                    AIDS:
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,500 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Vietnamese (singular and
                                          plural)
                                          adjective: Vietnamese
                           Ethnic groups: Vietnamese 85%-90%, Chinese, Hmong,
                                          Thai, Khmer, Cham, mountain groups
                               Religions: Buddhist, Hoa Hao, Cao Dai,
                                          Christian (predominantly Roman
                                          Catholic, some Protestant),
                                          indigenous beliefs, Muslim
                               Languages: Vietnamese (official), English
                                          (increasingly favored as a second
                                          language), some French, Chinese, and
                                          Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-
                                          Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 93.7%
                                          male: 96.5%
                                          female: 91.2% (1995 est.)
    
     Government Vietnam
     ------------------
                            Country name: conventional long form: Socialist
                                          Republic of Vietnam
                                          conventional short form: Vietnam
                                          local short form: Viet Nam
                                          abbreviation: SRV
                                          local long form: Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu
                                          Nghia Viet Nam
                         Government type: Communist state
                                 Capital: Hanoi
                Administrative divisions: 58 provinces (tinh, singular and
                                          plural), and 3 municipalities* (thu
                                          do, singular and plural); An Giang,
                                          Bac Giang, Bac Kan, Bac Lieu, Bac
                                          Ninh, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Ben Tre, Binh
                                          Dinh, Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc, Binh
                                          Thuan, Ca Mau, Can Tho, Cao Bang,
                                          Dac Lak, Da Nang, Dong Nai, Dong
                                          Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Giang, Hai Duong,
                                          Hai Phong*, Ha Nam, Ha Noi*, Ha Tay,
                                          Ha Tinh, Hoa Binh, Ho Chi Minh*,
                                          Hung Yen, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Kon
                                          Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son,
                                          Lao Cai, Long An, Nam Dinh, Nghe An,
                                          Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu Tho, Phu
                                          Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam, Quang
                                          Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc
                                          Trang, Son La, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh,
                                          Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien-
                                          Hue, Tien Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen
                                          Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phuc, Yen Bai
                            Independence: 2 September 1945 (from France)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 2 September (1945)
                            Constitution: 15 April 1992
                            Legal system: based on communist legal theory and
                                          French civil law system
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Tran Duc
                                          LUONG (since 24 September 1997)
                                          elections: president elected by the
                                          National Assembly from among its
                                          members for a five-year term;
                                          election last held 24 September 1997
                                          (next to be held when National
                                          Assembly meets following legislative
                                          elections in May 2002); prime
                                          minister appointed by the president
                                          from among the members of the
                                          National Assembly; deputy prime
                                          ministers appointed by the prime
                                          minister
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Phan Van KHAI (since 25 September
                                          1997); First Deputy Prime Minister
                                          Nguyen Tan DUNG (since 29 September
                                          1997); Deputy Prime Ministers Vu
                                          KHOAN (since NA) and Pham Gia KHIEM
                                          (since 29 September 1997)
                                          cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the
                                          president on the proposal of the
                                          prime minister and ratification of
                                          the National Assembly
                                          election results: Tran Duc LUONG
                                          elected president; percent of
                                          National Assembly vote - NA%
                      Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or
                                          Quoc-Hoi (498 seats; members elected
                                          by popular vote to serve five-year
                                          terms)
                                          elections: last held 19 May 2002
                                          (next to be held 2007)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - CPV 90%, other 10% (the 10%
                                          are not CPV members but are approved
                                          by the CPV to stand for election);
                                          seats by party - CPV 447, CPV-
                                          approved 51
                         Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court (chief
                                          justice is elected for a five-year
                                          term by the National Assembly on the
                                          recommendation of the president)
           Political parties and leaders: only party - Communist Party of
                                          Vietnam or CPV [Nong Duc MANH,
                                          general secretary]
            Political pressure groups and none
                                 leaders:
               International organization ACCT, APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC,
                           participation: ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
                                          ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
                                          IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM
                                          (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, UN,
                                          UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
                                          WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
                                          (observer)
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Nguyen
                                          Tam CHIEN
                                          consulate(s) general: San Francisco
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 861-0917
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 861-0737
                                          chancery: 1233 20th Street NW, Suite
                                          400, Washington, DC 20036
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond
                                      US: F. BURGHARDT
                                          embassy: 7 Lang Ha Road, Ba Dinh
                                          District, Hanoi
                                          mailing address: PSC 461, Box 400,
                                          FPO AP 96521-0002
                                          telephone: [84] (4) 772-1500
                                          FAX: [84] (4) 772-1510
                                          consulate(s) general: Ho Chi Minh
                                          City
                        Flag description: red with a large yellow five-pointed
                                          star in the center
    
     Economy Vietnam
     ---------------
                      Economy - overview: Vietnam is a poor, densely populated
                                          country that has had to recover from
                                          the ravages of war, the loss of
                                          financial support from the old
                                          Soviet Bloc, and the rigidities of a
                                          centrally planned economy.
                                          Substantial progress was achieved
                                          from 1986 to 1996 in moving forward
                                          from an extremely low starting point
                                          - growth averaged around 9% per year
                                          from 1993 to 1997. The 1997 Asian
                                          financial crisis highlighted the
                                          problems in the Vietnamese economy
                                          but, rather than prompting reform,
                                          reaffirmed the government's belief
                                          that shifting to a market oriented
                                          economy leads to disaster. GDP
                                          growth of 8.5% in 1997 fell to 6% in
                                          1998 and 5% in 1999. Growth then
                                          rose to 6.8% in 2000 and dropped
                                          back to 4.7% in 2001 against the
                                          background of global recession.
                                          These numbers mask some major
                                          difficulties in economic
                                          performance. Many domestic
                                          industries, including coal, cement,
                                          steel, and paper, have reported
                                          large stockpiles of inventory and
                                          tough competition from more
                                          efficient foreign producers.
                                          Meanwhile, Vietnamese authorities
                                          have moved slowly in implementing
                                          the structural reforms needed to
                                          revitalize the economy and produce
                                          more competitive, export-driven
                                          industries. The US-Vietnam Bilateral
                                          Trade Agreement entered into force
                                          near the end of 2001 and is expected
                                          to significantly increase Vietnam's
                                          exports to the US. The US is
                                          assisting Vietnam with implementing
                                          the legal and structural reforms
                                          called for in the agreement.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $168.1
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 4.7% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,100
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 25%
                                          industry: 35%
                                          services: 40% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 37% (1998 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 3.6%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 29.9% (1998)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 36.1 (1998)
                                   index:
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.3% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 38.2 million (1998 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 67%, industry and
                                          services 33% (1997 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 25% (1995 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $5.3 billion
                                          expenditures: $5.6 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $1.8 billion (1999 est.)
                              Industries: food processing, garments, shoes,
                                          machine building, mining, cement,
                                          chemical fertilizer, glass, tires,
                                          oil, coal, steel, paper
       Industrial production growth rate: 10.4% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 25.775 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 40.74%
                                          hydro: 59.26%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 23.97 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: paddy rice, corn, potatoes, rubber,
                                          soybeans, coffee, tea, bananas,
                                          sugar; poultry, pigs; fish
                                 Exports: $15.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: crude oil, marine products, rice,
                                          coffee, rubber, tea, garments, shoes
                      Exports - partners: Japan 18.1%, China 10.6%, Australia
                                          8.8%, Singapore 6.1%, Taiwan 5.2%,
                                          Germany 5.1%, US 5.1% (2000)
                                 Imports: $15.3 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum
                                          products, fertilizer, steel
                                          products, raw cotton, grain, cement,
                                          motorcycles
                      Imports - partners: Singapore 17.7%, Japan 14.4%, Taiwan
                                          12.1%, South Korea 11.1%, China
                                          9.1%, Thailand 5.2%, Hong Kong 3.9%
                                          (2000)
                         Debt - external: $13.2 billion (2000)
                Economic aid - recipient: $2.1 billion in credits and grants
                                          pledged by international donors for
                                          2000
                                Currency: dong (VND)
                           Currency code: VND
                          Exchange rates: dong per US dollar - 15,085 (January
                                          2002), 14,725 (2001), 14,168 (2000),
                                          13,943 (1999), 13,268 (1998), 11,683
                                          (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
    
     Communications Vietnam
     ----------------------
          Telephones - main lines in use: 2.6 million (2000)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 730,155 (2000)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: Vietnam is
                                          putting considerable effort into
                                          modernization and expansion of its
                                          telecommunication system, but its
                                          performance continues to lag behind
                                          that of its more modern neighbors
                                          domestic: all provincial exchanges
                                          are digitalized and connected to
                                          Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh City
                                          by fiber-optic cable or microwave
                                          radio relay networks; since 1991,
                                          main lines in use have been
                                          substantially increased and the use
                                          of mobile telephones is growing
                                          rapidly
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 2 Intersputnik (Indian
                                          Ocean region)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 65, FM 7, shortwave 29 (1999)
                                  Radios: 8.2 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: at least 7 (plus 13 repeaters)
                                          (1998)
                             Televisions: 3.57 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .vn
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (2000)
                          Internet users: 160,000 (2001)
    
     Transportation Vietnam
     ----------------------
                                Railways: total: 3,142 km
                                          standard gauge: 209 km 1.435-m gauge
    
                                          narrow gauge: 2,625 km 1.000-m gauge
    
                                          dual gauge: 308 km three-rail track
                                          combining 1.435-m and 1.000-m gauges
                                          (2001)
                                Highways: total: 93,300 km
                                          paved: 23,418 km
                                          unpaved: 69,882 km (1996)
                               Waterways: 17,702 km
                                          note: more than 5,149 km are
                                          navigable at all times by vessels up
                                          to 1.8 m draft
                               Pipelines: petroleum products 150 km
                       Ports and harbors: Cam Ranh, Da Nang, Haiphong, Ho Chi
                                          Minh City, Ha Long, Quy Nhon, Nha
                                          Trang, Vinh, Vung Tau
                         Merchant marine: total: 153 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 782,912 GRT/1,173,186 DWT
                                          note: includes some foreign-owned
                                          ships registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: Cambodia 1, Japan 1,
                                          Singapore 1, United Kingdom 2 (2002
                                          est.)
                                          ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 113,
                                          chemical tanker 1, combination bulk
                                          1, container 5, liquefied gas 2,
                                          petroleum tanker 20, refrigerated
                                          cargo 2
                                Airports: 34 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 17
                                          over 3,047 m: 8
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
                                          under 914 m: 2 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 17
                                          over 3,047 m: 1
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 7
                                          under 914 m: 8 (2001)
    
     Military Vietnam
     ----------------
                       Military branches: People's Army of Vietnam (includes
                                          Ground Forces, People's Navy Command
                                          [including Naval Infantry], Air and
                                          Air Defense Force, Coast Guard)
        Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 22,220,891 (2002
                                          est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 13,978,653 (2002
                                 service: est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 961,124 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $650 million (FY98)
                                  figure:
       Military expenditures - percent of 2.5% (FY98)
                                     GDP:
    
     Transnational Issues Vietnam
     ----------------------------
                Disputes - international: Vietnam disputes several offshore
                                          islands with Cambodia, preventing
                                          delimitation of a maritime boundary;
                                          Cambodia accuses Vietnam of
                                          territorial encroachments and
                                          initiating armed border incidents in
                                          seven provinces; demarcation of
                                          boundaries with Laos is nearing
                                          completion, but Laos protests
                                          Vietnamese squatters; involved in a
                                          complex dispute over the Spratly
                                          Islands with China, Malaysia,
                                          Philippines, Taiwan, and possibly
                                          Brunei; maritime boundary with China
                                          in the Gulf of Tonkin still awaits
                                          ratification; Paracel Islands
                                          occupied by China but claimed by
                                          Taiwan and Vietnam; demarcation of
                                          the land boundary with China has
                                          commenced, but details of the
                                          alignment have not been made public
                           Illicit drugs: minor producer of opium poppy with
                                          2,300 hectares cultivated in 2001,
                                          capable of producing 15 metric tons
                                          of opium; probable minor transit
                                          point for Southeast Asian heroin;
                                          domestic opium/heroin/
                                          methamphetamine addiction problems
    
                                         
  
  

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